Bible - Mark 16:9-20 Text Analysis

bible300

The oldest Bible manuscripts end Mark's Gospel at 16:8. Who wrote 12 extra verses, the 'Longer Ending' and why?

Two of the oldest, most respected Bible manuscripts, Codex Sinaiticus and Codex Vaticanus end the Gospel of Mark at 16:8. Yet, the Bible you have ends Mark's Gospel at 16:20. Bible scholars would claim the 12 verses were added by a later scribe.

The table below lists the 12 verses from Mark 16:9 to Mark 16:20, with possible reasons for their inclusion into the Christian Bible.
W Mark_16
W Gospel_of_Mark


The 'longer ending' of Mark
Because of patristic evidence from the late 100s for the existence of copies of Mark with 16:9-20, it is contended by a majority of scholars that this passage must have been written and attached no later than the early 2nd century. May, Herbert G. and Bruce M. Metzger. The New Oxford Annotated Bible with the Apocrypha. 1977
Kelhoffer argues the Christian text [longer ending of Mark 16:9-20] originated in the 2nd century, particularly sometime between 120-150 AD   Long Ending of Mark
Early Church Father testimony indicates Mark was heavily edited by various Christian factions between 150-200 AD. Mark 16:9-20 ('the Long Ending') was written into the Bible - approximately 80 to 130 years later.
W Talk%3AMark_16


Jesus is Risen
And when the sabbath was past, Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James, and Salome, had bought sweet spices, that they might come and anoint him. And very early in the morning the first day of the week, they came unto the sepulchre at the rising of the sun. And they said among themselves, Who shall roll us away the stone from the door of the sepulchre? And when they looked, they saw that the stone was rolled away: for it was very great. And entering into the sepulchre, they saw a young man sitting on the right side, clothed in a long white garment; and they were affrighted. And he saith unto them, Be not affrighted: Ye seek Jesus of Nazareth, which was crucified: he is risen; he is not here: behold the place where they laid him. But go your way, tell his disciples and Peter that he goeth before you into Galilee: there shall ye see him, as he said unto you. And they went out quickly, and fled from the sepulchre; for they trembled and were amazed: neither said they any thing to any man; for they were afraid.
MARK 16:1-8

Major Theme

Amazement & Astonishment
MARK 1:1-16:8
666 verses written 70 AD

In the first 666 verses of Mark's Gospel, the most occuring theme is that of "Amazement" and "Astonishment" as can be read in the following verse.
Mark 1:22, Mark 1:27, Mark 2:12, Mark 4:41, Mark 5:15, Mark 5:33, Mark 5:42, Mark 6:51, Mark 9:6, Mark 9:15, Mark 9:32, Mark 10:24, Mark 10:32, Mark 11:18, Mark 12:17 and Mark 16:5

Minor Theme

Jesus' Resurrection, Salvation & Divinity
MARK 16:9-20
12 verses written 150-200 AD

In the last 12 verses (Mark 16:9-20), Mark's theme abruptly changes to "Jesus' Resurrection" and "Jesus' Divinity".

