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Romans 11
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I say then, Hath God cast away his people? God forbid. For I also am an Israelite, of the seed of Abraham, of the tribe of Benjamin.
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God hath not cast away his people which he foreknew. Wot ye not what the scripture saith of Elias? how he maketh intercession to God against Israel, saying,
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Lord, they have killed thy prophets, and digged down thine altars; and I am left alone, and they seek my life.
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But what saith the answer of God unto him? I have reserved to myself seven thousand men, who have not bowed the knee to the image of Baal.
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Even so then at this present time also there is a remnant according to the election of grace.
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And if by grace, then is it no more of works: otherwise grace is no more grace. But if it be of works, then is it no more grace: otherwise work is no more work.
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What then? Israel hath not obtained that which he seeketh for; but the election hath obtained it, and the rest were blinded.
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(According as it is written, God hath given them the spirit of slumber, eyes that they should not see, and ears that they should not hear;) unto this day.
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And David saith, Let their table be made a snare, and a trap, and a stumblingblock, and a recompence unto them:
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Let their eyes be darkened, that they may not see, and bow down their back alway.
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I say then, Have they stumbled that they should fall? God forbid: but rather through their fall salvation is come unto the Gentiles, for to provoke them to jealousy.
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Now if the fall of them be the riches of the world, and the diminishing of them the riches of the Gentiles; how much more their fulness?
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For I speak to you Gentiles, inasmuch as I am the apostle of the Gentiles, I magnify mine office:
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If by any means I may provoke to emulation them which are my flesh, and might save some of them.
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For if the casting away of them be the reconciling of the world, what shall the receiving of them be, but life from the dead?
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For if the firstfruit be holy, the lump is also holy: and if the root be holy, so are the branches.
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And if some of the branches be broken off, and thou, being a wild olive tree, wert graffed in among them, and with them partakest of the root and fatness of the olive tree;
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Boast not against the branches. But if thou boast, thou bearest not the root, but the root thee.
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Thou wilt say then, The branches were broken off, that I might be graffed in.
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Well; because of unbelief they were broken off, and thou standest by faith. Be not highminded, but fear:
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For if God spared not the natural branches, take heed lest he also spare not thee.
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Behold therefore the goodness and severity of God: on them which fell, severity; but toward thee, goodness, if thou continue in his goodness: otherwise thou also shalt be cut off.
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And they also, if they abide not still in unbelief, shall be graffed in: for God is able to graff them in again.
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For if thou wert cut out of the olive tree which is wild by nature, and wert graffed contrary to nature into a good olive tree: how much more shall these, which be the natural branches, be graffed into their own olive tree?
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For I would not, brethren, that ye should be ignorant of this mystery, lest ye should be wise in your own conceits; that blindness in part is happened to Israel, until the fulness of the Gentiles be come in.
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And so all Israel shall be saved: as it is written, There shall come out of Sion the Deliverer, and shall turn away ungodliness from Jacob:
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For this is my covenant unto them, when I shall take away their sins.
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As concerning the gospel, they are enemies for your sakes: but as touching the election, they are beloved for the fathers' sakes.
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For the gifts and calling of God are without repentance.
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For as ye in times past have not believed God, yet have now obtained mercy through their unbelief:
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Even so have these also now not believed, that through your mercy they also may obtain mercy.
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For God hath concluded them all in unbelief, that he might have mercy upon all.
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O the depth of the riches both of the wisdom and knowledge of God! how unsearchable are his judgments, and his ways past finding out!
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For who hath known the mind of the Lord? or who hath been his counsellor?
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Or who hath first given to him, and it shall be recompensed unto him again?
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For of him, and through him, and to him, are all things: to whom be glory for ever. Amen.


