Torah - Wellhausen/JEDP Theory

Julius Wellhausen

Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy were believed to have been written by Moses, up until 1883.

In 1883, the efforts of leading German and French scholars in the field of scientific biblical scholarship discovered textual patterns in the Old Testament Bible. This discovery led to the JEDP Theory (or "Graf-Wellhausen Hypothesis") that established the possibility of several 'independent' source writings, later edited ('redacted') to produce a single document, the Torah.

Julius Wellhausen (1844-1918) was a German biblical scholar and orientalist who set the chronological order of the independent sources as J, E, D and P with reference to the evolving religious history of Israel, which he saw as one of ever-increasing priestly power.
W Julius_Wellhausen

JEDP Theory (or "Graf-Wellhausen Hypothesis")
The Torah: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers & Deuteronomy is not a unified work from a single author (Moses) but is made up of independent writings combined over many centuries by many editors ('redactors'). Wellhausen contributed little that was new, but sifted and combined the previous scholarship works into a coherent, comprehensive theory on the origins of the Torah and of Judaism. One so persuasive that it dominated scholarly debate on the subject ever since.
W Documentary_hypothesis
JEDP Theory / 'Graf-Wellhausen'
TRADITION
'J'
Yahwist
'E'
Elohist
'D'
Deuteronomist
'P'
Priestly

BIBLE BOOKS
'what'
Exodus (50%)
Genesis (50%)
Numbers (minor)
Exodus (50%)
Genesis (33%)
Numbers (minor)
Deuteronomy (most) Leviticus (most)
Genesis (20%)
Exodus (minor)
Numbers (minor)

DATE
'when'
950-920 BCE

United Monarcy

A Judean Source written during the United Monarcy period (1030-920 BCE).

Written in the South, just before the South split from the North in 922 BC.

Interest in territory of the Kingdom of Judah, and individuals connected with its history.
870-840 BCE

North-South Divide

Written in the North at the time when the North broke away from South (870-840 BCE).
650-620 BCE

Josiah's Reform

Writing reflects literary style/ theology prevalent at the time of Josiah's reform (621 BCE).
550-520 BCE

Babylonian Exile

After the fall of Jerusalem (587 BCE), Israelite priests were exiled in Babylon.

LOCATION
'where'
Southern Kingdom
of Judah


Capital: Jerusalem

Text contains Southern geographical references and propoganda i.e. David's line
Northern Kingdom
of Israel


Capital: Samaria (Shomron)

Northern tribes and Ephraim, so its suppoused it was.

Prophet over King (Northern concern then)
Jerusalem

During a period of religious reform.

May have originated in the Northern Kingdom
Kohanim

Jewish priests were exiled in Babylon.

Writing at a time of great loneliness and despair; God far away.
God
NAME Yahweh
'YHWH'
Elohim

Elohim used until Exodus 3-6;
a human-like God

Yahweh used after Exodus 3 (burning bush incident) when Elohim reveals himself as Yahweh
Yahweh Elohim
El Shaddai
Other El combinations
PERSONALITY Anthropomorphic

Yahweh walks and talks. He makes personal visits.
Less Anthropomorphic

Elohim speaks through dreams, prophets and angels; not personal appearances.
  Non-Anthropomorphic

Elohim is remote, distant, and unmerciful. He appears on a quest for glory.
Authors

WRITING STYLE
  • Vivid concrete
  • Elegant descriptive vocabulary
  • Rich narrative, long stories or epics
  • Abstract
  • Less eloquent
  • Distinct language
  • Reflects later composition
  • Precise
  • Dry legalistic language
  • AUTHORS
    'who'
      Ephraimitic Tribe

    Someone from Tribe of Ephraim or a North Israelite source
    Josiah's Reform

    Reflects style and religious attitudes of Josiah's reform (c.621)

    Priesthood

    A literary corpus, marked by the style and cultic interests of the priestly circle of Jerusalem

    Israelite priests retrieved, revised and 'redacted' Torah text
    Content
    KEY POINTS Southern Propoganda

    Ancient stories i.e. Creation of mankind, flood, Babel etc.

    Yahweh close to His people

  • Interactions with man (cultic approach)
  • Sin & punishment i.e. Sodom Gomorrah
  • Human mortality
  • Sibling rivalry
  • Man & earth
  • Northern Focus

    Elohim is distant and away from His people.

