186 BCBacchanaliaBacchanalia led in part by Minius Cerrinius, a Consul of Rome claimed that the fathers and grandfathers of the Romans had suppressed foreign rites and ceremonies, 'seeking out and burning all books of pretended prophecies'.
48 BCLibrary of Alexandria
The Library of Alexandria was one of the largest and most significant libraries in the ancient world. The great thinkers of the age, scientists, mathematicians, poets from all civilizations came to study and exchange ideas. As many as 700,000 scrolls filled the shelves.
According to several authors, the Library of Alexandria was 'accidentally' destroyed by Julius Caesar during the siege of Alexandria in 48 BC.
12 BCEmperor AugustusEmperor Augustus pointed to control of diviniation, the unseen knowledge. He ordered 2,000 books on 'prophecies and destiny', Greek and Latin prophetic verse be confiscated and burned; preserving only the Sibylline Books.
70 ADSiege of JerusalemEmperor Vespasian's son, Titus led the Roman army besieged and conquered Jerusalem.
The Siege of Jerusalem was the decisive event of the First Jewish-Roman War. It led to the burning and destruction of the Second Temple, a Jewish holy temple which stood on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem. According to Josephus:
[Titus] Caesar gave orders that they should now demolish the entire city [Jerusalem] and Temple. Everywhere was slaughter and flight. Most of the victims were peaceful citizens, weak and unarmed, butchered wherever they were caught.
Round the Altar the heaps of corpses grew higher and higher, while down the Sanctuary steps poured a river of blood and the bodies of those killed at the top slithered to the bottom.
Over 1M deaths
Josephus claims 1.1 Million people were killed during the Jerusalem siege, mostly Jews. Any survivors became Roman prisoners and slaves.
Christians viewed the Jerusalem siege as a dividing event for Christians and Jews. Jesus was portrayed as anti-Temple in the Gospels. Therefore, the destruction of the Second Temple was punishment for the Jews rejecting Jesus.
Arch of Titus
The Arch of Titus built in 81 AD commemorates victory of the Jerusalem siege. The Second Temple housed priceless artifacts, gold, furniture, vessels, riches, treasures, high priest robes, cinnamon, spices, and the menorah as depicted on the Arch. Rome used the plundered Jewish riches to finance building the Colosseum.
Undoubtedly, the Temple would have housed precious Jewish texts, scripture, books, manuscripts and scrolls. All of which perished or were stolen.
303 ADDiocletian Edict
The Diocletian Edict ordered the burning of Scriptures. Emperor Diocletian and Maximianus came to the church in Nicomedia, forced the gates, found the Christian Holy Scriptures, and burnt them.
303 ADEusebius of CaesareaEusebius of Caesarea, in Ecclesiastical History wrote of the 'great Christian persecution', and how inspired and sacred Scriptures were committed to flames in the midst of the market place.
325 ADEmperor ConstantineAfter Constantine converted to Christianity, the book burnings continued under Christianity.
Religious intolerance became a Christian principle, contrary to the Scriptures, and persecutions of pagans and Christian critics continued.
Under Constantine, the story became that of proscription, banning, banishment, book burning and heresy hunting; confiscation of churches by the catholics, capital offenses and legal impediments (Trevett 227).
325 ADChurch & StateChurch and State became entwined together. Christian book burning rituals lasted several centuries, with both Church and State involved in the fiery extermination of blasphemous, heretical books and their authors.
The religious blasphemy and heresy became a political sedition. The people of state and local worshipping community were indistinguishable.
333 ADConstantine burned Arius' Books
Constantine condemned Alexandrian priest, Arius, as a 'mouthpiece of Satan' and ordered his writings be burned.
Constantine's edict ordered:
It is now my decision that Arius and such as have opinions similar to this should be called Porphyrians in order that they may have the name of those whose way of life they imitate.
In addition to this, if any treatise composed by Arius is found, let it be put into the fire, in order not only that this defective doctrinal works [Arius treatise] may be destroyed, but also that no reminder at all should remain of him.
