Jesus on the Cross or Tree?

jesus cross

Christians love and respect the Cross

The Cross is believed to represent the Crucifixion of Jesus, but the history is not so straightforward.

1. The Cross
In contemporary Christianity, the cross is a symbol of the atonement and reminds Christians of God's love in sacrificing his own son for humanity.

It represents Jesus' victory over sin and death, since it is believed that through his death and resurrection he conquered death itself.
2. Tree or Cross?
The Greek word for "Cross" is stauros. This translates as an upright pale or stake.

Bible writers use another word for the instrument of Jesus' death. It is the Greek word xy╩╣lon which means "timber, a stick, club or tree".

Linguistically, in the Greek text, Jesus was crucified on an upright Tree-like pole or stick, not a Cross. Many English Bible versions read Jesus' crucifixion was on a Tree.
3. Bible reads Tree
The God of our fathers raised up Jesus, whom ye slew and hanged on a tree.
And we are witnesses of all things which he did both in the land of the Jews, and in Jerusalem; whom they slew and hanged on a tree:
And when they had fulfilled all that was written of him, they took him down from the tree, and laid him in a sepulchre.
Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law, being made a curse for us: for it is written, Cursed is every one that hangeth on a tree:
Who his own self bare our sins in his own body on the tree, that we, being dead to sins, should live unto righteousness: by whose stripes ye were healed.
4. Crux Simplex
The Bible points to hanging on a Tree-like post. The Crux Simplex (also known as a stipe, pole, post, stake and phallic symbol) was used to crucify criminals.

  • The Crux Simplex evolved from a tree dedicated to the Gods of the nether world
  • Type of tree: Infelix lignum/Arbor infelix
  • Non-fruit bearing
  • Unproductive with no value
  • Cheap to mass produce
  • Ideal for crucifying criminals
Trees were not often available at the locations chosen for public execution. A simple beam was sunk into the ground. On to this, the outlaws with their hands raised up and their feet were bound or nailed.

A simple beam was sunk into the ground. The criminals hands were raised upward and were bound and nailed Das Kreuz und die Kreuzigung (The Cross and the Crucifixion)
Hermann Fuldaa
5. Emperor Constantine
Constantine Chose The Cross
In 312 AD, Emperor Constantine's famous vision of the Cross superimposed on the Sun is cited as the key life-changing event.

The vision persuaded Constantine that choosing the Cross as the official Christian religious symbol was best. From thereon, historical evidence proves that Constantine merged various pagan Sun-God worship practises into Christianity.
From its simplicity of form, the cross has been used both as a religious symbol and as an ornament, from the dawn of man's civilization.

Various objects, dating from periods long anterior to the Christian era, have been found, marked with crosses of different designs, in almost every part of the old world. India, Syria, Persia and Egypt have all yielded numberless examples, while numerous instances, dating from the later Stone Age to Christian times, have been found in nearly every part of Europe.

The use of the cross as a religious symbol in pre-Christian times, and among non-Christian peoples, may probably be regarded as almost universal, and in very many cases it was connected with some form of nature worship [i.e. pagan Sun God?]. The Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th ed., 1910, Vol. 7, pg. 506
6. Cross Emerges Triumphant
After 300 years, the Cross was introduced
For 300 years following Jesus' death, the Christians did not use the Cross in their worship.

The Early Jewish-Christians believed the Cross symbol was a reminder of the torture used to crucify Jesus. The concepts of torture, suffering and death were viewed in a positive light by the pagans.

After 300 years, attitudes changed. The suffering of Jesus became central to Christianity. The Cross now became the perfect symbol to identify with Jesus' pain and suffering.
4th Century, Emperor Constantine, a pagan converted to Christianiity (disputed) and established Christianity across the Roman Empire. He promoted the Cross as the official religious symbol.

6th Century onwards, the Crucifix (a cross with the image of Jesus) gained widespread acceptance.
7. Types of Cross
Constantine had a wide selection of Crosses from which to choose. Each Cross was unique in design, styling and competing with another Cross for religious followers. A few Cross variations include:
8. Tau Cross
The Tau Cross (T-shaped) was adopted to encourage Pagans to convert to Christianity.

The Tau Cross was brought into the Christian church by Constantine. It has since been adored with all the homage due only to God.