    Kingdom of Israel and on Shiloh priesthood.

  • "Fearing" Elohim
  • Moral & ethical living
  • Law & righteousness
  • Religious aspects of prayer/sacrifice
  • Revelation in visions and dreams
  • Yahweh's favours

    God's love dominates Israel's history and law.

  • How Yahweh blessed his people
  • Obedience to law of Moses
  • Obedience to Covenant

    Priestly concerns, legal and cultic aspects

    Lists of genealogies, dates, numbers and laws.

  • Rituals: Sabbath, circumcision, sacrifice, worship, temple, dietary law, tabernacle
  • MOUNT SINAI Place of Mosaic covenant. Emphasis on term 'Sinai' Horeb is mountain where covenant takes place Idea of a central sanctuary
    Horeb
    Holy mountain
    Sinai
    COVENANT Mosaic

    Abrahamic promise of land, descendants and blessing
    Exodus 24 ceremony

    Establishment of the tent of meeting

    Israel's rebellion at Sinai with worship of the golden calf
      Sabbath and circumcision
    ISRAEL Israel's faith in Yahweh and their leaders Explicitly religious: to be "a kingdom of priests and a holy nation"   Elohim grants his presence to the people "who know his name."

    Israel's role in salvation
    PEOPLE Moses father-in-law is Reuel Begins story with Abraham Some connections to E; Horeb, prophecy. Normally starts with "These are the generations"
    Text
        Fragmentary texts
    Often combined with J, to create J+E
    Possibly referenced in 2 Kings 22:8. The "book of the law" found by King Josiah in the Temple in Jerusalem (621 BC)

    Some scholars believe 'D' is an independent text
    Some scholars believe P is a redactor (revision of pre-existing texts)

    Others believe 'P' shows signs of a seperate, independent text


    In Islam, Moses received the 'Oral' Torah
    Islam teaches that Moses received the Torah from God. This was an 'oral transmission' from God through the Angel Gabrial to Moses. Today, the Torah is presented in a written book format. This is a corrupted version of the original Oral Torah. The JEDP Theory (or "Graf-Wellhausen Hypothesis") supports the Islamic position on Biblical corruption.

    Maurice Bucaille
    Maurice Bucaille (d. 1998), a Muslim scholar supported Documentary Hypothesis (DH)
    Maurice Bucaille (1920-1998), a French medical doctor, author, convert and scholar of Islam. Bucaille writes the Old Testament has been distorted due to the numerous translations and corrections, as it was transmitted orally. Bucaille argued for biblical criticism, including the Documentary Hypothesis (DH) and JEDP Theory.
    W Maurice_Bucaille
      Bucaille on Documentary Hypothesis


    CREDIT
      Explanation on Documentary Hypothesis (DH)
    https://www.slideserve.com/dareh/the-writing-of-the-old-testament-the-four-4-original-sources-jedp
    https://www.plonialmonimormon.com/2014/02/jedp-and-me-some-thoughts-on.html
    https://annawhitehead96.wordpress.com/2015/12/30/jepd-theory/
    http://helpmewithbiblestudy.org/5system_moses/notes/dh6.aspx
      Share Article if you found it useful
    4759 views · 8 hrs ago |   Author: Guest   •   Updated: 11 Jun 2019
    ALL ARTICLES ARE INTENDED FOR GENERAL EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES ONLY. ALL INFORMATION IS BELIEVED TO BE CORRECT, ACCURATE AND TRUTHFUL. YOU ARE ADVISED TO DO YOUR OWN RESEARCH. ARTICLES ARE LIVE DOCUMENTS AND MAY BE UPDATED WITH NEW CONTENT AT ANY TIME. WHERE AVAILABLE, SOURCES AND REFERENCES ARE CREDITED. IF YOU SPOT ANY ERRORS, OMISSIONS OR GIVE FEEDBACK KINDLY CONTACT US WITH DETAILS
    141-jedp-wellhausen

