Ishmael and Isaac in Bible and Quran  
Abraham was a strict monotheist who called his people to the worship of God alone
Abraham had many children, his eldest sons were Ishmael and Isaac. Moses and Jesus trace there roots back to Isaac, and Muhammad is traced back to Ishmael. Hence the term 'Abrahamic Faiths' is often applied to Judaism, Christianity and Islam.
In total, there are 15 Covenants or Promises made by God (see table below):
  • 10 Covenants are fulfilled by Ishmael
  • 6 Covenants are fulfilled by Isaac
  • The table below lists key events in Abraham's life with supporting verses from the Torah, Bible and Quran.The order of events is based on Bible chronology.

    1 Abram is a Monotheist Prophet  |  2100 BC
    (approx. 4100 Years ago)
    Abraham (Avraham) (/ˈeɪbrəˌhæm, -həm/ abe-raham; Hebrew: אַבְרָהָם, Modern About this sound Avraham (help·info), Tiberian ʔavrɔ̆hɔːm; Arabic: إبراهيم‎‎, Ibrāhīm), originally Abram, is the first of the three patriarchs of Judaism.

    His story features in the holy texts of all the Abrahamic religions and Abraham plays a prominent role as an example of faith in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.
    W Abraham
    And who would be averse to the religion of Abraham except one who makes a fool of himself. And We had chosen him in this world, and indeed he, in the Hereafter, will be among the righteous
    Quran 2:130

    When his Lord said to him, "Submit", he [Abraham] said "I have submitted [in Monotheism] to the Lord of the worlds." And Abraham instructed his sons [to do the same] and [so did] Jacob, [saying], "O my sons, indeed God has chosen for you this religion, so do not die except while you are Muslims"
    Quran 2:131-132

    They say, "Be Jews or Christians [so] you will be guided." Say, "Rather, [we follow] the religion of Abraham, inclining toward truth, and he was not of the Polytheists
    Quran 2:135
    2 God makes Covenant with Abraham   |  2091 BC
    God's Covenant 1 that Abram will father a great blessed nation.

    God made an important promise to Abraham before any children were born to him. God commands 75-year old Abram to abandon his home and travel though Canaan (Lebanon, Syria, Jordan and Israel) to go live in Egypt.

    Could this covenant be fulfilled in future through two Sons?
    Covenant 1 was fulfilled by Abram
    Abram went onto father many great nations and prophets
      Prophet Tree

    Now the Lord had said unto Abram, Get thee out of thy country, and from thy kindred, and from thy father's house, unto a land that I will shew thee: And I will make of thee a great nation, and I will bless thee, and make thy name great; and thou shalt be a blessing:
    Genesis 12:1-2

    3 Abram preached Monotheism
    Monotheism has been defined as the belief in the existence of only one god that created the world, who is all-powerful. The word monotheism comes from the Greek μόνος (monos) meaning "single" and θεός (theos) meaning "god".
    W Monotheism
    When his Lord said to him, "Submit", he said "I have submitted [in Monotheism] to the Lord of the worlds." And Abraham instructed his sons [to do the same] and [so did] Jacob, [saying], "O my sons, indeed God has chosen for you this religion, so do not die except while you are Muslims."
    Quran 2:131-132

    Or do you say that Abraham and Ishmael and Isaac and Jacob and the Descendants were Jews or Christians? Say, "Are you more knowing or is God?" And who is more unjust than one who conceals a testimony he has from God ? And God is not unaware of what you do.
    Quran 2:140
    4 Abram will have Many Descendants   |  2085 BC
    God's Covenant 2 that Abram's Seed will be great in number.

    Abram is 75-years old and God tells him that he will be blessed with many children

    Covenant 2 was fulfilled by Ishmael and Isaac
    In total, the Jews, Christians and Muslims account for 3.8 Billion people or 54% of worlds population
    W List_of_religio..

    And I will make thy seed as the dust of the earth: so that if a man can number the dust of the earth, then shall thy seed also be numbered.
    Genesis 13:16

    My Lord, grant me [a child] from among the righteous
    Quran 37:100

    Say, [O believers], "We have believed in God and what has been revealed to us and what has been revealed to Abraham and Ishmael and Isaac and Jacob and the Descendants and what was given to Moses and Jesus and what was given to the prophets from their Lord. We make no distinction between any of them, and we are Muslims [in submission] to Him."
    Quran 2:136
    5 Abram will have a Son   |  2081 BC
    God's Covenant 3 with Abram that he will have a Son who will be Heir.

    Due to his advancing age, Abram asks God how it is possible for him to have a son.