I order that if anyone is detected in concealing anything composed by Arius and not giving it up instantly for feeding it to the fire, his penalty shall be death. Keresztes 350
367 ADBishop Athanasius
Church father and bishop, Athanasius of Alexandria ordered monks in the Coptic Orthodox Church to destroy all 'unacceptable' writings in Egypt, except for the New Testament. (As claimed by Elaine Pagal, professor of religion, historian).
392 ADPope TheophilusPope Theophilus of Alexandria during his reign the Temple of Serapis was converted into a Christian Church, and it is likely many books were destroyed.
The Temple of Serapis was estimated to hold about 10% of the overall Library of Alexandria's holdings.
Pope Theophilus decreed the Library of Alexandria be trashed, burned and looted, as ordered by Emperor Theodosius I.
409 ADAstrology Books
A 409 decree stated the books of Astrology be burned and Astrologers be banned from Rome. Until their books of false doctrine were consumed in flames under the eyes of the bishop, and they converted to the Catholic religion.
435 ADNestoriusNestorius was condemned by Emperor Theodosius II at the Council of Ephesus. It was decreed Nestorius' books be diligently sought out and publicly burned.
1140 ADPeter AbelardPeter Abelard's treatise 'On the Unity and Trinity of God' was condemned and ordered to be burned by Pope Innocent II.
Abelard's books were burned 'in sight of all' at Rome and he was excommunicated.
The crusade against Catharism resulted in the destruction of towns, book burnings, and slaughter of supporters. Cathars were refered to using dehumanized language, metaphorized into disease, infection, plague, poison and leprosy, inviting eradication and extinction.
What Cathars believe?
Cathars believe in the idea of two gods: a Good and Evil one. The Good God was the one in the New Testament, and the Evil God was written of in the Old Testament.
1210 ADAmalric of BenaAmalric of Bena, a philosopher condemned as heretical by the Church had his books burned. Amalric's students were burned at the stake in Paris. Amalric died in 1206 and his bones were exhumed and burned.
1230 ADPope Gregory IXPope Gregory IX, a zealous persecutor of Judaism, had commanded the Talmud be burnt for its alleged blasphemies against Christ and Mary. 10,000's copies of the Talmud and other rabbinic writings were burned in France by the chancellor of Paris.
1244 ADPope Innocent IVPope Innocent IV denounced the Jewish Talmud in which he said, are blasphemies against God and His Christ. The Christian Church identified Christ as God. No greater blasphemy existed, than rejecting him.
Pope Innocent IV reiterated the need to burn Jewish books. Finally, 12,000 volumes (14 wagon loads) of the Talmud and similar works collected by force from the Jews in France were burned.
1255 ADCouncil of Beziers
The Provincial Council of Beziers declared: The Talmud shall be burned. The Jews who refuse, shall be expelled, and any transgressors shall be punished.
The Church believed the Talmud distorted the Christian Bible, and was held by Jewish Rabbis as of greater importance than the Christian. Bible.
1298 ADJean OliviPeter John Olivi, also known as Jean Olivi (1248–1298), was a Franciscan theologian from the Roman Catholic Church, followed by Olivists.
Olivi believed the wealth of the Church as scandalous, and he questioned Christs immaculate conception.
Pope Nicholas IV commanded Olivi burn his own writings. Olivi died in 1298. Later, Olivi was formally accused of heresy by Pope John XXII, and so his bones exhumed and burnt along with copies of his books.
1321 ADPope John XXIIPope John XXII ordered the destruction of the Jewish Talmud in Rome. The Talmud achieved the distinction of being the only book that was consistently burned for 900 years, from 13th to 20th century.
1327 ADMaster CeccoMaster Cecco, the astrologer condemned as a heretic in the church of Friars-Minors. His book Acerba and da Sphaera to be burnt and all who read it to be excommunicated. Cecco was publicly burnt in presence of a large crowd.
Cecco's ideas 'offensive to the pious ears' were to cast Jesus' horoscope, and show how Libra ascended to 10 degree, rendering the crucifixion inevitable; or as Capricorn was at an angle, Jesus was to be born in a stable, and more.