It appears the new scribe of Mark's Gospel decided to introduce new concepts and ideas into the last 12 verses. What was his or her agenda? The Bible reader was now focused on the glorification of Jesus, salvation through Jesus, and Jesus' Resurrection.
Risen Lord
Now when Jesus was risen early the first day of the week, he appeared first to Mary Magdalene, out of whom he had cast seven devils. And she went and told them that had been with him, as they mourned and wept. And they, when they had heard that he was alive, and had been seen of her, believed not.
MARK 16:9-11
  • The transition between verse 8 and 9 appears abrupt and awkward, lacking the continuity typical of Mark's narrative
  • Verse 9 starts with the word "Now". In the Greek language, this would normally show a connection with the preceeding verse. However, verse 9 is not connected to verse 8. The story jumps from women 'amazed' at Jesus' resurrection, to the doctrine of 'belief' in Jesus for salvation
  • Were Mark to end at verse 8, the narrative would have a natural, logical ending
  • To complicate matters further, Bible scholars point to a new verse between verse 8 and 9:
    But they reported briefly to Peter and those with him all that they had been told. And after this Jesus himself sent out by means of them, from east to west, the sacred and imperishable proclamation of eternal salvation Metzger (1994, pp. 102ff.)
  • Appears to Disciples
    After that he appeared in another form unto two of them, as they walked, and went into the country. And they went and told it unto the residue: neither believed they them.
    MARK 16:12-13
    Great Commission
    Afterward he appeared unto the eleven as they sat at meat, and upbraided them with their unbelief and hardness of heart, because they believed not them which had seen him after he was risen. And he said unto them, Go ye into all the world, and preach the gospel to every creature. He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved; but he that believeth not shall be damned. And these signs shall follow them that believe; In my name shall they cast out devils; they shall speak with new tongues; They shall take up serpents; and if they drink any deadly thing, it shall not hurt them; they shall lay hands on the sick, and they shall recover.
    MARK 16:14-18
  • Verse 16 reads believers who are baptized will be saved, and non-believers will be condemned using aggressive and absolute language
  • In verse 17 and 18 reference to 'magical signs' is made. Signs which appear almost like fantasy, and as if reserved for the religious elite
  • The 'magical signs' reference is not made in any of the four Gospels. It is unique to these verses in Mark
  • No post-resurrection account of Jesus speaks of talking serpents, speaking with tongues, casting out demons, drinking poison or laying hands on the sick
  • To complicate matters further, Bible scholars have identified an additional verse between verse 14 and 15:
    And they excused themselves, saying, This age of lawlessness and unbelief is under Satan, who does not allow the truth and power of God to prevail over the unclean things of the spirits [or, does not allow what lies under the unclean spirits to understand the truth and power of God]. Therefore reveal thy righteousness now - thus they spoke to Christ. And Christ replied to them, The term of years of Satan's power has been fulfilled, but other terrible things draw near. And for those who have sinned I was delivered over to death, that they may return to the truth and sin no more, in order that they may inherit the spiritual and incorruptible glory of righteousness which is in heaven. Metzger (1994, pp. 102ff.)
  • Ascends to God
    So then after the Lord had spoken unto them, he was received up into heaven, and sat on the right hand of God. And they went forth, and preached every where, the Lord working with them, and confirming the word with signs following. Amen.
    MARK 16:19-20
  • In verse 19, the title "Lord Jesus" is used for the first time by Mark
  • Verse 19 and 20 do not read like the rest of Mark. The verse structure is different from the familiar structure in Mark's gospel. Also, the vocabulary used is not consistent with Mark
  • In these last 12 verses, 18 words appear for the very first time whch do not appear anywhere else in Mark
  • In verse 19, the status of Jesus is elevated. He is pictured in Heaven sitting at the Right-Hand of God, as equal to God


  • CREDIT
    http://ntresources.com/blog/?p=3590
    https://www.gotquestions.org/Mark-16-9-20.html
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mark_16
    https://apologeticspress.org/apcontent.aspx?category=13&article=704
      Share Article if you found it useful
    1876 views · 32 mins ago |   Author: Guest   •   Updated: 04 Nov 2019
    ALL ARTICLES ARE INTENDED FOR GENERAL EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES ONLY. ALL INFORMATION IS BELIEVED TO BE CORRECT, ACCURATE AND TRUTHFUL. YOU ARE ADVISED TO DO YOUR OWN RESEARCH. ARTICLES ARE LIVE DOCUMENTS AND MAY BE UPDATED WITH NEW CONTENT AT ANY TIME. WHERE AVAILABLE, SOURCES AND REFERENCES ARE CREDITED. IF YOU SPOT ANY ERRORS, OMISSIONS OR GIVE FEEDBACK KINDLY CONTACT US WITH DETAILS
    120-bible-mark-16-9-20

    12  Videos with 'Mark+16:9-20'

    Video: 3:07
    995 views · 1 day ago | 3 years ago
    1 of 12   
    Video: 5:09
    608 views · 1 day ago | 3 years ago
    2 of 12   
    Video: 7:12
    611 views · 4 hrs ago | 3 years ago
    3 of 12   
    Video: 5:09
    633 views · 16 hrs ago | 3 years ago
    4 of 12   
    Video: 5:28
    614 views · 2 days ago | 3 years ago
    5 of 12   
    Video: 17:47
    876 views · 33 mins ago | 3 years ago
    6 of 12   
    Video: 44:45
    1296 views · 2 hrs ago | 3 years ago
    7 of 12   
    Video: 5:01
    778 views · 11 hrs ago | 3 years ago
    8 of 12   
     JESUS
    Video: 2:32
    502 views · 18 hrs ago | 2 years ago
    9 of 12   
    Video: 2:56
    737 views · 2 days ago | 2 years ago
    10 of 12   
    Video: 3:22
    648 views · 17 hrs ago | 2 years ago
    11 of 12   
    Video: 3:20
    461 views · 3 hrs ago | 2 years ago
    12 of 12   