    4  Videos with 'JEDP Theory'
    Video: 9:04
    2286 views · 13 hrs ago | 4 years ago
    1 of 4   
    Video: 48:45
    2802 views · 2 hrs ago | 4 years ago
    2 of 4   
    Video: 16:06
    2985 views · 6 hrs ago | 4 years ago
    3 of 4   
    Video: 10:52
    1941 views · 6 hrs ago | 4 years ago
    4 of 4   


    News on 'Jedp theory'

    Results: 0 News Items
    Displayed in Date Order (most recent first)
    Watch Video 
    NAVIGATE ARTICLES
    ORDER: Article Title A-Z
    Articles
    All Articles (154)
    10 Commandments - Bible vs Quran
    14199 views · 2 hrs ago
    10 Commandments - Christian vs Muslim
    6861 views · 13 mins ago
    10 Red Heifers (Cows)
    5429 views · 6 mins ago
    5 reasons Abraham sacrificed Ishmael
    6536 views · 13 hrs ago
    Abrahamic Religions
    11139 views · 15 hrs ago
    Angels - 41 Angels from the Abrahamic Religions
    10156 views · 47 mins ago
    Are you a Muslim?
    35664 views · 13 hrs ago
    Arius vs Bishop Athanasius
    9798 views · 43 mins ago
    Bible - 12% of New Testament copied from Old Testament
    6009 views · 15 hrs ago
    Bible - 18 Ego Eimi (I AM) statements, like John 8:58
    9075 views · 2 mins ago
    Bible - 27 Verses on Yahweh, Elohim(s) and The Gods
    9261 views · 3 hrs ago
    Bible - 400 NT Jesus Prophecies copied from OT
    3588 views · 14 mins ago
    Bible - 75 Verses on drinking Wine & Alcohol
    8895 views · 4 hrs ago
    Bible - Exodus 3:14 Translations
    5707 views · 1 hr ago
    Bible - King James (KJV) & 37 'Disputed' Verses
    3673 views · 4 hrs ago
    Bible - Lost Books of the Bible
    4652 views · 11 hrs ago
    Bible - Mark 16:9-20 Text Analysis
    4467 views · 12 mins ago
    Bible - Matthew 28:19: Greek vs Hebrew
    10699 views · 47 mins ago
    Bible - Pagan Texts in the Bible
    4215 views · 7 hrs ago
    Bible - Revelation, A Forgery
    4528 views · 7 mins ago
    Bible - Scholars on John's Gospel
    4077 views · 20 hrs ago
    Bible - The Synoptic Problem
    4742 views · 8 mins ago
    Bible - Violence & Killings
    4173 views · 4 hrs ago
    Bible Authors: Who Wrote It?
    4206 views · 4 hrs ago
    Bible Errors - 672 Variants
    4221 views · 11 hrs ago
    Bible History - KJV vs NIV
    4730 views · 8 hrs ago
    Bible NT - 55% of New Testament Papyrus contain under 3% of Biblical Text
    2907 views · 17 hrs ago
    Bible NT - Codex Sinaiticus exposes 312 year gap since Jesus crucifixion
    3910 views · 1 day ago
    Bible NT Canons - Church Fathers, Councils & Apocrypha
    2821 views · 47 mins ago
    Bible OT - Dead Sea Scrolls expose a 1303 year gap since Moses life
    3048 views · 9 hrs ago
    Bible OT Canons - Church Fathers, Councils & Apocrypha
    2389 views · 7 hrs ago
    Bible Verses - KJV vs NIV
    5947 views · 1 day ago
    Blasphemy Laws in 35 Christian Countries
    2405 views · 39 mins ago
    Book Burnings in Roman, Catholic and Protestant society
    4737 views · 9 hrs ago
    Catholic vs Protestant - Bible
    4457 views · 6 hrs ago
    Catholic vs Protestant - Christianity
    4590 views · 2 hrs ago
    Child Abuse & Grooming Gangs (UK)
    2592 views · 19 mins ago
    Child Abuse, Sexual Crimes & Prison Figures (UK)
    2887 views · 3 hrs ago
    Child Marriage - Muhammad married 9-year old Aisha
    9085 views · 40 mins ago
    Christian Heresies
    3666 views · 3 hrs ago
    Christian: 28 Heretical Sects
    4739 views · 16 hrs ago
    Christian: 32 Church Denominations
    2664 views · 46 mins ago
    Christianity: Founded by Paul on Road to Damascus, Syria
    3134 views · 13 mins ago