    Covenant 3 was fulfilled through Hagar and Ishmael
    Hagar conceives Abram's child. The first-born righteous son to come out of Abram's 'own bowel' was Ishmael. This covenant makes Ishmael the heir that Abram prayed for and God promised

    But Abram said, "Sovereign LORD, what can you give me since I remain childless and the one who will inherit my estate is Eliezer of Damascus?"
    Genesis 15:2

    And Abram said, "You have given me no children; so a servant in my household will be my heir."
    Genesis 15:3

    And, behold, the word of the LORD came unto him, saying, This shall not be thine heir; but he that shall come forth out of thine own bowels shall be thine heir
    Genesis 15:4

    6 Abram and Sarai without Child
    Sarai is barren, and Abram childless.

    God had promised Abram a seed, but as yet he had none, which was a trial of his faith; he had been married many years to Sarai his wife. Both were elderly, Sarai was barren 75-years and Abram 85-years of age, so there was little chance of having children.

    Naturally, Abram and Sarai are anxious and getting older. How would bearing a child at this late stage even be possible?
    Now Sarai Abram's wife bare him no children: and she had an handmaid, an Egyptian, whose name was Hagar.
    Genesis 16:1

    7 Hagar the Blessed Egyptian Princess
    Hagar (hay-gar; Hebrew: הָגָר, Modern Hagar, Tiberian Hāgār, of uncertain origin Arabic: هاجر‎‎ Hājar; Latin: Agar) is a biblical person in the Book of Genesis. She was an Egyptian handmaid of Sarai (Sarah), who gave her to Abraham to bear a child. The product of the union was Abraham's firstborn, Ishmael, the progenitor of the Ishmaelites.
    W Hagar

    The Christian Bible is dismissive of Hagar. She is a concubine, surrogate maid, sex-slave, mother to a wild, insolent child who together show pride and arrogance towards their masters and owners.
    Hagar the Egyptian princess sacrificed all for the sake of God. God chose Hagar to bear Ishmael, Abrams eldest son. He sent His Angels to guide Hagar due to her pious, God-fearing and self-less character.

    Hagar was the daughter of King Pharaoh of Egypt. When she saw the miracle which God performed for the sake of Sarah, to save her from the hands of the Egyptian king during Abraham's visit there, she said: "It is better to be a slave in Sarah's house than a princess in my own (Gen. Rabbah 45:1)"

    Hagar is depicted by the Rabbis as being strongly influenced by the atmosphere in the house of Abraham and Sarah. She became accustomed to seeing Angels and therefore was not alarmed when an angel of the Lord was revealed to her at Beer-lahai-roi. The spiritual level of Sarah's handmaiden was higher than that of people from later generations.

    According to the Midrash, many angels, and not just a single one, were revealed to Hagar. In one exegesis, Hagar saw 5 angels, for an additional angel was revealed to her every time the verb "amar [said]" is used. Hagar, who was the least in the household of Abraham, was on a higher spiritual level than Manoah and his wife, who were the best in their generation.
    8 Abram Marries Hagar  |  2081 BC
    Sarai tells Abram to marry her hand-maid Hagar, as a second-wife.

    Sarai believes the Lord will not bless her with offspring and so God's Covenant will not come true. Sarai offers Hagar, her Egyptian maid to Abram in marriage (polygamous marriage). Any child borne by Hagar would be owned by Sarai as was the custom of the day.

    The practise of polygamy or multiple wives was a common day practise. God directed Sarai to aceept Hagar as a co-wife.
    Abram and Sarai were childless for 10-years. If a man marries a woman, and she does not bear a child within 10-years, he is obliged to marry another.

    Sarah initially had to persuade Hagar to marry Abraham (to compensate for her own barrenness). Hagar observed the commandments and engaged in good deeds and was thus fit to be Abraham's wife.

    Sarah gave her to Abraham, not to another, and to be a wife, not a concubine (Gen. Rabbah 45:3)

    And Sarai said unto Abram, Behold now, the Lord hath restrained me from bearing: I pray thee, go in unto my maid; it may be that I may obtain children by her. And Abram hearkened to the voice of Sarai.
    Genesis 16:2

    And Sarai Abram's wife took Hagar her maid the Egyptian, after Abram had dwelt ten years in the land of Canaan, and gave her to her husband Abram to be his wife.
    Genesis 16:3

    My Lord, grant me [a child] from among the righteous. So We gave him good tidings of a forbearing boy
    Quran 100:101
    9 Hagar Conceives Ishmael
    Hagar conceives Ishmael, Abrams eldest son
    And he went in unto Hagar, and she conceived: and when she saw that she had conceived, her mistress was despised in her eyes.
    Genesis 16:4

    So We gave him good tidings of a forbearing boy
    Quran 37:101
    10 Sarai Abuses Hagar
    According to the Bible, Hagar dispised Sarai and looked down on her master.
    According to Midrash, Sarai treated Hagar in an abusive and harsh manner in a number of ways:

    1. Sarah prevented Hagar from having sex with Abraham. The message was one of control; she was the real wife in the house.
    2. Sarah threw her shoes in Hagar's face. The shoes are lower than the body, and so, Hagar is not equal to her mistress; she remains a handmaiden.
    3. Sarah had Hagar bring to the bathhouse pails and binariot (clothes used in the bathhouse) (Gen. Rabbah 45:6). This to subjugate Hagar and subject her to extra effort, household duties, chores despite the latter's pregnancy.

