Bible - The Synoptic Problem

bible300

The similarities between the Synoptic Gospels have caused the 'Synoptic Problem'. The solution lies in the numerous theories and hypothesis

Matthew, Mark and Luke are commonly called the Synoptic Gospels. The Synoptic Gospels are very similar to each other. In fact, their similarities have led to one of the most debated subjects amongst New Testament Bible scholars - 'The Synoptic Problem' (i.e. who copied who?)

Mark Matthew Luke John
60-80 AD 70-100 AD 93 AD 125 AD

Winged Lion

Winged Man

Winged Ox

Eagle
Synoptic Problem
Synoptic
Synoptic
Synoptic
Not Synoptic
  • Mark's Gospel is almost universally accepted as the first gospel to be written
  • Mark is the shortest and simplest of the three Synoptic gospels
  • Large portions of Mark are found in Matthew and Luke
  • Matthew and Luke share over 200 verses not found in Mark
  • Shared content includes stories, wording, and chronology of events
  • Triple tradition - Text found in all three Synoptic Gospels
  • Double tradition, or "Q" Source - Text found in both Matthew and Luke
  • M tradition - Text found exclusively in Matthew
  • L tradition - Text found exclusively in Luke   Blueletterbible.org/The Synoptic Problem and Q
  • John's content, chronology and wording is distinctly different to the Synoptics.
    Hebrew Gospel Hypothesis
    Hebrew Gospel Hypothesis involves a lost gospel in Hebrew, Aramaic or even Greek as the primary source behind the Synoptic gospels.   Bible.org/synoptic-problem   Ehrmanblog.org

    * Stein, Synoptic Problem, p.48
    ** Evidence suggests Matthew and Luke did not copy from each other
    Other Hypothesis'
    1.   Augustinian Hypothesis
    Both Irenaeus and Origen, predecessors of Augustine, also held to the same order of composition. Later advocates of this theory include Hugo Grotius, HG Jameson, Basil Christopher Butler and John Wenham.
    2.   Two-Gospel Hypothesis (Griesbach)
    This theory is supported by Henry Owen, JJ Griesbach, William R Farmer, and TRW Longstaff et al.
    3.   Two-Source Hypothesis
    This theory is supported by the majority of New Testament scholars today.
    4.   Three-Source Hypothesis
    This theory is supported by Heinrich Julius Holtzmann, Eduard Simons, Hans Hinrich Wendt, Edward Y Hincks, Robert Morgenthaler and Robert H. Gundry.
    5.   Four-Document Hypothesis
    This is a variation of the Two-Source Hypothesis and so is highly favored among Bible scholars today.
    6.   Farrer Hypothesis (Mark without Q)
    This theory is supported by JH Ropes, AM Farrer, MD Goulder and Mark Goodacre
    7.   Hebrew Gospel Hypothesis (or Proto-Gospel)
    This theory is based on the proposition that a lost gospel in Hebrew or Aramaic lies behind the Synoptic gospels. (outlined above)

    CREDIT
    http://www.humanreligions.info/gospels.html
    http://www.bowness.demon.co.uk/gosp1.htm
    http://megasociety.org/noesis/138/synoptic.html
    https://www.tms.edu/m/tmsj13b.pdf
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hebrew_Gospel_hypothesis
      Share Article if you found it useful
    2064 views · 3 hrs ago |   Author: Guest   •   Updated: 11 Jun 2019
    ALL ARTICLES ARE INTENDED FOR GENERAL EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES ONLY. ALL INFORMATION IS BELIEVED TO BE CORRECT, ACCURATE AND TRUTHFUL. YOU ARE ADVISED TO DO YOUR OWN RESEARCH. ARTICLES ARE LIVE DOCUMENTS AND MAY BE UPDATED WITH NEW CONTENT AT ANY TIME. WHERE AVAILABLE, SOURCES AND REFERENCES ARE CREDITED. IF YOU SPOT ANY ERRORS, OMISSIONS OR GIVE FEEDBACK KINDLY CONTACT US WITH DETAILS
    113-bible-synoptic-problem

