1 Timothy  


Paul wrote to Timothy to encourage him in his responsibility for overseeing the work of the Ephesian church and possibly the other churches in the province of Asia.

This letter lays the foundation for ordaining elders and provides guidance for ordaining people into offices of the church. In essence, 1 Timothy is a leadership manual for church organization and administration.
W First_Epistle_to_Timothy
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Authorship: (Assumed)Pliny the Younger (circa 105 AD)

The True Authorship of the New Testament, by Abelard Reuchlin 1986
[source]
Year Written: (Assumed)62 AD
Manuscript: (Earliest Available)350 AD - Codex Sinaiticus - Complete
Scripture Type:Letters - Paul
An epistle (or letter) is a writing directed or sent to a person or group of people, usually an elegant and formal didactic letter. Pauls Epistles (or letters) are the 13 New Testament books which have the name Paul as the first word, hence claiming authorship by Paul. As some of the earliest Christian documents, they provide an insight into the beliefs and controversies of early Christianity and as part of the canon of the New Testament they are foundational texts for both Christian theology and ethics.
Further Reading: earlychristianwritings.com/text/1timothy.html
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   VIDEO (4) | 1 TIMOTHY
BIBLE CANONS (5) | 1 TIMOTHY
BIBLE CANON
A list of Texts a particular religious community regard as authoritative scripture
YEAR
1 Marcion Canon
Marcionism was a religious movement based on the teachings of the 2nd-century Marcion of Sinope. Marcions Canon lists 14 books out of the 27 books in the New Testament. More specifically, these were Luke and Paul's 13 writings. Marcion even rejected the entire Old Testament of 39 books.

bible.ca/marcion

1 Timothy was Rejected (0%) by Marcion Canon
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)

140 AD

2 Muratorian Canon
The Muratorian Canon is an ancient list of New Testament books - the oldest such list we have found and lists 22 of the 27 books that were later included in the New Testament of the Christian Bible.

It is noteworthy that the Muratorian Canon omits several epistles that later did win acceptance in the Christian New Testament such as the books of James and 2 Peter.

gotquestions.org/muratorian

1 Timothy was Fully Accepted (100%) by Muratorian Canon
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)

170 AD

3 Apostolic Canon
Apostolic Canons or Ecclesiastical Canons

1 Timothy was Fully Accepted (100%) by Apostolic Canon
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)

300 AD

4 Cheltenham/ Mommsen List
The Cheltenham or Mommsen List is a Latin manuscript discovered by the German classical scholar Theodor Mommsen (published 1886) which probably originated in North Africa in the 4th century.

It has 24-book Old Testament and 24-book New Testament which omits Jude and James, and perhaps Hebrews, and questions the epistles of John and Peter.

bible-researcher.com/cheltenham

1 Timothy was Fully Accepted (100%) by Cheltenham/ Mommsen List
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)

360 AD

5 Council of Rome
The Council of Rome was a meeting of Catholic Church officials and theologians which took place in 382 under the authority of Pope Damasus I, bishop of Rome.

According to a document appended to some manuscripts, the Council of Rome affirmed the authority of the Old and New Testament canon in a decretal or damasine list.

1 Timothy was Fully Accepted (100%) by Council of Rome
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)

382 AD

Bible Canon
In 367 AD, Bishop Athanasius of Alexandria, first gave a list of the 27-books to become the New Testament 'Bible Canon'

367 AD

CHURCH FATHERS (17) | 1 TIMOTHY
CHURCH FATHER
Ancient and generally influential Christian theologians, eminent teachers and great bishops
YEAR
1 Clement of Rome