    And Sarai said unto Abram, My wrong be upon thee: I have given my maid into thy bosom; and when she saw that she had conceived, I was despised in her eyes: the Lord judge between me and thee.
    Genesis 16:5

    Sarai, in contrast, treated her hand-maiden harshly and abused her in various ways, causing her to flee to the wilderness.
    10 Hagar escapes to Wilderness
    Sarai mistreats Hagar causing her to run away.

    Hagar flees her residence in Beersheba (south Palestine) and heads into the desert to escape the wrath of Sarai. The angel find Hagar by the fountain by Shur, a desert in Egypt. Hagar tells the angel she has escaped from Sarai's anger.The angel orders Hagar to return to Sarai.

    According to the Bible, Hagar disrespects Sarai and when admonished, she flees with Ishmael.
    According to Jewish text, Abram is reluctant to let Hagar and Ishmael leave. Inevitably, she leaves and Abram continues to maintain contact with them.

    In the Torah, Shur is identified as a 'fountain in the road to Shur' between Kadesh and Bered. All these locations point to the Sinai desert, near the Egyptian border.

    " Hagar's well is the scene of an annual pilgrimage by Ishmael's descendents, to whom it is known as the Zamzam "
    W Abraham_ibn_Ezr..

    " Shur means 'at the rock (Hajr) of the Hijaz (district of Arabia includes Mecca)'. Hajr refers to the black stone housed in Islam's holiest site, the Ka'abah at Mecca "
    W Saadia_Gaon

      Meeting Place..
    God blessed Abram with a son after 85-years. The Bible claims a disagreement between Sarai and Hagar leads to Hagar fleeing the family home.

    But Abram said unto Sarai, Behold, thy maid is in thine hand; do to her as it pleaseth thee. And when Sarai dealt hardly with her, she fled from her face.
    Genesis 16:6

    And the angel of the Lord found her by a fountain of water in the wilderness, by the fountain in the way to Shur.
    Genesis 16:7

    And he said, Hagar, Sarai's maid, whence camest thou? and whither wilt thou go? And she said, I flee from the face of my mistress Sarai.
    Genesis 16:8

    And the angel of the Lord said unto her, Return to thy mistress, and submit thyself under her hands.
    Genesis 16:9

    The Rabbis describe Abraham's difficulty in parting from Hagar and Ishmael and sending them on their way. Abraham nevertheless maintained contact with Hagar and her son, and came to visit them a number of times. Abraham continued to be involved in their lives, and to guide and educate Ishmael, albeit from a distance.
    11 God will Multiply Hagars Son
    God's Covenant 4 that Hagars Son will be multiplied

    God makes a covenant with Hagar that He will bless her offspring and multiply them beyond measure.

    Covenant 4 was fulfilled by Ishmael
    Today the Arabs are the descendents of Ishmael and populate 22-countries with a total population of 350 Million. More generally, Muhammad is the direct descendant from Ishmael. The Muslim propulation in 2010 was 1.6 billion representing 23% of the world's population
    W Islam_by_countr..
    W Arab_world

    And the angel of the Lord said unto her, I will multiply thy seed exceedingly, that it shall not be numbered for multitude.
    Genesis 16:10

    12 The First-Born will be Ishmael
    Covenant 5 was fulfilled by Ishmael
    Hagar gave birth to a healthy baby boy and he was named Ishmael as instructed by the Angel and promised by God.

    And the angel of the Lord said unto her, Behold, thou art with child and shalt bear a son, and shalt call his name Ishmael; because the Lord hath heard thy affliction.
    Genesis 16:11

    13 Ishmael will be a 'Wild' Man
    God's Covenant 6 that Ishmael will grow to be a wild man.

    Hagar who is heavily pregnant calls to God. As she nears the end of her pregnancy, Hagar in her time of pain and difficulty arrives at the Beerlahairoi well (between Jordan and south Palestine)

    According to the Bible, Ishmael will grow to be a wild man; bold, fearless and living at large. Every mans hand will be against him, so he will be opposed and forced down by many men.
    Covenant 6 was fulfilled by Ishmael
    He was of Arab lineage and was opposed by the Israelite tribes and nations. Even today, many consider Islam to be a false religion, in conflict with modern society.