    DESCENDING DATE ORDER
    NAVIGATE ARTICLES
    ORDER: Article Title A-Z
    Watch Video 
    Articles
    All Articles (149)
    10 Commandments - Bible vs Quran
    9427 views · 47 mins ago
    10 Commandments - Christian vs Muslim
    3575 views · 2 mins ago
    10 Red Heifers (Cows)
    1962 views · 48 mins ago
    5 reasons Abraham sacrificed Ishmael
    3794 views · 1 hr ago
    Abrahamic Religions
    8477 views · 2 hrs ago
    Angels - 41 Angels from the Abrahamic Religions
    4331 views · 13 mins ago
    Are you a Muslim?
    26180 views · 2 hrs ago
    Arius vs Bishop Athanasius
    5694 views · 34 mins ago
    Bible - 12% of New Testament copied from Old Testament
    2282 views · 3 hrs ago
    Bible - 18 Ego Eimi (I AM) statements, like John 8:58
    4022 views · 3 hrs ago
    Bible - 27 Verses on Yahweh, Elohim(s) and The Gods
    2235 views · 49 mins ago
    Bible - 400 NT Jesus Prophecies copied from OT
    1494 views · 4 mins ago
    Bible - 75 Verses on drinking Wine & Alcohol
    2618 views · 2 hrs ago
    Bible - Exodus 3:14 Translations
    2196 views · 3 hrs ago
    Bible - King James (KJV) & 37 'Disputed' Verses
    1404 views · 2 hrs ago
    Bible - Lost Books of the Bible
    1885 views · 3 hrs ago
    Bible - Mark 16:9-20 Text Analysis
    1876 views · 32 mins ago
    Bible - Matthew 28:19: Greek vs Hebrew
    5515 views · 58 mins ago
    Bible - Pagan Texts in the Bible
    1749 views · 3 hrs ago
    Bible - Revelation, A Forgery
    1667 views · 3 hrs ago
    Bible - Scholars on John's Gospel
    1180 views · 2 hrs ago
    Bible - The Synoptic Problem
    1796 views · 3 hrs ago
    Bible - Violence & Killings
    1749 views · 1 hr ago
    Bible Authors: Who Wrote It?
    1835 views · 3 hrs ago
    Bible Errors - 672 Variants
    2312 views · 1 hr ago
    Bible History - KJV vs NIV
    2222 views · 52 mins ago
    Bible NT - 55% of New Testament Papyrus contain under 3% of Biblical Text
    968 views · 2 hrs ago
    Bible NT - Codex Sinaiticus exposes 312 year gap since Jesus crucifixion
    1688 views · 2 hrs ago
    Bible NT Canons - Church Fathers, Councils & Apocrypha
    1321 views · 2 hrs ago
    Bible OT - Dead Sea Scrolls expose a 1303 year gap since Moses life
    1283 views · 2 hrs ago
    Bible OT Canons - Church Fathers, Councils & Apocrypha
    1013 views · 2 hrs ago
    Bible Verses - KJV vs NIV
    3660 views · 2 hrs ago
    Blasphemy Laws in 35 Christian Countries
    855 views · 2 hrs ago
    Book Burnings in Roman, Catholic and Protestant society
    1402 views · 2 hrs ago
    Catholic vs Protestant - Bible
    2175 views · 54 mins ago
    Catholic vs Protestant - Christianity
    2555 views · 57 mins ago
    Child Abuse & Grooming Gangs (UK)
    1096 views · 2 hrs ago
    Child Abuse, Sexual Crimes & Prison Figures (UK)
    1472 views · 2 hrs ago
    Child Marriage - Muhammad married 9-year old Aisha
    5483 views · 1 hr ago
    Christian Heresies
    1606 views · 19 mins ago
    Christian: 28 Heretical Sects
    3004 views · 17 mins ago
    Christian: 32 Church Denominations
    641 views · 2 hrs ago
    Christianity: Founded by Paul on Road to Damascus, Syria
    1294 views · 2 hrs ago
    Church Councils
    1590 views · 3 hrs ago
    Church Fathers - Quotes from 18 Men of God
    1071 views · 3 mins ago
    Church Fathers on Jesus Divinity
    1892 views · 3 hrs ago
    Codex Sinaiticus & Vaticanus - Corruption in the KJV Bible books
    2866 views · 2 hrs ago
    Codex Sinaiticus & Vaticanus - Corruption in the KJV Bible verses
    2014 views · 6 mins ago
    Constantine and Christianity
    3630 views · 21 mins ago
    Constantine, Nicaea and History
    2271 views · 3 hrs ago
    Coronavirus Covid-19 vs Top 30 Death Causes
    58 views · 2 hrs ago
    Council of Nicaea 325 AD
    1339 views · 41 mins ago
    Did Jesus pray to God or Allah?
    6839 views · 2 hrs ago
    God (Allah) - His Names & Attributes
    5393 views · 2 hrs ago
    God vs Allah
    3481 views · 1 hr ago
    God, Evidence For
    1598 views · 56 mins ago
    Gods & Roman Emperors
    855 views · 2 hrs ago
    Gods - 6 Dying & Rising Mythical Gods
    1840 views · 2 hrs ago
    Gods - 60 Pagan deities in the Bible
    3142 views · 2 hrs ago
    How do Muslims pray?
    4849 views · 2 hrs ago
    Ishmael and Isaac in Bible and Quran
    5398 views · 23 mins ago
    Islam: Biggest Threat to Europe?
    700 views · 2 hrs ago
    Islamic Countries. Who are they?
    724 views · 2 hrs ago
    Jesus - 91% chance he was a fictitous Mythical-Hero (Raglan Scale)
    1307 views · 2 hrs ago
    Jesus - 17 'Crucified' Savior Gods
    1306 views · 2 hrs ago
    Jesus - Crucifixion in the Gospels
    2073 views · 1 hr ago
    Jesus - Crucifixion Timing
    2278 views · 8 mins ago
    Jesus - God of 99 Faces
    3846 views · 2 hrs ago
    Jesus - God with No Face
    791 views · 2 hrs ago
    Jesus - Resurrection in the Gospels
