The churches in Galatia were formed partly of converted Jews and partly of Gentile converts, as was generally the case.

Paul asserts his apostolic character and the doctrines he taught, that he might confirm the Galatian churches in the faith of Christ, especially with respect to the important point of justification by faith alone.

In this epistle, particular attention is directed at justifying faith without the works of the Law of Moses. Galatians was not written as an essay in contemporary history. It was a protest against corruption of the gospel of Jesus.

The essential truth of justification by faith rather than by the works of the law had been obscured by the Judaizersí insistence that believers in Christ must keep the law if they expected to be perfect before God. When Paul learned that this teaching had begun to penetrate the Galatian churches and that it had alienated them from their heritage of liberty, he wrote the impassioned remonstrance contained in this epistle.

W Epistle_to_the_..
0 secs ago  |  976 views
Authorship: (Assumed)Pliny the Younger (circa 100-103 AD)

The True Authorship of the New Testament, by Abelard Reuchlin 1986
Year Written: (Assumed)48-55 AD
Manuscript: (Earliest Available)175-225 AD - Fragment - Papyrus(46)
W Biblical_manusc..
Scripture Type:Letters - Paul
An epistle (or letter) is a writing directed or sent to a person or group of people, usually an elegant and formal didactic letter. Pauls Epistles (or letters) are the 13 New Testament books which have the name Paul as the first word, hence claiming authorship by Paul. As some of the earliest Christian documents, they provide an insight into the beliefs and controversies of early Christianity and as part of the canon of the New Testament they are foundational texts for both Christian theology and ethics.
Further Reading:
A list of Texts a particular religious community regard as authoritative scripture
W Biblical_canon
1 Marcion Canon
Marcionism was a religious movement based on the teachings of the 2nd-century Marcion of Sinope. Marcions Canon lists 14 books out of the 27 books in the New Testament. More specifically, these were Luke and Paul's 13 writings. Marcion even rejected the entire Old Testament of 39 books.
W Marcion_of_Sino..

Galatians was Fully Accepted (100%) by Marcion Canon
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)

140 AD

2 Muratorian Canon
The Muratorian Canon is an ancient list of New Testament books - the oldest such list we have found and lists 22 of the 27 books that were later included in the New Testament of the Christian Bible.

It is noteworthy that the Muratorian Canon omits several epistles that later did win acceptance in the Christian New Testament such as the books of James and 2 Peter.
W Muratorian_frag..

Galatians was Fully Accepted (100%) by Muratorian Canon
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)

170 AD

3 Apostolic Canon
Apostolic Canons or Ecclesiastical Canons
W Canons_of_the_A..

Galatians was Fully Accepted (100%) by Apostolic Canon
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)

300 AD

4 Cheltenham/ Mommsen List
The Cheltenham or Mommsen List is a Latin manuscript discovered by the German classical scholar Theodor Mommsen (published 1886) which probably originated in North Africa in the 4th century.

It has 24-book Old Testament and 24-book New Testament which omits Jude and James, and perhaps Hebrews, and questions the epistles of John and Peter.
W Theodor_Mommsen

Galatians was Fully Accepted (100%) by Cheltenham/ Mommsen List
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)

360 AD

5 Council of Rome
The Council of Rome was a meeting of Catholic Church officials and theologians which took place in 382 under the authority of Pope Damasus I, bishop of Rome.

According to a document appended to some manuscripts, the Council of Rome affirmed the authority of the Old and New Testament canon in a decretal or damasine list.
W Council_of_Rome

Galatians was Fully Accepted (100%) by Council of Rome
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)

382 AD

Bible Canon
In 367 AD, Bishop Athanasius of Alexandria, first gave a list of the 27-books to become the New Testament 'Bible Canon'
W Development_of_..

367 AD

Ancient and generally influential Christian theologians, eminent teachers and great bishops
W Church_Fathers
1 Clement of Rome
W Pope_Clement_I

Galatians was Rejected (0%) by Clement of Rome
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)

97 AD

2 Ignatius of Antioch
W Ignatius_of_Ant..

Galatians was Rejected (0%) by Ignatius of Antioch
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)

110 AD

3 Barnabas
W Barnabas

Galatians was Rejected (0%) by Barnabas
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)

130 AD

4 Hermas
W Hermas_(freedma..

Galatians was Rejected (0%) by Hermas
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)

140 AD

5 Papias of Hierapolis
W Papias_of_Hiera..

Galatians was Rejected (0%) by Papias of Hierapolis
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)

140 AD

6 Polycarp
W Polycarp

Galatians was Approved (75%) by Polycarp
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)

150 AD

7 Didache
W Didache

Galatians was Rejected (0%) by Didache
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)

150 AD

8 Diognetus
W Epistle_to_Diog..

Galatians was Approved (75%) by Diognetus
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)

150 AD

9 Justin Martyr
W Justin_Martyr

Galatians was Approved (75%) by Justin Martyr
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)