The Tau Cross
  • An emblem of immortality and life
  • A phallic symbol
  • A pagan symbol of the mystic Tau of the Chaldeans
  • A pagan symbol of the Egyptians
  • A pagan symbol of Mithras, the Roman God
  • A pagan symbol of Attis, the Greek God
  • A pagan symbol of Tammuz, the Sumerian solar god, consort of the goddess Ishtar
  • Located the place where pagans worshipped crucified saviors hanging on a cross (Tertullian)
The cross symbol pre-dates Christianity and goes back to a very remote period of human civilization. Various authorities linked the Cross with nature worship and pagan sex rites.

The cross is found in both pre-Christian and non-Christian cultures.
New Catholic Encyclopedia
9. Tau Cross with 4 Corners
The Tau Cross (T-shaped) was chosen for its 4 Corners.

After 300 years, the Cross was chosen as the preferred Christian religious symbol as it was a shape with 4 corners.

  • The Cross has 4 corners
  • The observance of the "Crossing" and resurrection of the Sun (Sun-God) at the Vernal Equinox (Easter) uses the 4 seasons
  • Irenaeus, a 2nd century bishop of Lyon in Roman Gaul believed the number 4 to be important
  • Irenaeus declared the 4 gospels (Mark, Matthew, Luke, John). He reasoned their were 4 directions, 4 winds and so their should be 4 gospels
  • The Tree (Crux Simplex) has two corners, and so was not a suitable symbol
10. Uses of Tau Cross
1. Sunday Sabbath
In 321 AD, Sunday was designated as the "venerable day of the Sun", as the edict read, is proof of Constantine's continued allegiance to Sol Invictus the Sun-God.
2. Monetary Currency
The Sun-God worship by Constantine can be evidenced through the use of images of the Sun-deity on coins that were issued by him up to the year 323 AD.
3. Baptism
During baptism ceremonies, the cross was marked on the foreheads by the pagan priest.
4. Conversion
Even after converting to Christianity, Constantine continued to worship the Sun-God and its symbol, the cross. Many scholars doubted Constantine's "conversion to Christianity" as he continued his wicked deeds and requested to be baptized on his death-bed years later in 337 AD.
5. Bible
The "Sun-God and Cross" vision which Constantine had is not mentioned in the Bible.
Even after 314 AD. the coins of Constantine show an even-armed cross as a symbol for the Sun-God
Johannes Geffcken, The Last Days of Greco-Roman Paganism, p.319
11. 19th Century Writings
Writers during the 19th century acknowledged the pagan origin of the Cross. Consequently, authors and writers reflected on the 'paganism' that had crept into Christianity in their texts:

Of medieval images of monsters: "The disembodied phallus is also formed into a cross, which, before it became for Christianity the symbol of salvation, was a pagan symbol of fertility " David Williams
Crosses were used as symbols of the Babylonian Sun-God. It should be stated that Constantine was a Sun-God worshipper. The evidence is thus complete, that the Lord was put to death upon an upright stake, and not on two pieces of timber placed at any angle. Dr Bullinger, in the Companion Bible, appx. 162
The cross was used by worshipers of Tammuz, an Ancient Near East deity of Babylonian origin who had the cross-shaped taw (tau) as his symbol. W.E. Vine   Conservapedia
This Pagan symbol. The Tau, the sign of the cross, the indisputable sign of Tammuz, the false Messiah, the mystic Tau of the Cladeans (Babylonians) and Egyptians - the true original form of the letter T the initial of the name of Tammuz. the Babylonian cross was the recognised emblem of Tammuz. Rev Alexander Hislop, The Two Babylons, pp. 197-205
The Teutonic (Germanic) tribes had their idol Thor, symbolised by a hammer. The Roman Christians had their crux (cross). It was thus somewhat easier for the Teutons to accept the Roman Cross.Jacob Grimm, in his Deutsche Mythologie
12. Idolatory
Or what does a believer have in common with an unbeliever? What agreement is there between the temple of God and idols?
You shall not make for yourself an image in the form of anything in heaven above or on the earth beneath or in the waters below. You shall not bow down to them or worship them; for I, the Lord your God, am a jealous God, punishing the children for the sin of the parents to the third and fourth generation of those who hate me
So, my dear friends, flee from the worship of idols
Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, or any likeness of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth.

Thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them: for I the Lord thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate me;
Accursed is every man hung upon a stake [a tree]
If someone guilty of a capital offense is put to death and their body is exposed on a pole, you must not leave the body hanging on the pole overnight. Be sure to bury it that same day, because anyone who is hung on a pole is under God's curse
This verse clearly refers to a stake, not a Cross. Since such a means of execution made the person "a curse,". It is wrong for Christians today to decorate their homes with images of Jesus on a Cross.

Devotion to any pagan symbol is clearly condemned in the Bible
13. Crucifixion
And [for] their saying, "Indeed, we have killed the Messiah, Jesus, the son of Mary, the messenger of Allah ." And they did not kill him, nor did they crucify him; but [another] was made to resemble him to them. And indeed, those who differ over it are in doubt about it. They have no knowledge of it except the following of assumption. And they did not kill him, for certain.
Muslims believe Jesus was not crucified. God saved him and raised him up. Instead, a man 'like' Jesus was crucified in his place.

A minority of Muslims believe, Jesus may have been put on the Cross, but he did not die as a result of the crucifixion. Islamic texts allows for this interpretation.


  Share Article if you found it useful
4451 views · 1 day ago |   Author: Guest   •   Updated: 10 Aug 2019

20  Videos with 'Jesus+cross'

Video: 2:56:24
1020 views · 8 hrs ago | 4 years ago
1 of 20   
Video: 8:15
1321 views · 9 hrs ago | 4 years ago
2 of 20   
Video: 24:57
670 views · 16 hrs ago | 3 years ago
3 of 20   
Video: 24:05
624 views · 4 hrs ago | 3 years ago
4 of 20   
Video: 59:04
452 views · 14 hrs ago | 3 years ago
5 of 20   
Video: 20:10
548 views · 5 hrs ago | 3 years ago
6 of 20   
Video: 19:24
433 views · 4 days ago | 3 years ago
7 of 20   
Video: 2:54:58
481 views · 22 hrs ago | 3 years ago
8 of 20   
Video: 11:20
471 views · 18 mins ago | 2 years ago
9 of 20   
Video: 14:17
447 views · 12 hrs ago | 2 years ago
10 of 20   
Video: 8:31
399 views · 15 hrs ago | 1 year ago
11 of 20   
Video: 1:17
346 views · 16 hrs ago | 1 year ago
12 of 20   
Video: 1:06
328 views · 15 hrs ago | 1 year ago
13 of 20   
Video: 0:49
394 views · 2 days ago | 1 year ago
14 of 20   
Video: 1:44
481 views · 1 hr ago | 1 year ago
15 of 20   
Video: 1:05
346 views · 2 hrs ago | 1 year ago
16 of 20   
Video: 48:46
221 views · 4 hrs ago | 11 months ago
17 of 20   
Video: 14:17
451 views · 1 day ago | 10 months ago
18 of 20   
Video: 34:09
263 views · 9 hrs ago | 6 months ago
19 of 20   
Video: 1:04
126 views · 2 days ago | 3 months ago
20 of 20   