    And he will be a wild man; his hand will be against every man, and every man's hand against him; and he shall dwell in the presence of all his brethren.
    Genesis 16:12

    And she called the name of the Lord that spake unto her, Thou God seest me: for she said, Have I also here looked after him that seeth me? Wherefore the well was called Beerlahairoi; behold, it is between Kadesh (Jordan) and Bered (south Palestine).
    Genesis 16:13-14

    14 Hagar gives Birth to Ishmael  |  2080 BC
    Hagar gave birth to a baby boy, and named him Ishmael. Abram was 86-years old when Ishmael was born.
    Ishmael is referred to as a Bastard child ('An illegitimate child'), even though his father was Abram

    And Hagar bare Abram a son: and Abram called his son's name, which Hagar bare, Ishmael. And Abram was fourscore and six years old, when Hagar bare Ishmael to Abram.
    Genesis 16:15-16

    No Biblical account for next 13 years
    There are no Biblical records for the next 13-years of Abram's life following the birth of Ishmael
    God tells 99-year old Abram to be ready for great things ahead.
    And when Abram was ninety years old and nine, the LORD appeared to Abram, and said unto him, I am the Almighty God; walk before me, and be thou perfect.
    Genesis 17:1

    15 Father of Many Nations
    Covenant 7 was fulfilled by Ishmael and Isaac
    Multiple kings, tribes and nations came from Abraham, considered the 'father of many nations'.

    And I will make my covenant between me and thee, and will multiply thee exceedingly. As for me, behold, my covenant is with thee, and thou shalt be a father of many nations
    Genesis 17:2-4

    And I will make thee exceeding fruitful, and I will make nations of thee, and kings shall come out of thee.
    Genesis 17:6

    16 God names Abram as Abraham
    Abram name changed to Abraham
    Abram (Noble Father) became Abraham (Father of many)

    Sarai name changed to Sarah
    Sarai (Princess) became Sarah (Princess of many)
    Neither shall thy name any more be called Abram, but thy name shall be Abraham; for a father of many nations have I made thee.
    Genesis 17:5

    And God said unto Abraham, As for Sarai thy wife, thou shalt not call her name Sarai, but Sarah shall her name be.
    Genesis 17:15

    17 Every Man be Circumcised   |  2067 BC
    God's Covenant 8 that every man be circumcised.

    God tells Abraham and his descendants they must keep the Circumcision covenant. Any man who fails to carry out the ritual is outside of God's blessings.

    Covenant 8 was fulfilled by Ishmael
    A 99-year old Abraham immediately had 13-year old Ishmael circumcised in observance of God's command

    Then God said to Abraham, "As for you, you must keep my covenant, you and your descendants after you for the generations to come. This is my covenant, which ye shall keep, between me and you and thy seed after thee; Every man child among you shall be circumcised. And ye shall circumcise the flesh of your foreskin; and it shall be a token of the covenant betwixt me and you. And he that is eight days old shall be circumcised among you, every man child in your generations, he that is born in the house, or bought with money of any stranger, which is not of thy seed. He that is born in thy house, and he that is bought with thy money, must needs be circumcised: and my covenant shall be in your flesh for an everlasting covenant. And the uncircumcised man child whose flesh of his foreskin is not circumcised, that soul shall be cut off from his people; he hath broken my covenant.
    Genesis 17:9-14

    And Abraham took Ishmael his son, and all that were born in his house, and all that were bought with his money, every male among the men of Abraham's house; and circumcised the flesh of their foreskin in the selfsame day, as God had said unto him. And Abraham was ninety years old and nine, when he was circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin. And Ishmael his son was thirteen years old, when he was circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin
    Genesis 17:23-26

    18 Sarah Will Have a Child
    Abraham laughs and questions how a 100-year old man and 90-year old Sarah can have another son.
    Covenant 9 was fulfilled by Isaac
    Sarah was blessed with Isaac through whom came many great prophets, nations and kings including Moses, Jesus etc.

    And I will bless her, and give thee a son also of her: yea, I will bless her, and she shall be a mother of nations; kings of people shall be of her.
    Genesis 17:16

    Then Abraham fell upon his face, and laughed, and said in his heart, Shall a child be born unto him that is an hundred years old? and shall Sarah, that is ninety years old, bear?
    Genesis 17:17

    And Abraham said unto God, O that Ishmael might live before thee!
    Genesis 17:18

    And his wife approached with a cry [of alarm] and struck her face and said, "[I am] a barren old woman!"
    Quran 51:29

    She said, "Woe to me! Shall I give birth while I am an old woman and this, my husband, is an old man? Indeed, this is an amazing thing!"
    Quran 11:72
    19 Sarah's Child will be Isaac
    Covenant 10 was fulfilled by Isaac on his birth

    And God said, Sarah thy wife shall bear thee a son indeed; and thou shalt call his name Isaac: and I will establish my covenant with him for an everlasting covenant, and with his seed after him.
    Genesis 17:19

    And We gave him good tidings of [the birth of] Isaac, a prophet from among the righteous. And We blessed him and Isaac. But among their descendants is the doer of good and the clearly unjust to himself.
    Quran 37:112-113
    20 God will make Covenant with Isaac
    Covenant 11 was fulfilled by Isaac
    God promises he will have a special covenant with Isaac.
    DEAD SEA SCROLLS - Dead Sea Scrolls are a collection of 981 manuscripts discovered between 1946-2017 in 12 caves (Qumran Caves) dating to 408 BC and 318 AD.