1 Timothy was Approved (75%) by Clement of Rome
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)

97 AD

2 Ignatius of Antioch

1 Timothy was Rejected (0%) by Ignatius of Antioch
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)

110 AD

3 Barnabas

1 Timothy was Rejected (0%) by Barnabas
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)

130 AD

4 Hermas

1 Timothy was Approved (75%) by Hermas
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)

140 AD

5 Papias of Hierapolis

1 Timothy was Rejected (0%) by Papias of Hierapolis
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)

140 AD

6 Polycarp

1 Timothy was Approved (75%) by Polycarp
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)

150 AD

7 Didache

1 Timothy was Approved (75%) by Didache
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)

150 AD

8 Diognetus

1 Timothy was Rejected (0%) by Diognetus
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)

150 AD

9 Justin Martyr

1 Timothy was Rejected (0%) by Justin Martyr
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)

155 AD

10 Irenaeous

1 Timothy was Approved (75%) by Irenaeous
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)

202 AD

11 Clement of Alexandria

1 Timothy was Fully Accepted (100%) by Clement of Alexandria
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)

215 AD

12 Tertullian

1 Timothy was Approved (75%) by Tertullian
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)

220 AD

13 Origen

1 Timothy was Approved (75%) by Origen
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)

254 AD

14 Eusebius of Caesarea

1 Timothy was Fully Accepted (100%) by Eusebius of Caesarea
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)

340 AD

15 Athanasius of Alexandria

1 Timothy was Fully Accepted (100%) by Athanasius of Alexandria
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)

367 AD

16 Cyril of Jerusalem

1 Timothy was Fully Accepted (100%) by Cyril of Jerusalem
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)

386 AD

17 Augustine of Hippo

1 Timothy was Fully Accepted (100%) by Augustine of Hippo
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)

400 AD

Bible Canon
In 367 AD, Bishop Athanasius of Alexandria, first gave a list of the 27-books to become the New Testament 'Bible Canon'

367 AD

TEXTUAL CRITICISM | 1 TIMOTHY
Textual Criticism
EVIDENCE: Was Paul the Author?
Today, it is assumed Paul is the author. However, it is known that Paul extensively used Scribes ('Amanuensis') to write his letters. Paul dictated his thoughts and the Scribe wrote the letter as they saw fit. Therefore, all, if not the majority of Paul's Epistles (letters) in the New Testament Bible are authored by unknown Scribes.
EVIDENCE: Paul had a troubling 'Thorn'
In his Corinthians letter, Paul speaks of a 'Thorn In My Flesh' troubling him. Bible scholars have 4 theories on the 'thorn':

    1 Physical Sickness - The 'thorn' is a physical sickness (i.e. malaria, malta fever, epilepsy, convulsive attacks, chronic ophthalmia etc.). Many of these illnesses affect the eye-sight and would explain why Paul suffered from poor vision.
    2 Mental Illness - The 'thorn' is a mental illness (i.e. brain disorder, hallucination, schizophrenia, depression etc.)
    3 Spiritual Problem - The 'thorn' is a spiritual or moral problem (i.e. demon, evil-spirit, devil possession etc.)
    4 Ministerial Opposition - The 'thorn' is the Jewish persecution, opposition and resistance to Paul's ministry. This is considered a weak theory because if Paul was referring to a opposing person or movement, he would have referred to such individuals by name.

EVIDENCE: Paul had Eye-Sight Problems
It is known that Paul used Scribes ('Amanuensis') to write his letters as he suffered from poor eye-sight and was unable to write. According to early sources, Paul was 'a short, bony, little Jew with constant running eyes from his eye problems, squinting with a very large angular nose'.

    See what large letters I use as I write to you with my own hand [Paul's eyesight was defective and he needed help to write]

    As you know, it was because of an illness that I first preached the gospel to you, and even though my illness was a trial to you, you did not treat me with contempt or scorn. Instead, you welcomed me as if I were an angel of God, as if I were Christ Jesus himself. Where, then, is your blessing of me now? I can testify that, if you could have done so, you would have torn out your eyes and given them to me.

    Paul replied, Brothers, I did not know [due to bad eye-sight] that he was the high priest; for it is written: 'Do not speak evil about the ruler of your people.'

EVIDENCE: Church was aware of Paul's Eye-Sight problem
In Galatians, Paul confirms the Galatian Church was aware of his eye-sight problem. So much so, they would have 'plucked out their own eyes and given them to him' were it possible.