155 AD

10 Irenaeous
W Irenaeus

Galatians was Fully Accepted (100%) by Irenaeous
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)

202 AD

11 Clement of Alexandria
W Clement_of_Alex..

Galatians was Fully Accepted (100%) by Clement of Alexandria
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)

215 AD

12 Tertullian
W Tertullian

Galatians was Approved (75%) by Tertullian
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)

220 AD

13 Origen
W Origen

Galatians was Approved (75%) by Origen
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)

254 AD

14 Eusebius of Caesarea
W Eusebius

Galatians was Fully Accepted (100%) by Eusebius of Caesarea
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)

340 AD

15 Athanasius of Alexandria
W Athanasius_of_A..

Galatians was Fully Accepted (100%) by Athanasius of Alexandria
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)

367 AD

16 Cyril of Jerusalem
W Cyril_of_Jerusa..

Galatians was Fully Accepted (100%) by Cyril of Jerusalem
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)

386 AD

17 Augustine of Hippo
W Augustine of..

Galatians was Fully Accepted (100%) by Augustine of Hippo
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)

400 AD

Bible Canon
In 367 AD, Bishop Athanasius of Alexandria, first gave a list of the 27-books to become the New Testament 'Bible Canon'
W Development_of_..

367 AD

Textual Criticism
EVIDENCE: Was Paul the Author?
Today, it is assumed Paul is the author. However, it is known that Paul extensively used Scribes ('Amanuensis') to write his letters. Paul dictated his thoughts and the Scribe wrote the letter as they saw fit. Therefore, all, if not the majority of Paul's Epistles (letters) in the New Testament Bible are authored by unknown Scribes.
EVIDENCE: Paul had a troubling 'Thorn'
In his Corinthians letter, Paul speaks of a 'Thorn In My Flesh' troubling him. Bible scholars have 4 theories on the 'thorn':

    1 Physical Sickness - The 'thorn' is a physical sickness (i.e. malaria, malta fever, epilepsy, convulsive attacks, chronic ophthalmia etc.). Many of these illnesses affect the eye-sight and would explain why Paul suffered from poor vision.
    2 Mental Illness - The 'thorn' is a mental illness (i.e. brain disorder, hallucination, schizophrenia, depression etc.)
    3 Spiritual Problem - The 'thorn' is a spiritual or moral problem (i.e. demon, evil-spirit, devil possession etc.)
    4 Ministerial Opposition - The 'thorn' is the Jewish persecution, opposition and resistance to Paul's ministry. This is considered a weak theory because if Paul was referring to a opposing person or movement, he would have referred to such individuals by name.
    2Corinthians 12:7


EVIDENCE: Paul had Eye-Sight Problems
It is known that Paul used Scribes ('Amanuensis') to write his letters as he suffered from poor eye-sight and was unable to write. According to early sources, Paul was 'a short, bony, little Jew with constant running eyes from his eye problems, squinting with a very large angular nose'.

    See what large letters I use as I write to you with my own hand [Paul's eyesight was defective and he needed help to write]
    Galatians 6:11

    As you know, it was because of an illness that I first preached the gospel to you, and even though my illness was a trial to you, you did not treat me with contempt or scorn. Instead, you welcomed me as if I were an angel of God, as if I were Christ Jesus himself. Where, then, is your blessing of me now? I can testify that, if you could have done so, you would have torn out your eyes and given them to me.
    Galatians 4:13-15

    Paul replied, Brothers, I did not know [due to bad eye-sight] that he was the high priest; for it is written: 'Do not speak evil about the ruler of your people.'
    Acts 23:5

EVIDENCE: Church was aware of Paul's Eye-Sight problem
In Galatians, Paul confirms the Galatian Church was aware of his eye-sight problem. So much so, they would have 'plucked out their own eyes and given them to him' were it possible.

    Where, then, is your blessing of me now? I can testify that, if you could have done so, you would have torn out your eyes and given them to me.
    Galatians 4:15

EVIDENCE: Paul used Scribes to write his Epistles (Letters)
Paul composed his letters in accordance with the writing conventions of his time. Scribes were essential as the skills required for writing with primitive pens and paper made writing legibly a challenge.

Tertius was one Roman Scribe ('Amanuensis') who wrote on behalf of Paul. Tertius wrote Paul's Epistles (letters), either from notes, ideas or direct from Paul's mouth. At the end of the Epistle (letter), Paul would conclude with personal greetings in his own writing. [John Gill's commentary]

Timothy is present as Paul and Tertius write Romans. Did Timothy have any influence over the final text? If so, what was that influence? Was any text in Romans written by Timothy?

