God, Evidence For

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What is the evidence for a God or Creator?

Many people see the evidence for a God in the intelligent design of the "fine-tuned universe". Therefore, human life on earth could never exist, unless certain universal constants were within a concise range.

The mathematical probabilities of all these constants coming together point to the existence of God or an 'intelligent designer' of the universe. These constants are explored below:


Mathematical Probability
The probability of there being NO God or Creator:
1 in 10^123 (10 to power 123) or
1 in 1,000,000, 000,000,000, 000,000,000, 000,000,000, 000,000,000, 000,000,000, 000,000,000, 000,000,000, 000,000,000, 000,000,000, 000,000,000, 000,000,000, 000,000,000, 000,000,000
Roger Penrose, The Road to Reality
"It seems as though someone has fine-tuned nature's numbers to make the universe. The impression of design is overwhelming..." Paul Davies, The Cosmic Blueprint, New York, Simon & Schuster 1988


  Extreme Extreme
1. Strong nuclear force constant
Small scale attractive force, holds nuclei of atoms together which otherwise repulse each other because of the electromagnetic force
if larger: no hydrogen would form; atomic nuclei for most life-essential elements would be unstable; thus, no life chemistry if smaller: no elements heavier than hydrogen would form: again, no life chemistry
2. Weak nuclear force constant
Governs radioactive decay
if larger: too much hydrogen would convert to helium in big bang; hence, stars would convert too much matter into heavy elements making life chemistry impossible if smaller: too little helium would be produced from big bang; hence, stars would convert too little matter into heavy elements making life chemistry impossible
3. Gravitational force constant
Large scale attractive force which holds people on planets, and holds planets, stars and galaxies together
if larger: stars would be too hot and would burn too rapidly and too unevenly for life chemistry; Stars burn up too quickly if smaller: stars would be too cool to ignite nuclear fusion; thus, many of the elements needed for life chemistry would never form; Planets and stars cannot form
4. Electromagnetic force constant
Small scale attractive and repulsive force, holds atoms electrons and atomic nuclei together
if greater: chemical bonding would be disrupted; elements more massive than boron would be unstable to fission if lesser: chemical bonding would be insufficient for life chemistry
5. Ratio of electromagnetic force constant to gravitational force constant
Mathematical Probability
Ratio of Electromagnetic Force:Gravity 1:10^40
if larger: all stars would be at least 40% more massive than the sun; hence, stellar burning would be too brief and too uneven for life support if smaller: all stars would be at least 20% less massive than the sun, thus incapable of producing heavy elements
6. Ratio of electron to proton mass
if larger: chemical bonding, DNA life building blocks would be insufficient for life chemistry if smaller: same as above
7. Ratio of number of protons to number of electrons
Mathematical Probability
Ratio of Electrons:Protons 1:10^37
if larger: electromagnetism would dominate gravity, preventing galaxy, star, and planet formation if smaller: same as above
8. Expansion rate of the universe
Mathematical Probability
Expansion Rate of Universe 1:10^55
if larger: no galaxies would form if smaller: universe would collapse, even before stars formed
9. Entropy level of the universe
if larger: stars would not form within proto-galaxies if smaller: no proto-galaxies would form
10. Mass density of the universe
Mathematical Probability
Mass of Universe 1:10^59
if larger: overabundance of deuterium from big bang would cause stars to burn rapidly, too rapidly for life to form if smaller: insufficient helium from big bang would result in a shortage of heavy elements
11. Velocity of light
if faster: stars would be too luminous for life support if slower: stars would be insufficiently luminous for life support
12. Age of the universe
if older: no solar-type stars in a stable burning phase would exist in the right (for life) part of the galaxy if younger: solar-type stars in a stable burning phase would not yet have formed
13. Initial uniformity of radiation
if more uniform: stars, star clusters, and galaxies would not have formed if less uniform: universe by now would be mostly black holes and empty space
14. Average distance between galaxies
if larger: star formation late enough in the history of the universe would be hampered by lack of material if smaller: gravitational tug-of-wars would destabilize the sun's orbit
15. Density of galaxy cluster
if denser: galaxy collisions and mergers would disrupt the sun's orbit if less dense: star formation late enough in the history of the universe would be hampered by lack of material
16. Average distance between stars
if larger: heavy element density would be too sparse for rocky planets to form if smaller: planetary orbits would be too unstable for life
17. Fine structure constant
Describing the fine-structure splitting of spectral lines

