Gods & Roman Emperors

roman emperor

Romans are known for the great number of Gods they honored.

The Romans thought of themselves as a highly religious people, and attributed their success as a world power to their maintaining good relations with their many gods.

As the Roman Empire expanded, migrants to the capital brought with them their own religions and Gods. Christianity too was brought into the Roman empire, and it triumphed over others to became the most successful of all religions.

In 380 AD, Christianity became the official state religion of Rome.

The table below lists key Roman Emperors who reigned between 27 BC to 457 AD, with their religious convictions.

12 Roman Gods (Dii Consentes-Pagan)
753 BC - 600 AD


The Dii Consentes is a list of 12 major Roman Gods, six gods and six goddesses, in the pantheon of Ancient Rome. These were arranged into 6 Male-Female pairs:
  1. Jupiter-Juno
  2. Neptune-Minerva
  3. Mars-Venus
  4. Apollo-Diana
  5. Vulcan-Vesta
  6. Mercury-Ceres
Also, a Trinity of the Godhead ('Capitoline Triad') was formed: Jupiter + Juno + Minerva.
W Portico_Dii_Consentes

Forum Romanum

A number of monuments in the Forum Romanum include Temples, Basilicas, Arches and memorials dedicated to the Roman Gods.

The Porticus Deorum Consentium, an ancient structure in Rome, Italy is believed to have been built to honor the 12 major Gods of Rome. These pagan monuments were active for 1400 years, or c.753 BC to 600 AD; with a 200 year overlap with Christianity the state religion.
W Roman_Forum
W List_of_monuments_of_the_Roman_Forum


Julio-Claudians dynasty
27 BC-68 AD
1
Emperor Augustus Caesar PAGAN 27 BC-14 AD Early in his reign, Halley's Comet passed over Rome. Augustus claimed it was the spirit of Julius Caesar entering heaven. If Caesar was a god then, as his heir, Augustus was the son of a god.

At his death, Augustus, the 'son of a god', was himself declared a god.
2
Emperor Tiberius PAGAN 14-37 AD In ancient Greek religion and mythology, Pan is the god of the wild, shepherds and flocks, nature of mountain wilds, rustic music and impromptus, and companion of the nymphs. He has the hindquarters, legs, and horns of a goat, in the same manner as a faun or satyr. During the reign of Tiberius, the news of Pan's death came to one Thamus.
3
Emperor Caligula PAGAN 37-41 AD Caligula reverted back to primitive Roman paganism. Caligula not only believed in it but had himself elected as a god.   jewishhistory/caligula
4
Emperor Claudius PAGAN 41-54 AD
5
Emperor Nero PAGAN 54-68 AD Nero became infamous for his personal debaucheries and extravagances and, on doubtful evidence, for his burning of Rome and persecutions of Christians.
The Flavians dynasty
68-96 AD
1
Emperor Galba PAGAN 68-69 AD
2
Emperor Otho PAGAN 69-69 AD
3
Emperor Vitellius PAGAN 69-69 AD
4
Emperor Vespasian PAGAN 69-79 AD
5
Emperor Titus PAGAN 79-81 AD
6
Emperor Domitian PAGAN 81-96 AD
Nerva-Antonines dynasty
96-192 AD
1
Emperor Nerva PAGAN 96-98 AD
2
Emperor Trajan PAGAN 98-117 AD
3
Emperor Hadrian PAGAN 117-138 AD
4
Emperor Antonius Pius PAGAN 138-161 AD
5
Emperor Lucius Verus PAGAN 161-169 AD
6
Emperor Marcus Aurelius PAGAN 161-180 AD
7
Emperor Commodus PAGAN 180-192 AD
Severans ('Soldier Emperors') dynasty
193–235 AD
1
Emperor Septimius Severus PAGAN 193-211 AD
2
Emperor Caracalla PAGAN 211-217 AD
3
Emperor Macrinus PAGAN 217-218 AD
4
Emperor Elagabalus PAGAN 218-222 AD
5
Emperor Alexander Severus PAGAN 222-235 AD
Gordian dynasty
235-285 AD
1
Emperor Maximinus Thrax PAGAN 235-238 AD
2
Emperor Gordian I & II PAGAN 238-238 AD
3
Emperor Pupienus & Balbinus PAGAN 238-238 AD
4
Emperor Gordian III PAGAN 238-244 AD
5
Emperor Philip the Arab CHRISTIAN? 244-249 AD
6
Emperor Illyrian Decius PAGAN 249-251 AD
7
Emperor Trebonianus Gallus PAGAN r. 251–253 AD
8
Emperor Aemilianus PAGAN r. 253 AD
9
Emperor Valerian PAGAN 253-260 AD
10
Emperor Gallienus PAGAN 253-268 AD
11
Emperor Claudius Gothicus PAGAN r. 268–270 AD
12
Emperor Aurelian PAGAN 270-275 AD
13
Emperor Tacitus PAGAN r. 275–276 AD
14
Emperor Florianus PAGAN
15
Emperor Probus PAGAN r. 276–282 AD
16
Emperor Carus PAGAN r. 282–283 AD
17
Emperor Carinus PAGAN r. 283–284 AD
18
Emperor Numerianus PAGAN r. 283-306 AD
Tetrarchy dynasty
284-306 AD
1
Emperor Diocletian PAGAN 284-305 AD
2
Emperor Maximian PAGAN 286-305 AD Maximian was viewed by Christians as a persecutor of their religion. Maximian obediently executed in his empire the first edict of Diocletian, which ordered the burning of Scriptures and closure of churches.
3
Emperor Galerius PAGAN 305-311 AD Galerius, a staunch pagan, he persuaded the emperor to initiate the persecution of the Christians at Nicomedia in 303 AD.
5
Emperor Constantine I ('the Great') PAGAN/MITHRAS 306-337 AD All emperors who followed Constantine were Christians