ORDER: Article Title A-Z
Watch Video 
All Articles (148)
10 Commandments - Bible vs Quran
8629 views · 59 mins ago
10 Commandments - Christian vs Muslim
3018 views · 43 mins ago
10 Red Heifers (Cows)
1331 views · 23 hrs ago
5 reasons Abraham sacrificed Ishmael
3464 views · 12 hrs ago
Abrahamic Religions
8115 views · 4 hrs ago
Angels - 41 Angels from the Abrahamic Religions
3432 views · 1 hr ago
Are you a Muslim?
21888 views · 36 mins ago
Arius vs Bishop Athanasius
4990 views · 1 hr ago
Bible - 12% of New Testament copied from Old Testament
1759 views · 44 mins ago
Bible - 18 Ego Eimi (I AM) statements, like John 8:58
3073 views · 8 hrs ago
Bible - 27 Verses on Yahweh, Elohim(s) and The Gods
1017 views · 2 hrs ago
Bible - 400 NT Jesus Prophecies copied from OT
1252 views · 2 days ago
Bible - 75 Verses on drinking Wine & Alcohol
1290 views · 12 mins ago
Bible - Exodus 3:14 Translations
1733 views · 10 hrs ago
Bible - King James (KJV) & 37 'Disputed' Verses
1115 views · 18 hrs ago
Bible - Lost Books of the Bible
1535 views · 4 hrs ago
Bible - Mark 16:9-20 Text Analysis
1472 views · 20 hrs ago
Bible - Matthew 28:19: Greek vs Hebrew
4892 views · 12 hrs ago
Bible - Pagan Texts in the Bible
1464 views · 51 mins ago
Bible - Revelation, A Forgery
1275 views · 13 hrs ago
Bible - Scholars on John's Gospel
799 views · 22 hrs ago
Bible - The Synoptic Problem
1467 views · 46 mins ago
Bible - Violence & Killings
1446 views · 60 mins ago
Bible Authors: Who Wrote It?
1470 views · 1 hr ago
Bible Errors - 672 Variants
1962 views · 7 hrs ago
Bible History - KJV vs NIV
1899 views · 13 hrs ago
Bible NT - 55% of New Testament Papyrus contain under 3% of Biblical Text
611 views · 6 hrs ago
Bible NT - Codex Sinaiticus exposes 312 year gap since Jesus crucifixion
1408 views · 7 hrs ago
Bible NT Canons - Church Fathers, Councils & Apocrypha
970 views · 20 hrs ago
Bible OT - Dead Sea Scrolls expose a 1303 year gap since Moses life
1024 views · 2 hrs ago
Bible OT Canons - Church Fathers, Councils & Apocrypha
781 views · 12 hrs ago
Bible Verses - KJV vs NIV
3410 views · 4 mins ago
Blasphemy Laws in 35 Christian Countries
596 views · 60 mins ago
Book Burnings in Roman, Catholic and Protestant society
969 views · 2 hrs ago
Catholic vs Protestant - Bible
1861 views · 10 hrs ago
Catholic vs Protestant - Christianity
2289 views · 33 mins ago
Child Abuse & Grooming Gangs (UK)
850 views · 2 hrs ago
Child Abuse, Sexual Crimes & Prison Figures (UK)
1194 views · 18 hrs ago
Child Marriage - Muhammad married 9-year old Aisha
5021 views · 6 hrs ago
Christian Heresies
1316 views · 1 hr ago
Christian: 28 Heretical Sects
2694 views · 24 hrs ago
Christian: 32 Church Denominations
334 views · 6 hrs ago
Christianity: Founded by Paul on Road to Damascus, Syria
947 views · 14 mins ago
Church Councils
1236 views · 19 mins ago
Church Fathers - Quotes from 18 Men of God
630 views · 13 hrs ago
Church Fathers on Jesus Divinity
1491 views · 17 hrs ago
Codex Sinaiticus & Vaticanus - Corruption in the KJV Bible books
2110 views · 14 hrs ago
Codex Sinaiticus & Vaticanus - Corruption in the KJV Bible verses
1416 views · 1 hr ago
Constantine and Christianity
3221 views · 56 mins ago
Constantine, Nicaea and History
1974 views · 12 hrs ago
Council of Nicaea 325 AD
990 views · 30 mins ago
Did Jesus pray to God or Allah?
6248 views · 13 hrs ago
God (Allah) - His Names & Attributes
4992 views · 5 hrs ago
God vs Allah
3190 views · 3 days ago
God, Evidence For
1364 views · 2 days ago
Gods & Roman Emperors
596 views · 1 day ago
Gods - 6 Dying & Rising Mythical Gods
1411 views · 56 mins ago
Gods - 60 Pagan deities in the Bible
1497 views · 10 hrs ago
How do Muslims pray?
4499 views · 5 hrs ago
Ishmael and Isaac in Bible and Quran
4599 views · 7 hrs ago
Islam: Biggest Threat to Europe?
469 views · 6 hrs ago
Islamic Countries. Who are they?
496 views · 2 days ago
Jesus - 91% chance he was a fictitous Mythical-Hero (Raglan Scale)
1009 views · 19 hrs ago
Jesus - 17 'Crucified' Savior Gods
1047 views · 2 days ago
Jesus - Crucifixion in the Gospels
1853 views · 1 day ago
Jesus - Crucifixion Timing
2065 views · 6 hrs ago
Jesus - God of 99 Faces
3159 views · 4 hrs ago
Jesus - God with No Face
531 views · 4 hrs ago
Jesus - Resurrection in the Gospels
1554 views · 4 hrs ago
Jesus - Resurrection Theories