    I, Tertius, the one writing this letter for Paul, send my greetings, too, as one of the Lord's followers
    Romans 16:22

    Paul, write this greeting in my own hand. Remember my chains. Grace be with you.
    Colossians 4:18

    I, Paul, write this greeting in my own hand, which is the distinguishing mark in all my letters. This is how I write.
    2Thessalonians 3:17

    I, Paul, write this greeting in my own hand.
    1Corinthians 16:21

    Timothy, my co-worker, sends his greetings to you, as do Lucius, Jason and Sosipater, my fellow Jews.
    Romans 16:21

EVIDENCE: Bible Scholars who consider Paul's Letter GALATIANS forged and interpolated
'Interpolation' is where a Word, Verse, Passage or even entire Chapter was added to Paul's Letter, often many years after Paul had written, disseminated it or died. Bible Scholars who hold the view that Paul's Letter is interpolated include:

  • Burton (1921: lxix-lxx) notes those who doubt the epistle as a whole. They include (NOT Evanson), Bauer (1850-52); Loman (1882); Pierson (1878); Pierson and Naber (1886: 26f.); Steck (1888); van Manen; Friedrich (1891); Kalthoff (1904); Johnson (1887); and Robertson. O'Neill (1972) suggests extensive interpolations: see Murphy-O'Connor in RB 82 (1975: 143f.).
  • 2:3-8, Warner (1951).
  • 2:7b-8, Straatman, van Manen (1890: 513ff.); Volter (1890: 90); Barnikol (1931a); Schenke and Fischer (1978: 79-81); O'Neill (1972).
  • 2:18, Schmithals (1973).
  • 3:16b, Burton (1921: 509f.).
  • 3:19a, not in text of P46; it contradicts the context, and can be explained from Romans 5:20. See Gaston (1982); Eshbaugh (1979); and Walker (1988).
  • 3:20, Burton (1921: 190-92. "possibly").
  • 4:25a, Schmithals (1973); Schenke; O'Neill (1975); Bentley (1962); Mace (1729, who omits it from Sinaiticus); Mill; Schott; Prins (1872); Naber (1878, "insertion work of an ass"); Holsten (1880: 17lf.); van de Sande Bakhuyzen {1880}; Baljon {1889: 185}; Thijm (1890}; Cramer {1890}; Clemen; Burton {1921: 259f.).
  • 5:7, whole verse Scott.
  • 5:7b, Semler; Koppe; Holsten {1880: 175}.
  • 5:16-24, [Sturdy asks how Pauline this really sounds].

Galatians   |   Chapter: 1   |   Verses: 24
1 2 3 4 5 6
1 And all the brethren which are with me, unto the churches of Galatia:
Galatians 1:2

2 Grace be to you and peace from God the Father, and from our Lord Jesus Christ,
Galatians 1:3

3 Who gave himself for our sins, that he might deliver us from this present evil world, according to the will of God and our Father:
Galatians 1:4

4 To whom be glory for ever and ever. Amen.
Galatians 1:5

5 I marvel that ye are so soon removed from him that called you into the grace of Christ unto another gospel:
Galatians 1:6

6 Which is not another; but there be some that trouble you, and would pervert the gospel of Christ.
Galatians 1:7

7 But though we, or an angel from heaven, preach any other gospel unto you than that which we have preached unto you, let him be accursed.
Galatians 1:8

8 As we said before, so say I now again, If any man preach any other gospel unto you than that ye have received, let him be accursed.
Galatians 1:9

9 For do I now persuade men, or God? or do I seek to please men? for if I yet pleased men, I should not be the servant of Christ.
Galatians 1:10

10 But I certify you, brethren, that the gospel which was preached of me is not after man.
Galatians 1:11

11 For I neither received it of man, neither was I taught it, but by the revelation of Jesus Christ.
Galatians 1:12

12 For ye have heard of my conversation in time past in the Jews' religion, how that beyond measure I persecuted the church of God, and wasted it:
Galatians 1:13

13 And profited in the Jews' religion above many my equals in mine own nation, being more exceedingly zealous of the traditions of my fathers.
Galatians 1:14

14 But when it pleased God, who separated me from my mother's womb, and called me by his grace,
Galatians 1:15

15 To reveal his Son in me, that I might preach him among the heathen; immediately I conferred not with flesh and blood:
Galatians 1:16

16 Neither went I up to Jerusalem to them which were apostles before me; but I went into Arabia, and returned again unto Damascus.
Galatians 1:17

17 Then after three years I went up to Jerusalem to see Peter, and abode with him fifteen days.
Galatians 1:18

18 But other of the apostles saw I none, save James the Lord's brother.
Galatians 1:19

19 Now the things which I write unto you, behold, before God, I lie not.
Galatians 1:20

20 Afterwards I came into the regions of Syria and Cilicia;
Galatians 1:21

21 And was unknown by face unto the churches of Judaea which were in Christ:
Galatians 1:22

22 But they had heard only, That he which persecuted us in times past now preacheth the faith which once he destroyed.
Galatians 1:23

23 And they glorified God in me.
Galatians 1:24

Galatians   |   Chapter: 1   |   Verses: 24
1 2 3 4 5 6

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