    Church Councils
    3367 views · 15 hrs ago
    Church Fathers - Quotes from 18 Men of God
    3836 views · 11 hrs ago
    Church Fathers on Jesus Divinity
    4603 views · 3 hrs ago
    Codex Sinaiticus & Vaticanus - Corruption in the KJV Bible books
    7758 views · 3 hrs ago
    Codex Sinaiticus & Vaticanus - Corruption in the KJV Bible verses
    5764 views · 13 hrs ago
    Constantine and Christianity
    6202 views · 45 mins ago
    Constantine, Nicaea and History
    4330 views · 3 mins ago
    Council of Nicaea 325 AD
    4106 views · 15 hrs ago
    COVID deaths vs Other Causes
    1314 views · 12 hrs ago
    COVID: 7 Medical Studies on why Face Masks fail
    1259 views · 7 hrs ago
    COVID: Lockdowns & Contact Tracing in 78 Countries
    2455 views · 7 hrs ago
    COVID: Monthly UK deaths compared over 5 Years (2015-20)
    1147 views · 2 days ago
    COVID: Weekly UK deaths compared over 5-Years (2015-20)
    1125 views · 15 hrs ago
    Did Jesus pray to God or Allah?
    10740 views · 43 mins ago
    God (Allah) - His Names & Attributes
    7793 views · 30 mins ago
    God vs Allah
    5782 views · 33 mins ago
    God, Evidence For
    3064 views · 7 hrs ago
    Gods & Roman Emperors
    2502 views · 11 hrs ago
    Gods - 6 Dying & Rising Mythical Gods
    5732 views · 13 hrs ago
    Gods - 60 Pagan deities in the Bible
    15493 views · 5 hrs ago
    How do Muslims pray?
    7102 views · 12 hrs ago
    Ishmael and Isaac in Bible and Quran
    9249 views · 13 hrs ago
    Islam: Biggest Threat to Europe?
    1990 views · 13 hrs ago
    Islamic Countries. Who are they?
    2240 views · 17 hrs ago
    Jesus - 91% chance he was a fictitous Mythical-Hero (Raglan Scale)
    2809 views · 39 mins ago
    Jesus - 17 'Crucified' Savior Gods
    3097 views · 2 hrs ago
    Jesus - Crucifixion in the Gospels
    3783 views · 3 hrs ago
    Jesus - Crucifixion Timing
    3812 views · 13 hrs ago
    Jesus - God of 99 Faces
    7390 views · 46 mins ago
    Jesus - God with No Face
    2355 views · 15 hrs ago
    Jesus - Resurrection in the Gospels
    3533 views · 1 day ago
    Jesus - Resurrection Theories
    3669 views · 5 hrs ago
    Jesus - Sons of God
    6178 views · 3 mins ago
    Jesus and the 12 Disciples
    7648 views · 6 hrs ago
    Jesus in the Quran
    4286 views · 13 hrs ago
    Jesus on the Cross or Tree?
    6582 views · 5 hrs ago
    Jesus the God
    6188 views · 3 hrs ago
    Jesus the Jewish Prophet
    5165 views · 1 day ago
    Jesus the Muslim
    4831 views · 1 day ago
    Jesus the Son of God
    3277 views · 1 hr ago
    Jesus the Sun-God over 12 Zodiac Star Gods
    16734 views · 2 hrs ago
    Jesus vs Isaac - The Sacrifice
    6224 views · 1 hr ago
    Jesus vs Jonah & Whale
    4807 views · 5 hrs ago
    Jesus vs Krishna
    7729 views · 6 hrs ago
    Jesus vs Paul
    6216 views · 14 hrs ago
    Jesus vs Romulus - 50 Reasons both are Mythical Gods
    5653 views · 3 hrs ago
    Jesus vs Zeus
    18874 views · 6 hrs ago
    Jesus was 30, 40 or 50 years old?
    6389 views · 57 mins ago
    Jesus, 12 Disciples and Paul Interview
    4346 views · 11 hrs ago
    Jesus, from Iesous and Yeshua
    6236 views · 46 mins ago
    Jesus, Serapis & 7 Pagan Gods
    19067 views · 14 mins ago
    Jewish Laws & Rituals
    2901 views · 16 hrs ago
    Judaism - Maimonides 13 Principles of Jewish Belief
    5207 views · 3 hrs ago
    Mark, Matthew, Luke and John
    6986 views · 12 hrs ago
    Messiah - His Aims & Objectives
    3026 views · 22 mins ago
    Messiah - Jesus?
    3383 views · 3 hrs ago