1704 views · 2 days ago
Jesus - Sons of God
3644 views · 7 hrs ago
Jesus and the 12 Disciples
2765 views · 8 hrs ago
Jesus in the Quran
1888 views · 3 hrs ago
Jesus on the Cross or Tree?
4451 views · 1 day ago
Jesus the God
4076 views · 2 days ago
Jesus the Jewish Prophet
2675 views · 5 hrs ago
Jesus the Muslim
2591 views · 21 hrs ago
Jesus the Son of God
1471 views · 16 hrs ago
Jesus the Sun-God over 12 Zodiac Star Gods
6506 views · 2 hrs ago
Jesus vs Isaac - The Sacrifice
2147 views · 13 mins ago
Jesus vs Jonah & Whale
2411 views · 15 mins ago
Jesus vs Krishna
2578 views · 13 mins ago
Jesus vs Paul
3881 views · 56 mins ago
Jesus vs Romulus - 50 Reasons both are Mythical Gods
615 views · 1 day ago
Jesus vs Zeus
8604 views · 57 mins ago
Jesus was 30, 40 or 50 years old?
1613 views · 8 hrs ago
Jesus, 12 Disciples and Paul Interview
1792 views · 5 hrs ago
Jesus, from Iesous and Yeshua
3470 views · 1 day ago
Jesus, Serapis & 7 Pagan Gods
7919 views · 42 mins ago
Jewish Laws & Rituals
791 views · 13 hrs ago
Judaism - Maimonides 13 Principles of Jewish Belief
3008 views · 5 hrs ago
Mark, Matthew, Luke and John
3590 views · 5 hrs ago
Messiah - His Aims & Objectives
923 views · 6 mins ago
Messiah - Jesus?
1521 views · 36 mins ago
Monotheism vs Polytheism
1900 views · 23 hrs ago
Muhammad - Most Influential Man in History
2888 views · 11 hrs ago
Muhammad in Bible: He is is altogether lovely - Song 5:16
5835 views · 3 hrs ago
Muhammad in Bible: Kedar rejoice and Sela sing - Isaiah 41/42
4507 views · 3 hrs ago
Muhammad in Bible: Prophet like unto Moses - Deuteronomy 18:18
8716 views · 8 hrs ago
Muhammad in Bible: Select Verses
3774 views · 19 hrs ago
New Age - Alice Bailey's 10 Point Charter
1638 views · 59 mins ago
Nicene Creed - Council of Nicaea 325 AD
1566 views · 8 hrs ago
Nicene Creed - Foundation of Christianity
797 views · 4 hrs ago
Noahide Laws
1367 views · 33 mins ago
Palestine and Creation of Israel in 1948
1923 views · 17 hrs ago
Paul - 50% of his Writings are Inauthentic Forgeries
795 views · 11 hrs ago
Paul copied 152 Old Testament verses
267 views · 1 day ago
Paul vs James
1726 views · 16 hrs ago
Prophets - Sinful Beings in the OT Bible
710 views · 3 hrs ago
Prophets of God
43377 views · 8 hrs ago
Prophets were Sinners?
2981 views · 16 hrs ago
Purpose of Life
3173 views · 26 mins ago
Quran - 5 Recitations: Hafs, Warsh, Hisham, Qalun & Al-Duri
1405 views · 2 hrs ago
Quran - A Mathematical Miracle
6592 views · 4 hrs ago
Quran - Chapter & Verse Miracle
775 views · 2 days ago
Quran - Comparing Hafs & Warsh for 51 textual variants
11586 views · 30 mins ago
Quran and Violence
3711 views · 17 hrs ago
Quran refers to Torah & Gospel
1040 views · 33 mins ago
Quran vs Science
2919 views · 21 hrs ago
Roman Calendar
3716 views · 1 day ago
Roman Emperors in Bible
22 views · 20 hrs ago
Rome, Caesar & Emperors in the Bible
977 views · 7 hrs ago
Sin Atonement: Jesus Blood vs 21 Offerings
320 views · 9 hrs ago
Terrorism, the Risk to Americans
788 views · 50 mins ago
The Lost Gospels
4185 views · 2 hrs ago
The Prophets Prayer
3574 views · 2 days ago
Timeline of Bible
775 views · 2 hrs ago
Timeline of Church Councils
720 views · 17 hrs ago
Timeline of Muhammad
848 views · 20 hrs ago
Timeline of New Testament Bible
894 views · 7 hrs ago
Timeline of Old Testament Bible
872 views · 5 hrs ago
Timeline of Prophets
3523 views · 5 hrs ago
Timeline of Quran
1509 views · 20 mins ago
Timeline of Roman Empire
833 views · 46 mins ago
Timeline of Trinity
762 views · 5 hrs ago
Torah - Did Moses Write It?
1164 views · 3 hrs ago
Torah - Wellhausen/JEDP Theory
1451 views · 20 hrs ago
Trinity - 13 Three God Pagan concepts
1917 views · 10 hrs ago
Trinity - 27 Attributes of the Father, Son and Holy Ghost
2474 views · 2 mins ago
Trinity - 4 Creeds: Apostles, Nicene, Athanasian to Chalcedon over 418 years
2480 views · 5 hrs ago
Trinity - Different Views
1910 views · 2 hrs ago
Trinity - Three Are One
3174 views · 1 day ago
Trinity in the Bible
1715 views · 15 hrs ago
Wars - 67 Bloody Christian Conflicts
521 views · 2 hrs ago
Wars - From Yinon, 9/11 to Springs, Invasions, ISIS & 6M Dead
1732 views · 1 hr ago
Wars: 46 Major Conflicts ranked by Religion
1918 views · 1 day ago
What does LGBTQ+ mean?
274 views · 1 hr ago
Women in Religion
3710 views · 4 hrs ago