if larger than 0.06: matter would be unstable in large magnetic fields
if smaller: all stars would be at least 80% more massive than the sun
18. Decay rate of protons
if greater: life would be exterminated by the release of radiation if smaller: universe would contain insufficient matter for life
19. 12C to 16O nuclear energy level ratio
if larger: universe would contain insufficient oxygen for life if smaller: universe would contain insufficient carbon for life
20. Ground state energy level for 4He
if larger: universe would contain insufficient carbon and oxygen for life
if smaller: same as above
21. Decay rate of 8Be
if faster: no element heavier than beryllium would form; thus, no life chemistry if slower: heavy element fusion would generate catastrophic explosions in all the stars
22. Ratio of neutron mass to proton mass
if higher: neutron decay would yield too few neutrons for the formation of many life-essential elements if lower: neutron decay would produce so many neutrons as to collapse all stars into neutron stars or black holes
23. Initial excess of nucleons over anti-nucleons
if greater: radiation would prohibit planet formation if lesser: matter would be insufficient for galaxy or star formation
24. Polarity of the water molecule
if greater: heat of fusion and vaporization would be too high for life if smaller: heat of fusion and vaporization would be too low for life; liquid water would not work as a solvent for life chemistry; ice would not float, and a runaway freeze-up would result
25. Supernovae eruptions
Outer spiral arm of galaxy which allows a planet to stay safely away from supernovae eruptions
if too far, too infrequent, or too soon: heavy elements would be too sparse for rocky planets to form
if too close, too frequent, or too late: radiation would exterminate life on the planet
26. White dwarf binaries
White Dwarf binaries are a reliable source of gravitational waves that help us map the structure of our own galaxy
if too many: planetary orbits would be too unstable for life if too few: insufficient fluorine would exist for life chemistry
if formed too late: fluorine would arrive too late for life chemistry if formed too soon: insufficient fluorine production
27. Ratio of exotic matter mass to ordinary matter mass
if larger: universe would collapse before solar-type stars could form if smaller: no galaxies would form
28. Number of effective dimensions in the early universe
if larger: quantum mechanics, gravity, and relativity could not coexist; thus, life would be impossible if smaller: same result
29. Number of effective dimensions in the present universe
if larger: electron, planet, and star orbits would become unstable if smaller: same result
30. Mass of the neutrino
if larger: galaxy clusters and galaxies would be too dense if smaller: galaxy clusters, galaxies, and stars would not form
31. Big bang ripples
if larger: galaxies/galaxy clusters would be too dense for life; black holes would dominate; universe would collapse before life-site could form
if smaller: galaxies would not form; universe would expand too rapidly
32. Size of the relativistic dilation factor
if larger: certain life-essential chemical reactions will not function properly if smaller: same result
33. Uncertainty magnitude in the Heisenberg uncertainty principle
if larger: oxygen transport to body cells would be too great and certain life-essential elements would be unstable
if smaller: oxygen transport to body cells would be too small and certain life-essential elements would be unstable
34. Cosmological constant
Which controls the expansion speed of the universe refers to the balance of the attractive force of gravity with a hypothesized repulsive force of space observable only at very large size scales. It must be very close to zero, that is, these two forces must be nearly perfectly balanced. To get the right balance, the cosmological constant must be fine-tuned
Mathematical Probability
Cosmological Constant 1:10^120
if larger: universe would expand too quickly to form solar-type stars; universe would fly apart if smaller, universe would collapse before stars formed
35. Initial distribution of mass energy
if larger, stars would not form within proto-galaxies if smaller, no proto-galaxies would form
36. Steady plate tectonics with right kind of geological interior
Which allows the carbon cycle and generates a protective magnetic field
if larger, the earth's plate tectonic recycling could not take place  
37. Right amount of water in crust
Which provides the universal solvent for life
if too much water, vital plants and vegetation would not grow and humans could not exist if too little water, vital plants and vegetation would not grow and humans could not exist
38. Moon with right rotation period
Which stabilizes a planet's tilt and contributes to sea tides. In the case of the Earth, the gravitational pull of its moon stabilizes the angle of its axis at a nearly constant 23.5 degrees. This ensures relatively temperate seasonal changes, and the only climate in the solar system mild enough to sustain complex living organisms.
if larger tilt, the unpredictable and unbearable climate would make it impossible for life to form if smaller tilt, the unpredictable and unbearable climate would make it impossible for life to form
39. Right concentration of sulfur
Which is necessary for important biological processes
   
40. Right planetary mass
Which allows a planet to retain the right type and right thickness of atmosphere
  if smaller, the Earth's magnetic field would be weaker, allowing the solar wind to strip away our atmosphere, slowly transforming our planet into a dead, barren world much like Mars
41. Near inner edge of circumstellar habitable zone
Planet maintains the right amount of liquid water on the surface
if too far, or if the Earth were about 20% farther from the Sun, it would experience runaway glaciations of the kind that has left Mars sterile if too close, or if the Earth were just 5% closer to the Sun, it would be subject to the 288 same fate as Venus, a runaway greenhouse effect, with temperatures rising to nearly 900 degrees Fahrenheit
42. Low-eccentricity circular orbit around galactic center
Orbit and giant planet resonances. Planet maintains a safe orbit over a long period of time which enables a planet to avoid traversing dangerous parts of the galaxy
if too far, galaxy collisions and mergers would disrupt the sun's orbit if too close, star formation late enough in the history of the universe would be hampered by lack of material
43. Large Jupiter-mass planetary neighbors in large circular orbits
Protects the habitable zone from comet bombardments. The larger planets in our solar system provide significant protection to the Earth from the most dangerous comets
if pull too strong, the Earth would pull devastating comets in that would cause mass extinction if pull too weak, the Earth would be open to direct collisions with devastating comets that would cause mass extinction
44. Within the galactic habitable zone
Which allows a planet to have access to heavy elements while being safely away from the dangerous galactic center
if too far, star formation late enough in the history of the universe would be hampered by lack of material if too close, gravitational tug-of-wars would destabilize the sun's orbit
45. During the cosmic habitable age
When heavy elements and active stars exist without too high a concentration of dangerous radiation events
if long ago, no solar-type stars in a stable burning phase would exist in the right (for life) part of the galaxy if recent, solar-type stars in a stable burning phase would not yet have formed


CREDIT
https://discovery.org
http://www.focus.org.uk/lennox.php
http://www.godandscience.org/apologetics/designun.html
Big Bang Refined by Fire by Dr. Hugh Ross, 1998. Reasons To Believe, Pasadena, CA.
http://philsci-archive.pitt.edu/11004/1/fine-tuning-anon.pdf
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