    Monotheism vs Polytheism
    3792 views · 12 hrs ago
    Muhammad - Most Influential Man in History
    5118 views · 14 hrs ago
    Muhammad in Bible: He is is altogether lovely - Song 5:16
    10680 views · 7 hrs ago
    Muhammad in Bible: Kedar rejoice and Sela sing - Isaiah 41/42
    12317 views · 28 mins ago
    Muhammad in Bible: Prophet like unto Moses - Deuteronomy 18:18
    15078 views · 45 mins ago
    Muhammad in Bible: Select Verses
    6972 views · 4 hrs ago
    New Age - Alice Bailey's 10 Point Charter
    8046 views · 21 mins ago
    Nicene Creed - Council of Nicaea 325 AD
    4458 views · 11 hrs ago
    Nicene Creed - Foundation of Christianity
    2909 views · 5 hrs ago
    Noahide Laws
    4361 views · 3 hrs ago
    Palestine and Creation of Israel in 1948
    5127 views · 48 mins ago
    Paul - 50% of his Writings are Inauthentic Forgeries
    3075 views · 26 mins ago
    Paul copied 152 Old Testament verses
    2020 views · 21 mins ago
    Paul vs James
    4164 views · 35 mins ago
    Prophets - Sinful Beings in the OT Bible
    2630 views · 7 hrs ago
    Prophets of God
    46070 views · 8 hrs ago
    Prophets were Sinners?
    8189 views · 1 hr ago
    Purpose of Life
    4605 views · 3 hrs ago
    Quran - 5 Recitations: Hafs, Warsh, Hisham, Qalun & Al-Duri
    7186 views · 2 hrs ago
    Quran - A Mathematical Miracle
    11103 views · 2 hrs ago
    Quran - Chapter & Verse Miracle
    3171 views · 3 hrs ago
    Quran - Comparing Hafs & Warsh for 51 textual variants
    34779 views · 1 hr ago
    Quran and Violence
    5803 views · 6 hrs ago
    Quran refers to Torah & Gospel
    7117 views · 8 hrs ago
    Quran vs Science
    5035 views · 1 day ago
    Roman Calendar
    6079 views · 11 hrs ago
    Roman Emperors in Bible
    1231 views · 7 hrs ago
    Rome, Caesar & Emperors in the Bible
    3127 views · 8 hrs ago
    Sin Atonement: Jesus Blood vs 21 Offerings
    1243 views · 14 hrs ago
    Terrorism, the Risk to Americans
    2350 views · 16 hrs ago
    The Lost Gospels
    6452 views · 3 hrs ago
    The Prophets Prayer
    5251 views · 16 hrs ago
    Timeline of Bible
    2836 views · 1 min ago
    Timeline of Church Councils
    3681 views · 14 mins ago
    Timeline of Muhammad
    3138 views · 2 hrs ago
    Timeline of New Testament Bible
    3666 views · 14 hrs ago
    Timeline of Old Testament Bible
    3854 views · 2 hrs ago
    Timeline of Prophets
    18523 views · 2 hrs ago
    Timeline of Quran
    7898 views · 22 mins ago
    Timeline of Roman Empire
    2908 views · 11 hrs ago
    Timeline of Trinity
    3382 views · 3 hrs ago
    Torah - Did Moses Write It?
    4380 views · 9 hrs ago
    Torah - Wellhausen/JEDP Theory
    4759 views · 8 hrs ago
    Trinity - 13 Three God Pagan concepts
    5229 views · 10 hrs ago
    Trinity - 27 Attributes of the Father, Son and Holy Ghost
    8535 views · 6 hrs ago
    Trinity - 4 Creeds: Apostles, Nicene, Athanasian to Chalcedon over 418 years
    5936 views · 3 hrs ago
    Trinity - Different Views
    4465 views · 44 mins ago
    Trinity - Three Are One
    5157 views · 13 hrs ago
    Trinity in the Bible
    3556 views · 2 hrs ago
    UN Agenda 21/2030: 17 Sustainable Goals of the New World Order
    1397 views · 15 hrs ago
    War - 46 Major Conflicts ranked by Religion
    4336 views · 5 hrs ago
    War - 67 Bloody Christian Conflicts
    2259 views · 5 hrs ago
    War - From Yinon, 9/11 to Springs, Invasions, ISIS & 6M Dead
    4636 views · 36 mins ago
    What does LGBTQ+ mean?
    2236 views · 13 hrs ago
    Women in Religion
    5322 views · 11 hrs ago