Submit Article

Latest videos  •  4,429 videos  •  0 viewed/24 hour

ARTICLES   (148)

0 viewed · 24 hour
Are you a Muslim?
3 mins | Online Test
Jesus on the Cross or Tree?
4452 views · 0 secs ago
Trinity - 27 Attributes of the Father, Son and Holy Ghost
2474 views · 2 mins ago
Bible Verses - KJV vs NIV
3410 views · 4 mins ago
Messiah - His Aims & Objectives
923 views · 6 mins ago
Bible - 75 Verses on drinking Wine & Alcohol
1290 views · 12 mins ago


Torah 5   BOOKS
Psalms 1   BOOK
Old Testament 32   BOOKS
New Testament 27   BOOKS
Apocrypha 1885 14   BOOKS
Gospels/Texts 367   BOOKS
Codex 120   BOOKS
Quran 1   BOOK
Hadith 10   BOOKS

NEWS   (930)

0 viewed · 24 hour
Hindus to slaughter 10,000's of Animals in ritual honour of Gadhimai [...] - Al-Jazeera
3 views · 2 days ago · 03 Dec
China brings in mandatory Face recognition 'biometric' for mobile [...] - The Guardian
4 views · 2 days ago · 02 Dec
US homeland security proposes 'biometric' Face scans for all [...] - Yahoo
3 views · 2 days ago · 02 Dec
Maps show 500 suspected 're-education' camps where China is torturing [...] - Business Insider
107 views · 12 hrs ago · 16 Nov
Gambia accuses Myanmar of Rohingya genocide at UN court - BBC News
75 views · 21 hrs ago · 11 Nov
About Us  |  Help/FAQ  |  Contact Us    •    Terms  |  Privacy/Disclaimer
Be Informed on Social :      Facebook Page  |    Twitter  |    Youtube is an educational website on the primary teachings of the 'Prophets of God': Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus and Muhammad, who established the Abrahamic faiths of Judaism, Christianity and Islam. explores contemporary social themes through Scripture, Evidences, Photo, Video, Maps, Current Affairs, Debate and 'alternative' Views held by Theologians, Apologists, Scholars and Street Preachers. Take a Site Tour

In accordance with Islamic etiquette, all prophet names should be followed with 'Peace Be Upon Him (PBUH)'. This is omitted to minimise text.

DISCLAIMER: All website content is for general information and educational purposes only and available in the public domain. Whilst all information comes from sources believed to be reliable, this cannot be guaranteed. External links are provided as a convenience and for informational purposes only. They do not constitute endorsement or approval for any products, services or comments by organizations or individuals. External links text may be edited to improve internal site and keyword search options. We bear no responsibility for the accuracy, legality, or content found on any external website or its subsequent links. Unless indicated, all images and content is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License distributed by Wikipedia, Wikimedia Commons, Pixabay, Pxhere, Pexels or Flickr. All Torah, Psalms, Old and New Testament Bible quotes are from the King James Version (KJV) Holy Bible in the public domain. All Quran quotes are from Taqi-ud-Din al-Hilali/Muhsin Khan English Quran translation. You are invited to always conduct your own research. If you spot any mistake, error or omission of information, contact us so we can correct it.