1329 ADDante AlighieriDante Alighieri's 'De Monarchia' criticized the popes and argued for a distinction between the powers and limitation of church and state. Alighieri offended the church who ordered his book be destroyed.
1401 ADHebrew Bible
As Christians were burning the Hebrew Bible to ashes, they were also burning Christian Bibles. By 1401, English Bibles were ordered to be burned. By 1407 to own a copy without a license led to persecution.
1410 ADPope Gregory XII
Before John Wycliffe's books were burned, Pope Gregory XII wrote an 'angry' letter to the chancellor of Oxford University censuring Wycliffe's opinions.
Wycliffe was upheld by others as the moving force behind the first translation of the whole Bible into English.
1410 ADArchbishop ArudnelArchbishop Thomas Arudnel wrote to Pope John XXIII:
He [Wycliffe] is a wretched and pestilient fellow, the son of the serpent, the herald and child of Antichrist, John Wyclif... filling up the measure of his malice by devising a new translation of Scripture [English Bible] into the mother tongue.
1413 ADJohn WycliffeJohn Wycliffe was condemned as a heretic in 1380; in 1410 his works were burnt at Prague and at Carfax, Oxford. The church concluded Wycliffe's teachings contained errors, heresies and sedition.
Wycliff's books were burnt in 1413 at the basilica of St Peter.
The Church, not satisfied with burning Wycliff's books, exhumed his bornes in 1428 and burned them.
1439 ADGutenberg Printing Press
Gutenberg's movable type printing press marked a revolution in print technology. The printing press allowed manuscripts and books to be mass-produced at relatively low cost.
1479 ADJohn von Ruchrath of WeselJohn von Ruchrath of Wesel, also known as John of Wesel, a monk of the Augustinian order was charged with heresy. Ruchraths books were burned, but he was not condemned to death.
He was imprisoned for life and died in 1481.
1486 ADTorquemadaTomas de Torquemada, a Castilian Dominican friar and first Grand Inquisitor in Spain's movement, the 'Spanish Inquisition', sought to align religious practices with the Catholic Church.
The Spanish Inquisition
meant the expulsion from Spain of 1,000's of Jews and Muslims, and execution of 3,000 to 5,000 people.
1490 ADSpanish Inquisition
The Spanish Inquisition was burning Hebrew and Arabic books; and overseeing forced conversions of Jews and Muslims. The most reknowned book burners were Torquemada, Savonarola, and Ximenes.
In 1490, many Hebrew Bibles were committed to the flames at Seville by order of Torquemada; and in Salamanca, 6,000 volumes were burned for writings of Judaism, magic and illicit arts.
1499 ADFrancisco Ximenez de Cisnero
Inquisitor Francisco Ximenez de Cisnero, also know as Cardinal Ximenez burned copies of the Holy Quran in the centre of Bibarrambla, Granada, to cleanse the area of all traces of Islam.
Estimates on the number of religious books, many priceless specimens of art, burned range from 5,000 to 1 million.
Cardinal Ximenez ordered the burning of all Muslim books, except for 300 on philosophy and medicine which he sent to his University in Alcala.
Ximenez died in 1517, regarded as one of Spain's great political geniuses; reformer and renewer of the Spanish Church.
1499 ADFrancisco PennaFrancisco Penna, a Dominican defender of the Spanish Inquisition complained: Ever since the perverse excess of printing books, the Church has been greatly damaged by 'the silent heretic', and every day it is confronted by greater and more obvious perils.
1501 ADPope Alexander VIPope Alexander VI warned of the impact of printing on the Catholic faith.
Printing can bring about serious evils if it widens the influence of pernicious works. It is necessary to maintain full control over the printers
1512 ADHermann of RyswickHermann of Ryswick was termed a heretic and burned at the Hague together with his books in which he taught:
Matter is uncreated and existed with God from the beginning
The soul dies with the body
Angels, good or bad, are not created by God
1515 ADPope Leo XPope Leo X expressed concern about book printing, and ordered any books not examined by the Church be publicly burned. So 'thorns do not grow up with the good seed or poisons become mixed with medicine', and to impose censorship.