    1743 views · 1 hr ago
    Jesus - Resurrection Theories
    1908 views · 1 hr ago
    Jesus - Sons of God
    3974 views · 2 hrs ago
    Jesus and the 12 Disciples
    3375 views · 1 hr ago
    Jesus in the Quran
    2235 views · 52 mins ago
    Jesus on the Cross or Tree?
    4749 views · 1 hr ago
    Jesus the God
    4365 views · 3 hrs ago
    Jesus the Jewish Prophet
    3014 views · 1 hr ago
    Jesus the Muslim
    2811 views · 2 hrs ago
    Jesus the Son of God
    1693 views · 1 hr ago
    Jesus the Sun-God over 12 Zodiac Star Gods
    7957 views · 34 mins ago
    Jesus vs Isaac - The Sacrifice
    2673 views · 1 hr ago
    Jesus vs Jonah & Whale
    2825 views · 35 mins ago
    Jesus vs Krishna
    3626 views · 60 mins ago
    Jesus vs Paul
    4176 views · 2 hrs ago
    Jesus vs Romulus - 50 Reasons both are Mythical Gods
    1206 views · 47 mins ago
    Jesus vs Zeus
    10298 views · 1 hr ago
    Jesus was 30, 40 or 50 years old?
    2208 views · 3 hrs ago
    Jesus, 12 Disciples and Paul Interview
    2081 views · 1 hr ago
    Jesus, from Iesous and Yeshua
    3786 views · 1 hr ago
    Jesus, Serapis & 7 Pagan Gods
    9668 views · 2 hrs ago
    Jewish Laws & Rituals
    1136 views · 1 hr ago
    Judaism - Maimonides 13 Principles of Jewish Belief
    3316 views · 2 hrs ago
    Mark, Matthew, Luke and John
    4006 views · 1 hr ago
    Messiah - His Aims & Objectives
    1183 views · 2 hrs ago
    Messiah - Jesus?
    1749 views · 55 mins ago
    Monotheism vs Polytheism
    2143 views · 53 mins ago
    Muhammad - Most Influential Man in History
    3156 views · 2 hrs ago
    Muhammad in Bible: He is is altogether lovely - Song 5:16
    6511 views · 2 hrs ago
    Muhammad in Bible: Kedar rejoice and Sela sing - Isaiah 41/42
    5605 views · 34 mins ago
    Muhammad in Bible: Prophet like unto Moses - Deuteronomy 18:18
    9390 views · 1 hr ago
    Muhammad in Bible: Select Verses
    4127 views · 1 hr ago
    New Age - Alice Bailey's 10 Point Charter
    2641 views · 32 mins ago
    Nicene Creed - Council of Nicaea 325 AD
    1971 views · 1 hr ago
    Nicene Creed - Foundation of Christianity
    1100 views · 2 hrs ago
    Noahide Laws
    1765 views · 22 mins ago
    Palestine and Creation of Israel in 1948
    2372 views · 2 hrs ago
    Paul - 50% of his Writings are Inauthentic Forgeries
    1123 views · 2 hrs ago
    Paul copied 152 Old Testament verses
    574 views · 2 hrs ago
    Paul vs James
    1997 views · 1 hr ago
    Prophets - Sinful Beings in the OT Bible
    963 views · 2 hrs ago
    Prophets of God
    43827 views · 3 hrs ago
    Prophets were Sinners?
    3227 views · 1 hr ago
    Purpose of Life
    3357 views · 2 hrs ago
    Quran - 5 Recitations: Hafs, Warsh, Hisham, Qalun & Al-Duri
    2104 views · 2 hrs ago
    Quran - A Mathematical Miracle
    7392 views · 1 hr ago
    Quran - Chapter & Verse Miracle
    1061 views · 2 hrs ago
    Quran - Comparing Hafs & Warsh for 51 textual variants
    13739 views · 1 hr ago
    Quran and Violence
    3929 views · 2 hrs ago
    Quran refers to Torah & Gospel
    1680 views · 2 hrs ago
    Quran vs Science
    3157 views · 11 mins ago
    Roman Calendar
    3974 views · 1 hr ago
    Roman Emperors in Bible
    194 views · 2 hrs ago
    Rome, Caesar & Emperors in the Bible
    1236 views · 2 hrs ago
    Sin Atonement: Jesus Blood vs 21 Offerings
    492 views · 2 hrs ago
    Terrorism, the Risk to Americans
    1013 views · 3 hrs ago
    The Lost Gospels
    4429 views · 2 hrs ago
    The Prophets Prayer
    3823 views · 2 hrs ago
    Timeline of Bible
    1154 views · 25 mins ago
    Timeline of Church Councils
    1068 views · 3 mins ago
    Timeline of Muhammad
    1167 views · 5 mins ago
    Timeline of New Testament Bible
    1300 views · 2 hrs ago
    Timeline of Old Testament Bible
    1261 views · 2 hrs ago
    Timeline of Prophets
    5567 views · 13 mins ago
    Timeline of Quran
    2341 views · 2 hrs ago
    Timeline of Roman Empire
    1160 views · 2 hrs ago
    Timeline of Trinity
    1120 views · 2 hrs ago
    Torah - Did Moses Write It?
    1715 views · 2 hrs ago
    Torah - Wellhausen/JEDP Theory
    1938 views · 2 hrs ago
    Trinity - 13 Three God Pagan concepts
    2319 views · 1 hr ago
    Trinity - 27 Attributes of the Father, Son and Holy Ghost
    3305 views · 50 mins ago
    Trinity - 4 Creeds: Apostles, Nicene, Athanasian to Chalcedon over 418 years
    3049 views · 1 hr ago
    Trinity - Different Views
    2275 views · 1 hr ago
    Trinity - Three Are One
    3383 views · 1 hr ago
    Trinity in the Bible
    1946 views · 1 hr ago
    War - 46 Major Conflicts ranked by Religion
    2247 views · 3 hrs ago
    War - 67 Bloody Christian Conflicts
    763 views · 2 hrs ago
    War - From Yinon, 9/11 to Springs, Invasions, ISIS & 6M Dead
    2224 views · 2 hrs ago
    What does LGBTQ+ mean?
    554 views · 2 hrs ago
    Women in Religion
    3896 views · 2 hrs ago