    0  Videos with 'Synoptic+problem'
    Watch Video 
    NAVIGATE ARTICLES
    ORDER: Article Title A-Z
    Articles
    All Articles (152)
    10 Commandments - Bible vs Quran
    10185 views · 1 hr ago
    10 Commandments - Christian vs Muslim
    4011 views · 12 mins ago
    10 Red Heifers (Cows)
    2475 views · 13 hrs ago
    5 reasons Abraham sacrificed Ishmael
    4057 views · 6 hrs ago
    Abrahamic Religions
    8778 views · 44 mins ago
    Angels - 41 Angels from the Abrahamic Religions
    5091 views · 10 hrs ago
    Are you a Muslim?
    30491 views · 3 hrs ago
    Arius vs Bishop Athanasius
    6218 views · 11 hrs ago
    Bible - 12% of New Testament copied from Old Testament
    2782 views · 2 hrs ago
    Bible - 18 Ego Eimi (I AM) statements, like John 8:58
    4657 views · 5 hrs ago
    Bible - 27 Verses on Yahweh, Elohim(s) and The Gods
    3237 views · 6 hrs ago
    Bible - 400 NT Jesus Prophecies copied from OT
    1687 views · 14 mins ago
    Bible - 75 Verses on drinking Wine & Alcohol
    3596 views · 8 hrs ago
    Bible - Exodus 3:14 Translations
    2640 views · 4 hrs ago
    Bible - King James (KJV) & 37 'Disputed' Verses
    1619 views · 1 hr ago
    Bible - Lost Books of the Bible
    2201 views · 8 hrs ago
    Bible - Mark 16:9-20 Text Analysis
    2188 views · 10 mins ago
    Bible - Matthew 28:19: Greek vs Hebrew
    6101 views · 6 hrs ago
    Bible - Pagan Texts in the Bible
    1983 views · 12 hrs ago
    Bible - Revelation, A Forgery
    1956 views · 1 hr ago
    Bible - Scholars on John's Gospel
    1464 views · 6 hrs ago
    Bible - The Synoptic Problem
    2064 views · 3 hrs ago
    Bible - Violence & Killings
    2005 views · 1 day ago
    Bible Authors: Who Wrote It?
    2084 views · 23 mins ago
    Bible Errors - 672 Variants
    2541 views · 6 hrs ago
    Bible History - KJV vs NIV
    2526 views · 24 mins ago
    Bible NT - 55% of New Testament Papyrus contain under 3% of Biblical Text
    1182 views · 16 hrs ago
    Bible NT - Codex Sinaiticus exposes 312 year gap since Jesus crucifixion
    1919 views · 1 hr ago
    Bible NT Canons - Church Fathers, Councils & Apocrypha
    1533 views · 8 hrs ago
    Bible OT - Dead Sea Scrolls expose a 1303 year gap since Moses life
    1460 views · 1 day ago
    Bible OT Canons - Church Fathers, Councils & Apocrypha
    1182 views · 11 hrs ago
    Bible Verses - KJV vs NIV
    3851 views · 6 hrs ago
    Blasphemy Laws in 35 Christian Countries
    1050 views · 9 mins ago
    Book Burnings in Roman, Catholic and Protestant society
    1688 views · 14 hrs ago
    Catholic vs Protestant - Bible
    2435 views · 24 hrs ago
    Catholic vs Protestant - Christianity
    2756 views · 12 hrs ago
    Child Abuse & Grooming Gangs (UK)
    1289 views · 4 hrs ago
    Child Abuse, Sexual Crimes & Prison Figures (UK)
    1686 views · 22 hrs ago
    Child Marriage - Muhammad married 9-year old Aisha
    5911 views · 5 hrs ago
    Christian Heresies
    1802 views · 27 mins ago
    Christian: 28 Heretical Sects
    3210 views · 14 hrs ago
    Christian: 32 Church Denominations
    831 views · 22 hrs ago
    Christianity: Founded by Paul on Road to Damascus, Syria
    1512 views · 18 hrs ago
    Church Councils
    1822 views · 12 hrs ago
    Church Fathers - Quotes from 18 Men of God
    1518 views · 34 mins ago
    Church Fathers on Jesus Divinity
    2181 views · 2 days ago
    Codex Sinaiticus & Vaticanus - Corruption in the KJV Bible books
    3555 views · 3 hrs ago
    Codex Sinaiticus & Vaticanus - Corruption in the KJV Bible verses
    2420 views · 16 mins ago
    Constantine and Christianity
    3967 views · 3 hrs ago
    Constantine, Nicaea and History
    2474 views · 23 hrs ago
    Coronavirus UK: Monthly deaths compared over 5 Years (2015-20)
    129 views · 2 days ago
    Coronavirus UK: Weekly deaths compared over 5-Years (2015-20)
    68 views · 10 hrs ago
    Coronavirus: Covid-19 deaths vs Other Causes
    236 views · 3 hrs ago
    Coronavirus: Lockdowns & Contact Tracing in 75 Countries
    160 views · 2 days ago
    Council of Nicaea 325 AD
    1663 views · 8 hrs ago
    Did Jesus pray to God or Allah?
    7271 views · 7 hrs ago
    God (Allah) - His Names & Attributes
    5690 views · 5 mins ago
    God vs Allah
    3685 views · 2 hrs ago
    God, Evidence For
    1751 views · 4 hrs ago
    Gods & Roman Emperors
    1031 views · 1 day ago
    Gods - 6 Dying & Rising Mythical Gods
    2186 views · 6 hrs ago
    Gods - 60 Pagan deities in the Bible
    4902 views · 8 mins ago
    How do Muslims pray?
    5112 views · 1 day ago
    Ishmael and Isaac in Bible and Quran
    6008 views · 5 hrs ago
    Islam: Biggest Threat to Europe?
    840 views · 5 hrs ago
    Islamic Countries. Who are they?
    945 views · 3 hrs ago
    Jesus - 91% chance he was a fictitous Mythical-Hero (Raglan Scale)
    1507 views · 4 hrs ago
    Jesus - 17 'Crucified' Savior Gods
    1480 views · 11 hrs ago
    Jesus - Crucifixion in the Gospels
    2250 views · 12 hrs ago
    Jesus - Crucifixion Timing
    2430 views · 13 hrs ago
    Jesus - God of 99 Faces