    Submit Article


    Latest videos  •  5,927 videos  •  0 viewed/24 hour

    ARTICLES

    0 viewed · 24 hour
    Are you a Muslim?
    3 mins | Online Test
    Torah - Wellhausen/JEDP Theory
    4760 views · 0 secs ago
    Timeline of Bible
    2836 views · 1 min ago
    Bible - 18 Ego Eimi (I AM) statements, like John 8:58
    9075 views · 2 mins ago
    Jesus - Sons of God
    6178 views · 3 mins ago
    Constantine, Nicaea and History
    4330 views · 3 mins ago
    ARTICLES   154

    SCRIPTURE

    Torah 5   BOOKS
    Psalms 1   BOOK
    Old Testament 32   BOOKS
    New Testament 27   BOOKS
    Apocrypha 1885 14   BOOKS
    Gospels/Texts 367   BOOKS
    Codex 120   BOOKS
    Quran 1   BOOK
    Hadith 10   BOOKS
    SCRIPTURES   580

    NEWS

    0 viewed · 24 hour
      COVID-19 Testing & Tracing Action Plan - Rockefeller Foundation
    2606 views · 11 hrs ago · 01 Jul
    Saudi Food Wholesaler profits hit $24M on higher food demand in [...] - Arab News
    149 views · 3 hrs ago · 11 May
    Saudi Arabia approves Moderna COVID Vaccine for children aged 6 years [...] - The National
    130 views · 2 days ago · 25 Apr
    Covid Crisis: Australians returning from India may be jailed for 5 [...] - The Guardian
    1625 views · 5 hrs ago · 01 May
    Upto 5-years jail for anyone who transmits COVID in public in Saudi [...] - Arab News
    1759 views · 13 hrs ago · 25 Apr
    Coronavirus: Abu Dhabi police urge reports of illegal Ramadhan [...] - The National
    1408 views · 5 hrs ago · 25 Apr
    NEWS   1,564
    About Us  |  Help/FAQ  |  Contact Us    •    Terms  |  Privacy/Disclaimer
    Be Informed on Social :      Facebook Page  |    Twitter  |    Youtube
    MuslimProphets.com is an educational website on the Prophets of God: Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus and Muhammad, who established the Abrahamic faiths of Judaism, Christianity and Islam. MuslimProphets.com explores contemporary social themes through Scripture, Evidences, Photo, Video, Maps, Current Affairs, Debate and 'alternative' Views held by Theologians, Apologists, Scholars and Street Preachers. Take a Site Tour

    In accordance with Islamic etiquette, all prophet names should be followed with 'Peace Be Upon Him (PBUH)'. This is omitted to minimise text.

    DISCLAIMER: All website content is for general information and educational purposes only and available in the public domain. Whilst all information comes from sources believed to be reliable, this cannot be guaranteed. External links are provided as a convenience and for informational purposes only. They do not constitute endorsement or approval for any products, services or comments by organizations or individuals. External links text may be edited to improve internal site and keyword search options. We bear no responsibility for the accuracy, legality, or content found on any external website or its subsequent links. Unless indicated, all images and content is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License distributed by Wikipedia, Wikimedia Commons, Pixabay, Pxhere, Pexels, Unsplash or Flickr. All Torah, Psalms, Old and New Testament Bible quotes are from the King James Version (KJV) Holy Bible in the public domain. All Quran quotes are from Taqi-ud-Din al-Hilali/Muhsin Khan English Quran translation. You are invited to always conduct your own research. If you spot any mistake, error or omission of information, contact us so we can correct it.
    Clustrmaps