    Where, then, is your blessing of me now? I can testify that, if you could have done so, you would have torn out your eyes and given them to me.

EVIDENCE: Paul used Scribes to write his Epistles (Letters)
Paul composed his letters in accordance with the writing conventions of his time. Scribes were essential as the skills required for writing with primitive pens and paper made writing legibly a challenge.

Tertius was one Roman Scribe ('Amanuensis') who wrote on behalf of Paul. Tertius wrote Paul's Epistles (letters), either from notes, ideas or direct from Paul's mouth. At the end of the Epistle (letter), Paul would conclude with personal greetings in his own writing. [John Gill's commentary]

Timothy is present as Paul and Tertius write Romans. Did Timothy have any influence over the final text? If so, what was that influence? Was any text in Romans written by Timothy?

    I, Tertius, the one writing this letter for Paul, send my greetings, too, as one of the Lord's followers

    Paul, write this greeting in my own hand. Remember my chains. Grace be with you.

    I, Paul, write this greeting in my own hand, which is the distinguishing mark in all my letters. This is how I write.

    I, Paul, write this greeting in my own hand.

    Timothy, my co-worker, sends his greetings to you, as do Lucius, Jason and Sosipater, my fellow Jews.

SCRIPTURE TEXT (20) | 1 TIMOTHY
1 Timothy   |   Chapter: 1   |   Verses: 20
Chapter:
1 2 3 4 5 6
1 Unto Timothy, my own son in the faith: Grace, mercy, and peace, from God our Father and Jesus Christ our Lord.
2 As I besought thee to abide still at Ephesus, when I went into Macedonia, that thou mightest charge some that they teach no other doctrine,
3 Neither give heed to fables and endless genealogies, which minister questions, rather than godly edifying which is in faith: so do.
4 Now the end of the commandment is charity out of a pure heart, and of a good conscience, and of faith unfeigned:
5 From which some having swerved have turned aside unto vain jangling;
6 Desiring to be teachers of the law; understanding neither what they say, nor whereof they affirm.
7 But we know that the law is good, if a man use it lawfully;
8 Knowing this, that the law is not made for a righteous man, but for the lawless and disobedient, for the ungodly and for sinners, for unholy and profane, for murderers of fathers and murderers of mothers, for manslayers,
9 For whoremongers, for them that defile themselves with mankind, for menstealers, for liars, for perjured persons, and if there be any other thing that is contrary to sound doctrine;
10 According to the glorious gospel of the blessed God, which was committed to my trust.
11 And I thank Christ Jesus our Lord, who hath enabled me, for that he counted me faithful, putting me into the ministry;
12 Who was before a blasphemer, and a persecutor, and injurious: but I obtained mercy, because I did it ignorantly in unbelief.
13 And the grace of our Lord was exceeding abundant with faith and love which is in Christ Jesus.
14 This is a faithful saying, and worthy of all acceptation, that Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners; of whom I am chief.
15 Howbeit for this cause I obtained mercy, that in me first Jesus Christ might shew forth all longsuffering, for a pattern to them which should hereafter believe on him to life everlasting.
16 Now unto the King eternal, immortal, invisible, the only wise God, be honour and glory for ever and ever. Amen.
17 This charge I commit unto thee, son Timothy, according to the prophecies which went before on thee, that thou by them mightest war a good warfare;
18 Holding faith, and a good conscience; which some having put away concerning faith have made shipwreck:
19 Of whom is Hymenaeus and Alexander; whom I have delivered unto Satan, that they may learn not to blaspheme.
1 Timothy   |   Chapter: 1   |   Verses: 20
Chapter:
1 2 3 4 5 6


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All SCRIPTURE TEXT has Context and Background. Text should never be read literally or in isolation. Always seek clarification from religious scholars and teachers. In general, to study Text requires four principles:

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2. Historical Setting - The story events; how the Text was understood in its time
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