1520 ADMartin Luther
In 1517, Martin Luther declared his differences with the Church on matters such as indulgence, penance, purgatory and policies. In 1520, Pope Leo X ordered Luther's books be burned publicly.
1521 ADCardinal Adrian
In Spain, Inquisitor General Adrian Florensz Boeyens was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States. He was appointed cardinal by Pope Leo X and issued a decree against any person possessing Martin Luther's text to offer them to the authorities for destruction.
1521 ADEmperor Charles V
The Edict of Worms signed by Emperor Charles V and distributed across Europe emphasized the danger of heresies and false doctrine misleading Christians away from their religion.
On Martin Luther: such a rebellious and evil man was not worthy to be considered a Christian. His books not to be brought, sold, kept or read; and all existing copies to be burnt.
1533 ADJohn FirthJohn Firth, a close associate of William Tyndale had written a book in which he claimed neither transubstantiation (or Eucharist, the change of bread/wine into Jesus' body/blood) nor purgatory (a place where the dead's souls are purified from sin) were necessary articles of faith.
Henry VIII condemned Firth before bishops in St Paul's, London.
Firth was burned at the stake at Smithfield in 1533, and his books destroyed.
1533 ADKing Henry VIIIKing Henry VIII condemned in the king's Proclamation and 'openly burned' books by William Tyndale, John Firth, John Wycliffe, George Roy, William Roy, Thomas Basil, John Bale, Robert Barnes, Miles Coverdale, William Turner and William Tracy.
1534 ADAntoine Augereau
Book printers and book sellers were also burned along with their books in France. Antoine Augereau, a book printer of Luther's false works 'Miroir de l'ame pecheresse' was sent to the stake.
In 1535, in the streets of Paris, six heretic book sellers were burned at the stake, together with three large sacks of books in their possession were added to the fire.
1537 ADSpanish Inquisition
The Spanish burned books in European Spain, and once they invaded and conquered lands in the Americas. The Spanish conquest took the Inquisition with the burnings of Mayan and Maxican books, idols and shrines.
The Spanish armies destroyed the natives, the Church annihilated the sects.
1539 ADKing Henry VIIIKing Henry VIII in a speech before the British Parliament, complained with tears in his eyes, that the Bible was being 'disputed, rhymed, sung and jangled in every ale-house and tavern'.
Again, large quantities of William Tyndale's Bible were confiscated and burned.
1546 ADKing Henry VIIIKing Henry VIII proclaimed, The King's most excellent majesty declaring the truth of God's Scripture, purge the corrupt and pernicious doctrines, and order the burning of the works of Tyndale, Frith, Wycliffe, Bale, Barnes and Coverdale.
1549 ADFrancesco Stella
The Italian Inquisition uncovered a library of 59 titles belonging to book seller, Francesco Stella, including Luther, Melanchthon, Bullinger, and Joachim Vadianus among Protestants; and Ochino, Curione, Vergerio, Vermigli, Giulio della Rovere, and Francesco Negri.
1549 ADWilliam ThomasWilliam Thomas, author of 'A Historie of Italie' contained passages offensive to Queen Mary. He was hanged, beheaded, and quartered before his book later burned.
1550 ADPope Paul IV
Book burnings were widespread in Italy, England, France, Spain and other European countries. In Italy in the mid-16th century, neither private nor public libraries were spared, and many were nearly emptied.
It was said, in Rome, Pope Paul IV is burning books; all the writings of Erasmus; even the works of Cyprian, Jerome and Augustine through their quoting in the notes of Erasmus.
c. 1550 ADPetro GarciaPetro Garcia, an uneducated man who wrote three books said to contain heresy. Garcia declared his innocence and misjudgement by the authorities, but was condemned to death.
When Garcia saw the flames lit, he recanted and sought forgiveneness. Garcia was strangled, then burned with his books tied to his neck.