    Submit Article


    About Us  |  Help/FAQ  |  Contact Us    •    Terms  |  Privacy/Disclaimer
    Be Informed on Social :      Facebook Page  |    Twitter  |    Youtube
    MuslimProphets.com is an educational website on the primary teachings of the 'Prophets of God': Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus and Muhammad, who established the Abrahamic faiths of Judaism, Christianity and Islam. MuslimProphets.com explores contemporary social themes through Scripture, Evidences, Photo, Video, Maps, Current Affairs, Debate and 'alternative' Views held by Theologians, Apologists, Scholars and Street Preachers. Take a Site Tour

    In accordance with Islamic etiquette, all prophet names should be followed with 'Peace Be Upon Him (PBUH)'. This is omitted to minimise text.

    DISCLAIMER: All website content is for general information and educational purposes only and available in the public domain. Whilst all information comes from sources believed to be reliable, this cannot be guaranteed. External links are provided as a convenience and for informational purposes only. They do not constitute endorsement or approval for any products, services or comments by organizations or individuals. External links text may be edited to improve internal site and keyword search options. We bear no responsibility for the accuracy, legality, or content found on any external website or its subsequent links. Unless indicated, all images and content is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License distributed by Wikipedia, Wikimedia Commons, Pixabay, Pxhere, Pexels or Flickr. All Torah, Psalms, Old and New Testament Bible quotes are from the King James Version (KJV) Holy Bible in the public domain. All Quran quotes are from Taqi-ud-Din al-Hilali/Muhsin Khan English Quran translation. You are invited to always conduct your own research. If you spot any mistake, error or omission of information, contact us so we can correct it.
    Clustrmaps