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Romans 11
  CHURCH FATHERS: 17
1. Clement of Rome | CHURCH FATHER 97 AD
Romans was APPROVED (75%) by Clement of Rome
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
2. Ignatius of Antioch | CHURCH FATHER 110 AD
Romans was REJECTED (0%) by Ignatius of Antioch
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
3. Barnabas | CHURCH FATHER 130 AD
Romans was REJECTED (0%) by Barnabas
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
4. Hermas | CHURCH FATHER 140 AD
Romans was REJECTED (0%) by Hermas
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
5. Papias of Hierapolis | CHURCH FATHER 140 AD
Romans was REJECTED (0%) by Papias of Hierapolis
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
6. Polycarp | CHURCH FATHER 150 AD
Romans was APPROVED (75%) by Polycarp
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
7. Didache | CHURCH FATHER 150 AD
Romans was APPROVED (75%) by Didache
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
8. Diognetus | CHURCH FATHER 150 AD
Romans was REJECTED (0%) by Diognetus
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
9. Justin Martyr | CHURCH FATHER 155 AD
Romans was APPROVED (75%) by Justin Martyr
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
10. Irenaeous | CHURCH FATHER 202 AD
Romans was FULLY ACCEPTED (100%) by Irenaeous
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
11. Clement of Alexandria | CHURCH FATHER 215 AD
Romans was FULLY ACCEPTED (100%) by Clement of Alexandria
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
12. Tertullian | CHURCH FATHER 220 AD
Romans was APPROVED (75%) by Tertullian
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
13. Origen | CHURCH FATHER 254 AD
Romans was APPROVED (75%) by Origen
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
14. Eusebius of Caesarea | CHURCH FATHER 340 AD
Romans was FULLY ACCEPTED (100%) by Eusebius of Caesarea
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
15. Athanasius of Alexandria | CHURCH FATHER 367 AD
Romans was FULLY ACCEPTED (100%) by Athanasius of Alexandria
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
16. Cyril of Jerusalem | CHURCH FATHER 386 AD
Romans was FULLY ACCEPTED (100%) by Cyril of Jerusalem
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
17. Augustine of Hippo | CHURCH FATHER 400 AD
Romans was FULLY ACCEPTED (100%) by Augustine of Hippo
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
Romans 11
  BIBLE CANON: 5
A biblical canon is a set of texts (or "books") which a particular religious community regards as authoritative scripture. Christians were the first to use the term in reference to scripture.

These bible canons have developed through debate and agreement by the religious authorities.
W Biblical_canon
1. Marcion Canon | BIBLE CANON 140 AD
Marcionism was a religious movement based on the teachings of the 2nd-century Marcion of Sinope. Marcions Canon lists 14 books out of the 27 books in the New Testament. More specifically, these were Luke and Paul's 13 writings. Marcion even rejected the entire Old Testament of 39 books.

bible.ca/marcion
Romans was FULLY ACCEPTED (100%) by Marcion Canon
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
2. Muratorian Canon | BIBLE CANON 170 AD
The Muratorian Canon is an ancient list of New Testament books - the oldest such list we have found and lists 22 of the 27 books that were later included in the New Testament of the Christian Bible.

It is noteworthy that the Muratorian Canon omits several epistles that later did win acceptance in the Christian New Testament such as the books of James and 2 Peter.

gotquestions.org/muratorian
Romans was FULLY ACCEPTED (100%) by Muratorian Canon
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
3. Apostolic Canon | BIBLE CANON 300 AD
Apostolic Canons or Ecclesiastical Canons
Romans was FULLY ACCEPTED (100%) by Apostolic Canon
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
4. Cheltenham/ Mommsen List | BIBLE CANON 360 AD
The Cheltenham or Mommsen List is a Latin manuscript discovered by the German classical scholar Theodor Mommsen (published 1886) which probably originated in North Africa in the 4th century.

It has 24-book Old Testament and 24-book New Testament which omits Jude and James, and perhaps Hebrews, and questions the epistles of John and Peter.

bible-researcher.com/cheltenham
Romans was FULLY ACCEPTED (100%) by Cheltenham/ Mommsen List
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
5. Council of Rome | BIBLE CANON 382 AD
The Council of Rome was a meeting of Catholic Church officials and theologians which took place in 382 under the authority of Pope Damasus I, bishop of Rome.