    Genesis 17:21 is not available
    W List_of_the_Dea..

    But my covenant will I establish with Isaac, which Sarah shall bear unto thee at this set time in the next year.
    Genesis 17:21

    21 Ishmael will be a Great Nation
    God's Covenant 12 that Ishmael will lead a great nation.

    Ishmael had twelve sons (princes): Nebajoth, Kedar, Adbeel, Mibsam, Mishma, Dumah, Massa, Hadar, Tema, Jetur, Naphish and Kedemah.

    Covenant 12 was fulfilled by Ishmael
    His son Kedar through whom Muhammad came after 600-years
      Prophet Tree

    And as for Ishmael, I have heard thee: Behold, I have blessed him, and will make him fruitful, and will multiply him exceedingly; twelve princes shall he beget, and I will make him [Ishmael] a great nation
    Genesis 17:20

    22 Sarah gives Birth to Isaac  |  2067 BC
    Abraham is 100-years and Ishmael is 14-years old when Isaac is born. Sarah laughs at her good fortune of having given birth to Isaac at her age. Isaac is circumcised at 8-days.

    Ishmael is at least 16-years old when Isaac is weaned at 2-years old.

    According to the Bible, a 16-year old Ishmael mocks Sarah who in anger, evicts Hagar and Ishmael from the household.

    And the LORD visited Sarah as he had said, and the LORD did unto Sarah as he had spoken. For Sarah conceived, and bare Abraham a son in his old age, at the set time of which God had spoken to him. And Abraham called the name of his son that was born unto him, whom Sarah bare to him, Isaac. And Abraham circumcised his son Isaac being eight days old, as God had commanded him.

    And Abraham was an hundred years old, when his son Isaac was born unto him. And Sarah said, God hath made me to laugh, so that all that hear will laugh with me. And she said, Who would have said unto Abraham, that Sarah should have given children suck? for I have born him a son in his old age. And the child grew, and was weaned: and Abraham made a great feast the same day that Isaac was weaned.
    Genesis 21:1-8

    23 Sarah and Hagar Fight
    Sarah wants to ensure that only Isaac inherits and so she evicts Hagar and Ishmael. Ishmael is Abrahams eldest and first-born son and Sarah's request upsets him

    According to the Bible, Sarah evicts Hagar and Ishmael because they mocked her and baby Isaac. What did a 16-year old Ishmael say to mock 3-year old Isaac?

    Later, the Bible claims Sarah evicts Hagar/Ishmael as she only wants her son, Isaac to inherit and receive first-born rights. If true, this puts Sarah in a negative light: greed, jealousy and disobedience to God's Law.

  • Was Sarah unhappy with God's Laws?
  • By evicting Ishmael, God's Law would change to suit her greed?
    According to Jewish text, Hagar was evicted due to Sarah's fear that Ishmael be a negative influence on 3-year old Isaac.

    A second opinion revolved around inheritance. When Isaac was born, everyone rejoiced and proclaimed: "A son is born to Abraham, a son is born to Abraham! he will inherit the world and take two portions of the inheritance." Ishmael would hear this and laugh ["mezahek"] to himself, saying: "Don't be fools, don't be fools. I am the firstborn, and I will take two portions." This led Sarah to make haste to tell Abraham (Gen. 21:10): "Cast out that slave woman and her son, for the son of that slave shall not share in the inheritance with my son Isaac" (T Sotah loc. cit.).

    And Sarah saw the son of Hagar the Egyptian, which she had born unto Abraham, mocking. Wherefore she said unto Abraham, Cast out this bondwoman and her son: for the son of this bondwoman shall not be heir with my son, even with Isaac. Sarah's demand displeased Abraham greatly because Ishmael was his son.
    Genesis 21:9-11

    24 In Isaac the Seed Be Called
    God's Covenant 13 that in Isaac the seed be called.

    God orders Abraham to obey Sarah, as Isaac is the seed.

    Covenant 13 was fulfilled through Isaac
    This verse would textually make more sense if the seed was through Ishmael, as he is facing eviction and possible death.
    DEAD SEA SCROLLS - Dead Sea Scrolls are a collection of 981 manuscripts discovered between 1946-2017 in 12 caves (Qumran Caves) dating to 408 BC and 318 AD.