1550 ADJewish Converts
In the middle of 16th century, at the same time books were reduced to ashes, heretics and "New Christians" (Jews who converted to Christianity and reverted to Judaism) were also burned.
1551 ADIndia Inquisition
In Goa, India, a Christian priest wrote to the Father General of Rome:
The Inquisition is necessary here as Christians live with the Muslims, Jews and Hindus. They may mend their ways from consideration of what they owe God, at out of fear of the disgrace and shame of prison and other penalties.
The Portuguese burned the books in Goa, India not only for religious reasons, but for destroying the Goan language and culture. Goa's temples with 'exceedingly fine workmanship', centers of learning and teaching razed to the ground, literature works, pagan emblems were shattered and books burnt for their doctrines of idolatory.
All books written in Sanskrit and Marathi, religious, non-religious books dealing with art, literature, sciences etc. were seized and burnt by the Inquisition.
1553 ADMichael ServetusMichael Servetus, a Spanish scholar and physician, practised medicine near Lyons, France and was editorial assistant to local printers. Servetus spent many years on a book he hoped would restore Christianity to its original, simple state.
In 1553, Servetus was found guilty of heresy for his views on Trinity in his book Christianismi restitutio. Servetus was sentenced to death for spreading the 'venom of heresy' and blasphemy against the Holy Trinity, where he refered to the the Trinity as 'a diabolical monster with three heads'.
Servetus was condemned by French Catholic Authorities, and executed by Protestant authorities in Geneva. His book was strapped to his thigh; his body tied to the stake by iron chain; his neck tied by a rope so high his feet just touched the ground. Servetus was slowly burned at the stake.
A papal order of 1553 condemned the Talmud. The report of 'Esecutori contro la bestimmia' led to the burning of the Talmud.
All across Italy, the book burnings spread, reducing to ashes possibly 100,000's of books.
1553 ADChristian Heresy
The Church was concerned with the heretical writings of Christians. With widespread Talmud and Jewish text burnings, heretical Christian books were targetted too. The problem for the Church was not abusive speech about religion, but different interpretations of the Christian faith.
1555 ADFrancisco de Torres
Jesuit Francisco de Torres wrote to the Inquisitors:
All copies of the Jewish Talmud needed to be burned, if salvation of the Jews was to be achieved. By ridding the Jews of the wisdom of their rabbis will open them to receive the word of God [Christian Bible] and understand the mysteries of Christ.
1555 ADKing Philip IIKing Philip II of Spain and Queen Mary gave a royal proclamation, calling for the burning of books linked to heresies and false doctrines. Among the 27 authors specifically named were Luther, Bucer, Coverdale, Tyndale, Cranmer, Frith and Peter Martyr.
The Spanish authorities were empowered to enter into houses, closets and secret places of every person in search of the books.
1560 ADMartin LhommeMartin Lhomme, a French printer convicted of printing the Le Tigre pamphlet critical of the cardinal of Lorraine, was hanged in Paris.
1562 ADBishop LandaBishop Diego de Landa, led the burning of Mayan books and 5,000 Mayan idols identified with pagan rites. Landa's book burnings involved the burning of Mayans, their shrines, and the priceless native picture books, to stamp out all vestiges of pagan rites and religion.
The Spanish invaders sought to convert the native population to Christianity by eradicating their culture and history.
1570 ADSpanish Inquisition
In Spain, Hebrew writings were burned, along with Lutheran books. Shortly after, the Spanish were burning the writings of the conquered indigenous natives in the newly found colonies in the Americas.
1617 ADArchbishop DominisArchbishop Marco Antonio de Dominis, an Italian archbishop published 'De Republica Ecclesiastica' in which he disproved the authority of Bishop of Rome using the Holy Scripture.
Dominis was convicted of 17 heresies, and his body, picture, and books publicly burned in Campo di Fiore.
1620 ADEliseo MasiniEliseo Masini, the inquisitor of Genoa purged towns of Italy of 'the Aretinos, the Machiavellis, the Bodins, the Boccaccios and authors of venacular Bibles, when fully 5,000 or 6,000 copies of books were burned'.