    4334 views · 35 mins ago
    Jesus - God with No Face
    968 views · 1 day ago
    Jesus - Resurrection in the Gospels
    1923 views · 2 days ago
    Jesus - Resurrection Theories
    2107 views · 12 hrs ago
    Jesus - Sons of God
    4226 views · 18 hrs ago
    Jesus and the 12 Disciples
    4019 views · 14 mins ago
    Jesus in the Quran
    2473 views · 5 hrs ago
    Jesus on the Cross or Tree?
    4946 views · 19 hrs ago
    Jesus the God
    4566 views · 11 hrs ago
    Jesus the Jewish Prophet
    3218 views · 2 hrs ago
    Jesus the Muslim
    2974 views · 2 days ago
    Jesus the Son of God
    1843 views · 1 hr ago
    Jesus the Sun-God over 12 Zodiac Star Gods
    9136 views · 3 hrs ago
    Jesus vs Isaac - The Sacrifice
    3050 views · 12 hrs ago
    Jesus vs Jonah & Whale
    3079 views · 1 day ago
    Jesus vs Krishna
    4280 views · 46 mins ago
    Jesus vs Paul
    4384 views · 24 hrs ago
    Jesus vs Romulus - 50 Reasons both are Mythical Gods
    1753 views · 4 hrs ago
    Jesus vs Zeus
    11645 views · 4 mins ago
    Jesus was 30, 40 or 50 years old?
    2634 views · 17 hrs ago
    Jesus, 12 Disciples and Paul Interview
    2270 views · 12 hrs ago
    Jesus, from Iesous and Yeshua
    4032 views · 20 hrs ago
    Jesus, Serapis & 7 Pagan Gods
    11164 views · 26 mins ago
    Jewish Laws & Rituals
    1367 views · 1 day ago
    Judaism - Maimonides 13 Principles of Jewish Belief
    3533 views · 9 hrs ago
    Mark, Matthew, Luke and John
    4244 views · 56 mins ago
    Messiah - His Aims & Objectives
    1400 views · 2 hrs ago
    Messiah - Jesus?
    1925 views · 1 day ago
    Monotheism vs Polytheism
    2334 views · 17 hrs ago
    Muhammad - Most Influential Man in History
    3390 views · 21 hrs ago
    Muhammad in Bible: He is is altogether lovely - Song 5:16
    7104 views · 1 hr ago
    Muhammad in Bible: Kedar rejoice and Sela sing - Isaiah 41/42
    6693 views · 1 hr ago
    Muhammad in Bible: Prophet like unto Moses - Deuteronomy 18:18
    10064 views · 1 hr ago
    Muhammad in Bible: Select Verses
    4459 views · 5 hrs ago
    New Age - Alice Bailey's 10 Point Charter
    3294 views · 38 mins ago
    Nicene Creed - Council of Nicaea 325 AD
    2277 views · 4 hrs ago
    Nicene Creed - Foundation of Christianity
    1303 views · 8 hrs ago
    Noahide Laws
    2057 views · 32 mins ago
    Palestine and Creation of Israel in 1948
    2652 views · 12 hrs ago
    Paul - 50% of his Writings are Inauthentic Forgeries
    1358 views · 2 days ago
    Paul copied 152 Old Testament verses
    792 views · 13 hrs ago
    Paul vs James
    2225 views · 6 hrs ago
    Prophets - Sinful Beings in the OT Bible
    1133 views · 3 hrs ago
    Prophets of God
    44199 views · 9 hrs ago
    Prophets were Sinners?
    3461 views · 15 mins ago
    Purpose of Life
    3500 views · 10 hrs ago
    Quran - 5 Recitations: Hafs, Warsh, Hisham, Qalun & Al-Duri
    2728 views · 4 hrs ago
    Quran - A Mathematical Miracle
    7973 views · 6 mins ago
    Quran - Chapter & Verse Miracle
    1285 views · 4 hrs ago
    Quran - Comparing Hafs & Warsh for 51 textual variants
    16716 views · 17 mins ago
    Quran and Violence
    4112 views · 15 hrs ago
    Quran refers to Torah & Gospel
    2350 views · 2 hrs ago
    Quran vs Science
    3376 views · 21 mins ago
    Roman Calendar
    4229 views · 6 hrs ago
    Roman Emperors in Bible
    291 views · 11 hrs ago
    Rome, Caesar & Emperors in the Bible
    1436 views · 5 hrs ago
    Sin Atonement: Jesus Blood vs 21 Offerings
    589 views · 11 hrs ago
    Terrorism, the Risk to Americans
    1152 views · 1 day ago
    The Lost Gospels
    4615 views · 2 hrs ago
    The Prophets Prayer
    3992 views · 13 hrs ago
    Timeline of Bible
    1374 views · 13 hrs ago
    Timeline of Church Councils
    1336 views · 9 hrs ago
    Timeline of Muhammad
    1412 views · 3 hrs ago
    Timeline of New Testament Bible
    1610 views · 3 mins ago
    Timeline of Old Testament Bible
    1603 views · 3 hrs ago
    Timeline of Prophets
    8386 views · 15 mins ago
    Timeline of Quran
    3355 views · 1 hr ago
    Timeline of Roman Empire
    1402 views · 17 hrs ago
    Timeline of Trinity
    1404 views · 5 hrs ago
    Torah - Did Moses Write It?
    2040 views · 3 hrs ago
    Torah - Wellhausen/JEDP Theory
    2280 views · 23 hrs ago
    Trinity - 13 Three God Pagan concepts
    2606 views · 4 hrs ago
    Trinity - 27 Attributes of the Father, Son and Holy Ghost
    4019 views · 12 hrs ago
    Trinity - 4 Creeds: Apostles, Nicene, Athanasian to Chalcedon over 418 years
    3460 views · 2 hrs ago
    Trinity - Different Views
    2526 views · 1 hr ago
    Trinity - Three Are One
    3543 views · 2 days ago
    Trinity in the Bible
    2113 views · 21 hrs ago
    War - 46 Major Conflicts ranked by Religion
    2484 views · 15 hrs ago
    War - 67 Bloody Christian Conflicts
    937 views · 1 hr ago
    War - From Yinon, 9/11 to Springs, Invasions, ISIS & 6M Dead
    2615 views · 10 hrs ago
    What does LGBTQ+ mean?
    805 views · 10 hrs ago
    Women in Religion
    4033 views · 1 day ago