    Genesis 21:12 is not available
    W List_of_the_Dea..

    And God said unto Abraham, Let it not be grievous in thy sight because of the lad, and because of thy bondwoman; in all that Sarah hath said unto thee, hearken unto her voice; for in Isaac shall thy seed be called
    Genesis 21:12

    25 Hagar will be a Nation
    God's Covenant 14 that Hagar will make a nation.

    Hagar was an Arab and therefore this covenant came true. The Muslim Arabs today are a nation.

    Covenant 14 was fulfilled through Ishmael
    Today, the Arabs are the Ishmaelite nation.

    And also of the son of the bondwoman [Hagar] will I make a nation, because he [Ishmael] is thy seed.
    Genesis 21:13

    26 Hagar and Ishmael Abandoned in Beersheba  |  2064 BC
    The Islamic narrative claims Hagar and baby Ishmael moved here (Isaac was not born at this time)
    Abraham left Hagar and Ishmael with food and water in the "wilderness of Beersheba", the desert region south of Palestine including the Hejaz.
    According to the Bible, 16-year old Ishmael is put on Hagar's shoulder.

    Did Abraham really send Hagar and baby Ishmael away? The harsh desert conditions meant Abraham knew his second-wife and first-born son would probably die.
    The Bible claims Hagar and a 16-year old Ishmael was abandoned. According to Jewish traditions, Abraham's difficulty in sending away Hagar and Ishmael explains how this was one of the 10 trials Abraham endured (Midrash Tehilim)
    According to Islam, Abraham took his wife Hagar and baby Ishmael to the wilderness of Arabia (not Beersheba). Isaac was not born.

    For a camel-riding bedouin, like Abraham, a 20 or 30 day journey was normal. To the ancient, town-dwelling Hebrews, the "wilderness of Beersheba" comprised all the desert regions south of Palestine, including the Hejaz (west of Saudi Arabia).
    W Hejaz

    Abraham lived and travelled between many countries. Spread over thousands of miles, his journey included todays Iraq, Turkey, Jordan, Syria, Palestine, Israel, Egypt and Saudi Arabia.
      emel/Trail of..

    And Abraham rose up early in the morning, and took bread, and a bottle of water, and gave it unto Hagar, putting it on her shoulder, and the child [Ishmael], and sent her away: and she departed, and wandered in the wilderness of Beersheba.
    Genesis 21:14

    27 Hagar is Distressed
    Hagar's water runs out and so she placed Ishmael under a shrub for safety. Hagar can now continue looking for water.
    According to the Bible, a 16-year old Ishmael was put under bushes for safety. Hagar cries as she cannot bear to see crying Ishmael die due to thirst.
    Only a baby Ishmael would need to be put under the bushes for his safety and then cry for water. A 16-year old Ishmael would have sat his crying mother down, and searched for water. The biblical narrative does not make sense.

    The Quran claims that Hagar ran between the two hills of Safa and Marwa in Arabia searching for water.
    In the Rabbinic exegesis, Abraham put the child on Hagar's shoulder. According to the calculation by the Rabbis, Ishmael was 27-years old at the time, so then why did Abraham place him on Hagar's shoulder? Does it make sense for a 27-year old to be crying for his distressed mother to find him water?

    A midrash view is Sarah put an evil eye on Ishmael, thus inflicting him with a fever and debilitating illness. This explains why Ishmael is presented as a small, helpless child reliant on his mother in the expulsion narrative.

    When the water in the skin was gone, she put the boy under one of the bushes. And she went, and sat her down over against him a good way off, as it were a bowshot: for she said, Let me not see the death of the child. And she sat over against him, and lift up her voice, and wept. God heard the boy crying, and the angel of God called to Hagar from heaven and said to her, "What is the matter, Hagar? Do not be afraid; God has heard the boy crying as he lies there.
    Genesis 21:15-17

    Indeed, as-Safa and al-Marwah are among the symbols of Allah. So whoever makes Hajj to the House or performs 'umrah - there is no blame upon him for walking between them. And whoever volunteers good - then indeed, Allah is appreciative and Knowing.
    Quran 2:158
    28 Ishmael will be a Great Nation
    God's Covenant 15 that Ishmael will be a Great Nation

    God tells Hagar her son will grow up to be a Great Nation. According to the Bible, God tells Hagar to hold the 16-year old Ishmael in her hand?

    Covenant 15 was fulfilled by Ishmael
    Ishmael did become a great nation (This covenant is repeated for the third time, perhaps as a sign of its importance).
    Only a baby Ishmael could be lifted and held up by Hagar - not a 16-year old Ishmael as the Bible claims.