1639 ADFrancisco Maldonado de SilvaFrancisco Maldonado de Silva brought up Catholic, converted to the Jewish faith.
The Inquisition imprisoned him for 13 years. On release, Silva was burned at the stake with 11 other Jews in Lima, with the books he had written whilst in prison hung around his neck.
With Nazism came the book burnings in Berlin, Munich, Breslau, Kiel, Heidelberg, Frankfurt and other German towns.
Books written by 'un-German' authors such as Sigmund Freud, Karl Marx, Albert Einstein, Helen Keller, Thomas Mann, Friedrich Engels, Upton Sinclair, Jack London, Heinrich Mann, Emil Ludwig, Arnold and Stephan Sweig, Erich Maria Remarque, John Dos Passos, Leon Feuchtwanger and Arthur Schnitzler were destroyed.
1933 ADNazi Germany
During the book burnings in Nazi Germany, it was declared the German nation had cleansed itself internally and externally through the destruction of books written by Jewish authors.
1933 ADFredrick BirchallFredrick Birchall reported in The New York Times: 'More than 20,000 books were on the pile that students of the University of Berlin ignited in the Opera square tonight.'
In March 1990, the Index on Censorship reported that since the Intifada, 1987, the Israeli government had denied Palestinian institutions the right to freedom of expression. Book burnings, a part of the widespread censorship.
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Updated: 11 Jun 2019
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Say, We believe in God and what was sent down to us, and what was sent down to Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob and the Tribes, and what was given to Moses, Jesus and all the Prophets by their Lord
Jesus said to him, 'I am the way, the truth, and the life. No one comes to the Father except through me
Ye have heard how I said unto you, I go away, and come again unto you. If ye loved me, ye would rejoice, because I said, I go unto the Father: for my Father is greater than I
The Creator of the heavens and the earth. He has made for you mates from yourselves, and for the cattle (also) mates. By this means He creates you (in the wombs)
O people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians): Come to a word that is just between us and you, that we worship none but Allah, and that we associate no partners with Him, and that none of us shall take others as lords besides Allah
I can of mine own self do nothing: as I hear, I judge: and my judgment is just; because I seek not mine own will, but the will of the Father which hath sent me
Indeed, We have revealed to you, (O Muhammad), as We revealed to Noah and the prophets after him. And we revealed to Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, the Descendants, Jesus, Job, Jonah, Aaron, and Solomon, and to David We gave the book (of Psalms)
Blessed be He Who has placed in the heaven big stars, and has placed therein a great lamp (sun), and a moon giving light. And He it is Who has put the night and the day in succession
He (Jesus) Himself stood in their midst and said to them, Peace be to you
O My servants who have transgressed against themselves, do not despair of the mercy of God. Indeed, God forgives all sins. Indeed, it is He who is the Forgiving, the Merciful
Quran 39: 53
Indeed, man is in loss, except those who have faith and do righteous deeds, and advise one another to truth and patience
The first of all the commandments is, Hear, O Israel; The Lord our God is one Lord
Jesus saith unto her, Touch me not; for I am not yet ascended to my Father: but go to my brethren, and say unto them, I ascend unto my Father, and your Father; and to my God, and your God
And about the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud voice, saying, Eli, Eli, lama sabachthani? that is to say, My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?
Verily, verily, I say unto you, The servant is not greater than his lord; neither he that is sent greater than he that sent him.
Jesus said unto him, Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind
By myself I can do nothing; I judge only as I hear, and my judgment is just, for I seek not to please myself but him who sent me.
Then answered Jesus and said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, The Son can do nothing of himself, but what he seeth the Father do: for what things soever he doeth, these also doeth the Son likewise.
Not every one that saith unto me, Lord, Lord, shall enter into the kingdom of heaven; but he that doeth the will of my Father which is in heaven.
Remember the former things, those of long ago; I am God, and there is no other; I am God, and there is none like me
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