Successively, the power tried to control the new religion without repressive or persecutory methods. In the III century, when Christianity increased its power by gathering believers among the powerful, the "pax romana" favored the expansion of the religion.

After a long period of persecution and illegalities, Constantine with the Edict in Milan (313 AD) gave official recognition to Christianity. It is written Constantine accepted Christianity on his deathbed.

Rome is still the principal seat of Christianity: The Vatican is the State inside the city with today's believers exceeding 1 billion worldwide.
6
Emperor Constantius II CHRISTIAN 337-361 AD
7
Emperor Constans I CHRISTIAN (ORTHODOX) 337-350 AD Constans I was an ardent orthodox Christian, he was known as a vigorous opponent of Arianism (a doctrine that affirmed the created, finite nature of Christ) and paganism and supporter of Athanasius of Alexandria, of Trinitarian doctrine.
8
Emperor Julian 'the Apostate' PAGAN 361-363 AD Roman emperor, nephew of Constantine the Great, and noted scholar and military leader. An ardent enemy of Christianity, Julian announced his conversion to paganism, thus acquiring the title 'the Apostate'.
9
Emperor Jovian CHRISTIAN 363-364 AD As a Christian, Jovian disapproved of paganism. Magical practices were forbidden and gifts to the Churches restored.
Valentinian dynasty
364-379 AD
1
Emperor Valentinian I CHRISTIAN (MODERATE) 364-375 AD Valentian, an energetic patriot was a moderate Christian.
2
Emperor Valens ARIAN CHRISTIAN 364-378 AD Valens, Eastern Roman emperor was the younger brother of Valentinian I, who assumed the throne upon the death of the emperor Jovian in 364 AD. Valens was an Arian Christian who persecuted Catholics while interfering little with the pagans.
3
Emperor Gratian CHRISTIAN 378-379 AD
Theodosian dynasty
379-457 AD
1
Emperor Theodosius I CHRISTIAN 379-395 AD On 27 February 380, together with Gratian and Valentinian II, Theodosius issued the decree "Cunctos populos", the so-called Edict of Thessalonica.

This declared the Nicene Trinitarian Christianity to be the only legitimate imperial religion and the only one entitled to call itself Catholic.

In 393 AD, Theodosius ended state support for any public non-Christian, polytheist religions and customs.
2
Emperor Honorius CHRISTIAN
3
Emperor Arcadius CHRISTIAN 395-408 AD Arcadius was born in Spain in either 377 or 378. He parents were Theodosius I and Aelia Flavia Flaccilla. His younger brother Honorius, born 384, became the emperor of the western part of the Roman Empire.

Arcadius portrayed himself a pious Christian emperor and concerned himself with the issues heresy and paganism by forced closure of pagan temples.   Arcadius
4
Emperor Theodosius II CHRISTIAN 408-450 AD Flavius Theodosius was born in April 401, the eldest son of Aelia Eudoxia and Eastern Roman Emperor Arcadius. Theodosius' elder sister, Pulcheria influenced his life greatly, by pushing him towards Orthodox Christianity.   Theodosius_II
5
Emperor Marcian CHRISTIAN 450-457 During Marcian's reign was the fourth ecumenical council assembled by Marcian at Chalcedon in 451 AD. This council upheld the orthodox Christian doctrine that Christ had two natures, divine and human, and rejected Monophysitism, which maintained that Christ had one divine nature.


CREDIT
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Religion_in_ancient_Rome
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Roman_emperors
https://www.thoughtco.com/coins-of-the-12-caesars-4126834
https://www.pbs.org/empires/romans/empire/augustus_religion.html
http://www.answers.com/Q/What_was_the_Religion_of_each_Roman_Emperor
https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/roem/hd_roem.htm
https://www.britannica.com
https://orthodoxwiki.org
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