    ZAMZAM WELL - Today, Muslims commemorate Hagars search for water by travelling between Safa and Marwah; two small hills in Mecca, Saudi Arabia during the annual Hajj pilgrimage. They also drink the 'blessed water' from the water spring discovered by Hagar, the well of Zamzam
    W Al-Safa_and_Al-..

    Arise, lift up the lad [Ishmael], and hold him in thine hand; for I will make him a great nation
    Genesis 21:18

    And God opened her eyes, and she saw a well of water; and she went, and filled the bottle with water, and gave the lad drink.
    Genesis 21:19

    29 Ishmael Marries Egyptian Wife
    Ishmael lived in Paran (a harsh desert environment near to Mecca, Saudi Arabia) where he grew into an adult and married an Egyptian wife.
    W Desert_of_Paran

    God was with Ishmael as he grew up into a man. Ishmael, the first-born child is very important. In Hebrew traditions, the first-born son is given double portions of honor and inheritance. That right is unchanged regardless of the mother's status.

    The Quran confirms Abraham had a connection to Mecca and prayed for its protection
    Hagar was an Egyptian and she selected a wife for Ishmael from Egypt (Gen. Rabbah 53:15)

    And God was with the lad; and he grew, and dwelt in the wilderness, and became an archer. And he dwelt in the wilderness of Paran: and his mother took him a wife out of the land of Egypt.
    Genesis 21:20-21

    And [mention, O Muhammad], when Abraham said, "My Lord, make this city [Makkah] secure and keep me and my sons away from worshipping idols
    Quran 14:35

    If a man has two wives, and he loves one but not the other, and both bear him sons but the firstborn is the son of the wife he does not love, when he wills his property to his sons, he must not give the rights of the firstborn to the son of the wife he loves in preference to his actual firstborn, the son of the wife he does not love. He must acknowledge the son of his unloved wife as the firstborn by giving him a double share of all he has. That son is the first sign of his father's strength. The right of the firstborn belongs to him.
    Deuteronomy 21:15-17

    30 Abraham Sacrifices his Only Son  |  2054 BC
    Abraham is commanded by God to take his 'only son' to Moriah and sacrifice him.

    Mount Moriah in Old City Jerusalem is the site of numerous biblical acts of faith. It is a sacred area to Jews, Christians and Muslims. Sitting atop Mount Moriah today is the Temple Mount, an acre tract of land where the Jewish temple once stood.
    W Moriah

    Today, the Islamic holy sites including the Dome of the Rock and the Al-Aqsa Mosque are found at Mount Moriah.

    The vast majority of Muslims believe the 'Only Son' text refered to Ishmael. A minority of Muslims believe the sacrificed son may have been Isaac. Regardless of which son Abraham took, the outcome does not effect Islamic doctrine or theology.
    DEAD SEA SCROLLS - Dead Sea Scrolls are a collection of 981 manuscripts discovered between 1946-2017 in 12 caves (Qumran Caves) dating to 408 BC and 318 AD.

    Genesis 22:2 is not available
    W List_of_the_Dea..

    And he said, Take now thy son, thine only son Isaac, whom thou lovest, and get thee into the land of Moriah; and offer him there for a burnt offering upon one of the mountains which I will tell thee of.
    Genesis 22:2

    And when he reached with him [the age of] exertion, he said, "O my son, indeed I have seen in a dream that I [must] sacrifice you, so see what you think." He said, "O my father, do as you are commanded. You will find me, if Allah wills, of the steadfast. And when they had both submitted and he put him down upon his forehead
    Quran 37:102-103

    And when they had both submitted and he put him [his son] down upon his forehead, We called to him, "O Abraham, You have fulfilled the vision." Indeed, We thus reward the doers of good. Indeed, this was the clear trial. And We ransomed him with a great sacrifice
    Quran 103:107
    31 Abraham Sacrifices Isaac  |  2054 BC
    According to the Bible, the 'sacrificial son' has to be Isaac. Multiple verses attest to this fact and it is beyond doubt for Christians.
    DEAD SEA SCROLLS - Dead Sea Scrolls are a collection of 981 manuscripts discovered between 1946-2017 in 12 caves (Qumran Caves) dating to 408 BC and 318 AD.

    Genesis 22:3 is not available
    Genesis 22:6 is not available
    Genesis 22:7 is not available
    Genesis 22:9 is not available
    Genesis 22:12 is not available
    Genesis 22:16 is not available
    W List_of_the_Dea..
    Muslims believe Ishmael was sacrificed. The lack of early manuscript evidence, in particular the Dead Sea Scrolls naming 'Isaac' leaves the matter unresolved for now.