According to a document appended to some manuscripts, the Council of Rome affirmed the authority of the Old and New Testament canon in a decretal or damasine list.
Romans was FULLY ACCEPTED (100%) by Council of Rome
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
Romans 11
  TEXTUAL CRITICISM
Was Paul the Author? Evidence
Today, it is assumed Paul is the author. However, it is known that Paul extensively used Scribes ('Amanuensis') to write his letters. Paul dictated his thoughts and the Scribe wrote the letter as they saw fit. Therefore, most of Paul's Epistles (letters) in the New Testament Bible are authored by unknown Scribes.
Paul had a troubling 'Thorn' Evidence
In his Corinthians letter, Paul speaks of a 'Thorn In My Flesh' troubling him. Bible scholars have 4 theories on the 'thorn':

    1. Physical Sickness - The 'thorn' is a physical sickness (i.e. malaria, malta fever, epilepsy, convulsive attacks, chronic ophthalmia etc.). Many of these illnesses affect the eye-sight and would explain why Paul suffered from poor vision.

    2. Mental Illness - The 'thorn' is a mental illness (i.e. brain disorder, hallucination, schizophrenia, depression etc.)

    3. Spiritual Problem - The 'thorn' is a spiritual or moral problem (i.e. demon, evil-spirit, devil possession etc.)

    4. Ministerial Opposition - The 'thorn' is the Jewish persecution, opposition and resistance to Paul's ministry. This is considered a weak theory because if Paul was referring to a opposing person or movement, he would have referred to such individuals by name.
Paul had poor Eye-Sight Evidence
It is known that Paul used Scribes ('Amanuensis') to write his letters as he suffered from poor eye-sight and was unable to write. According to early sources, Paul was 'a short, bony, little Jew with constant running eyes from his eye problems, squinting with a very large angular nose'.
See what large letters I use as I write to you with my own hand [Paul's eyesight was defective and he needed help to write]
As you know, it was because of an illness that I first preached the gospel to you, and even though my illness was a trial to you, you did not treat me with contempt or scorn. Instead, you welcomed me as if I were an angel of God, as if I were Christ Jesus himself. Where, then, is your blessing of me now? I can testify that, if you could have done so, you would have torn out your eyes and given them to me.
Paul replied, Brothers, I did not know [due to bad eye-sight] that he was the high priest; for it is written: 'Do not speak evil about the ruler of your people.'
Church was aware of Paul's Eye-Sight problem Evidence
In Galatians, Paul confirms the Galatian Church was aware of his eye-sight problem. So much so, they would have 'plucked out their own eyes and given them to him' were it possible.
Where, then, is your blessing of me now? I can testify that, if you could have done so, you would have torn out your eyes and given them to me.
Paul used Scribes to write his Epistles (Letters) Evidence
Paul composed his letters in accordance with the writing conventions of his time. Scribes were essential as the skills required for writing with primitive pens and paper made writing legibly a challenge.

Tertius was one Roman Scribe ('Amanuensis') who wrote on behalf of Paul. Tertius wrote Paul's Epistles (letters), either from notes, ideas or direct from Paul's mouth. At the end of the Epistle (letter), Paul would conclude with personal greetings in his own writing. [John Gill's commentary]

Timothy is present as Paul and Tertius write Romans. Did Timothy have any influence over the final text? If so, what was that influence? Was any text in Romans written by Timothy?
I, Tertius, the one writing this letter for Paul, send my greetings, too, as one of the Lord's followers
Paul, write this greeting in my own hand. Remember my chains. Grace be with you.
I, Paul, write this greeting in my own hand, which is the distinguishing mark in all my letters. This is how I write.
I, Paul, write this greeting in my own hand.
Timothy, my co-worker, sends his greetings to you, as do Lucius, Jason and Sosipater, my fellow Jews.
Paul's Letter, Romans is forged and interpolated Bible Scholars
'Interpolation' is where a Word, Verse, Passage or even entire Chapter was added to Paul's Letter, often many years after Paul had written, disseminated it or died. Bible Scholars who hold the view that Paul's Letter is interpolated include:

  1. 1:3-4 Loisy (1935: 9).
  2. 1:18-32, parts by Michelsen (1876); Couchoud (1926); Harrison (1936:298f.); Carrington (1939); Hawkins (1941); O'Neill (1975: 40-45, continues until Rom. 2:29); Munro (1983: 112f).
  3. 2:1, Bultmann (1947); Schmithals (1975, marginal note).
  4. 2:13, Schmithals (1975, marginal note).
  5. 2:14f., Weiss sees as a gloss.
  6. 2:15b-16, Sahlin (1953).
  7. 2:16, Bultmann (1947); Schmithals (1975, marginal note); Koester.
  8. 3:9-20, Hawkins (1941).
  9. 3:10-18, Weisse (1833); Pierson and Naber (1886); Michelsen (1887); van Manen (1880); Schenke and Fischer (1978: 142f.); O'Neill (1975, vv. 12-18).
  10. 3:23-26, Hawkins (1941).
  11. 3:24/25-26, Talbert (1966).
  12. 4:1 and 4:17b, Schenke and Fischer (1978: 144) make the complicated suggestion that 4:17b really belongs at the end of 4:1. Weisse omits4:1.
  13. 5:1, Schmithals (1975, probably redactional).
  14. 5:5-10, Sahlin (1953) accepts in order 5, 8, 6, 9, 10; Schenke and Fischer (1978: 144) agree.
  15. 5:6-7, Keck (1979: 237-38); Schmithals (1975, marginal note).
  16. 5:7 Semler (1810) thinks added later.
  17. 5:12-21, Barnes (1947: 239); O'Neill (1975: 96-107).
  18. 6:17b, Bultmann (1947); Schmithals (1975, marginal note).
  19. 7:25b, Bultmann; Schmithals (1975, marginal note).
  20. 8:1. Weisse omits; Bultmann (1947); Schmithals (1975, marginal note).
  21. 10:17, Bultmann (1947); Schmithals (1975, marginal note).
  22. 13:1-7, Pallis (1920); Loisy (1922: 104, 128; 1935: 30-31; 1936: 287); Windisch (1931); cf. Barnikol (1931b); Eggenberger (1945); Barnes (1947: 302, possibly); Kallas (1964-65); Munro (1983: 56f., 65-67); Sahlin (1953); Bultmann (1947).
  23. 15 and 16 together, Baur (1836b; 1849; 1845); Schwegler (1846: I, 296); Zeller (1854: 488); Volkmar (1856; 1875: xvff., 129ff.); Lucht (1871); Ryder (1898); Smith (1901); Scholten (1876); Davidson (1882: 125-28; 1894: 126-31).
  24. 15:4b, Schmithals (1975, redactional).
  25. 16 as a whole, Weiss (1872); Hawkins (1941); Knox (1954); Friedrich (1961).
  26. 16:17-20, Volkmar (1875); Pfleiderer (1887: 145).
  27. 16:17-18, Loisy (1935: 29).
  28. 16:24, Cranfield; Mangold (1884).
  29. 16:25-27, Reiche (1833); Krehl (1845); Delitzsch (1849); Davidson (1868:134-37; 1882:118-21; 1894:120-23); Lucht (1871); Hilgenfeld (1872: 469ff.; 1875:326f.); Pfleiderer (1873: 314); Seyerlen (1874); Volkmar (1875); Schultz (1876); Mangold (1884: 44-81); Bruckner; Lipsius; von Weizsacker (1886: 334); Ji.ilicher (1894: 71); Corssen (1909: 1-45); Lake (1914: 359f.); Wendland (1912: 351); Weiss (1917: 534); Burton (1921: 509); Loisy(1922: 106, 134); Harnack (1931); Barnikol (1931a; 1933:116-48); Dodd (1932: 245); Manson (1948); Gaugler (1945); Zuntz (1953); Michel (1955: 19f.); Barrett (1958: 10-13, 286); Friedrich in RGG3 V, 1138; Beare (1962b: 112f.); Marxsen (1964); Fuller (1966: 56); Fitzmyer in Brown, Fitzmyer and Murphy (eds) (1990: 292); Bornkamm (1969); Lohse (1972); Kasemann (1973); Cranfield (1975:6-9); Schmithals (1975); Vielhauer (1975: 187f.); Gamble (1977: 107-10, 123f.); Schenke and Fischer (1978: I, 136f.); Elliot (1981); Dunn (1988: 912f.); Ziesler (1989: 25); Donfried (1970); Kamiah (1956).
Romans 11
  VIDEO: 18
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