    Submit Article


    Latest videos  •  5,000 videos  •  0 viewed/24 hour
    About Us  |  Help/FAQ  |  Contact Us    •    Terms  |  Privacy/Disclaimer
    Be Informed on Social :      Facebook Page  |    Twitter  |    Youtube
    MuslimProphets.com is an educational website on the primary teachings of the 'Prophets of God': Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus and Muhammad, who established the Abrahamic faiths of Judaism, Christianity and Islam. MuslimProphets.com explores contemporary social themes through Scripture, Evidences, Photo, Video, Maps, Current Affairs, Debate and 'alternative' Views held by Theologians, Apologists, Scholars and Street Preachers. Take a Site Tour

    In accordance with Islamic etiquette, all prophet names should be followed with 'Peace Be Upon Him (PBUH)'. This is omitted to minimise text.

    DISCLAIMER: All website content is for general information and educational purposes only and available in the public domain. Whilst all information comes from sources believed to be reliable, this cannot be guaranteed. External links are provided as a convenience and for informational purposes only. They do not constitute endorsement or approval for any products, services or comments by organizations or individuals. External links text may be edited to improve internal site and keyword search options. We bear no responsibility for the accuracy, legality, or content found on any external website or its subsequent links. Unless indicated, all images and content is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License distributed by Wikipedia, Wikimedia Commons, Pixabay, Pxhere, Pexels, Unsplash or Flickr. All Torah, Psalms, Old and New Testament Bible quotes are from the King James Version (KJV) Holy Bible in the public domain. All Quran quotes are from Taqi-ud-Din al-Hilali/Muhsin Khan English Quran translation. You are invited to always conduct your own research. If you spot any mistake, error or omission of information, contact us so we can correct it.
    Clustrmaps