    And Abraham rose up early in the morning, and saddled his ass, and took two of his young men with him, and Isaac his son, and clave the wood for the burnt offering, and rose up, and went unto the place of which God had told him.
    Genesis 22:3

    And Abraham took the wood of the burnt offering, and laid it upon Isaac his son; and he took the fire in his hand, and a knife; and they went both of them together.
    Genesis 22:6

    And Isaac spake unto Abraham his father, and said, My father: and he said, Here am I, my son. And he said, Behold the fire and the wood: but where is the lamb for a burnt offering?
    Genesis 22:7

    And they came to the place which God had told him of; and Abraham built an altar there, and laid the wood in order, and bound Isaac his son, and laid him on the altar upon the wood.
    Genesis 22:9

    And he said, Lay not thine hand upon the lad, neither do thou any thing unto him: for now I know that thou fearest God, seeing thou hast not withheld thy son, thine only son from me.
    Genesis 22:12

    And said, By myself have I sworn, saith the LORD, for because thou hast done this thing, and hast not withheld thy son, thine only son:
    Genesis 22:16

    32 Abraham remained in Beersheba  |  2057 BC
    According to the Bible, after the sacrifice Abram dwelt in Beersheba, a large city in the Negev desert of southern Israel.
    Abraham is presented as continuing to guide Ishmael in the right path, even after the latter was expelled from his house. Ishmael's success is seen as resulting from his father's blessing and intervention.
    According to Islamic teachings, Abraham maintained a strong connection with Hagar, Ishmael and Arabia. The Place of Abraham near the Kabah in Mecca bears Abraham's footprints.

    Then Abraham returned to his servants [young men]. They all traveled back to Beersheba, and Abraham stayed there [resided in Beersheba]
    Genesis 22:19

    33 Death of Sarah  |  2030 BC
    Sarah died at age of 127-years old.
    And Sarah was an hundred and seven and twenty years old: these were the years of the life of Sarah [...]
    Genesis 23:1-20

    34 Isaac Marries Rebekah
    Abraham is worried for his unmarried son, Isaac. Eventually, Isaac marries Rebekah and has many children.
    And Abraham was old, and well stricken in age: and the Lord had blessed Abraham in all things. And Abraham said unto his eldest servant of his house, that ruled over all that he had, Put, I pray thee, thy hand under my thigh: And I will make thee swear by the Lord, the God of heaven, and the God of the earth, that thou shalt not take a wife unto my son (Isaac) of the daughters of the Canaanites, among whom I dwel [...]
    Genesis 24:1-67

    35 Abraham Marries Keturah (Hagar)  |  2016 BC
    According to some commentaries and rabbinic literature, Keturah is another name for Hagar, the concubine/wife of Abraham and mother of Ishmael.
    W Keturah

    One midrash relates God commanded Abraham after the death of Sarah to return to Hagar (Gen. Rabbah 61:4), while another tradition has Isaac initiating his father's marriage (Tanhuma, Hayyei Sarah 8).

    Keturah remained chaste and had not known another man until Abraham brought her back (Gen. Rabbah 61:4). Hagar was named Keturah because she was perfumed (mekuteret) with commandments and good deeds (Gen. Rabbah loc. cit.) and because her deeds were as fine as incense (ketoret; Tanhuma loc. cit.).
    Did Abraham bring Keturah/Hagar back after 65-years? Hagar his legitimate second-wife who he abandoned due to Sarah's jealousy?

    Abraham had taken another wife, whose name was Keturah.

    These traditions identify Hagar with Keturah, who, in Gen. 25:1 was taken as a wife by Abraham. After Sarah's death Abraham brought his divorcée back and she bore him additional children. Despite her divorce, Hagar's purity was not suspect, and she remained chaste until Abraham brought her back.

    She bore him Zimran, Jokshan, Medan, Midian, Ishbak and Shuah. Jokshan was the father of Sheba and Dedan; the descendants of Dedan were the Ashurites, the Letushites and the Leummites. The sons of Midian were Ephah, Epher, Hanok, Abida and Eldaah. All these were descendants of Keturah.
    Genesis 25:1-4

    36 Death of Abraham  |  1991 BC
    Abraham died at the age of 175-years old.
    According to the Bible, Abraham was buried by both his sons, Ishmael and Isaac.

    Abraham lived a hundred and seventy-five years. Then Abraham breathed his last and died at a good old age, an old man and full of years; and he was gathered to his people
    Genesis 25:7-8

    His sons Isaac and Ishmael buried him in the cave of Machpelah near Mamre, in the field of Ephron son of Zohar the Hittite, the field Abraham had bought from the Hittites. There Abraham was buried with his wife Sarah
    Genesis 25:9-10

    Praise to Allah , who has granted to me in old age Ishmael and Isaac. Indeed, my Lord is the Hearer of supplication
    Quran 14:39
    37 Death of Ishmael  |  1943 BC
    Ishmael died at age of 137-years old
    Ishmael lived a hundred and thirty-seven years. He breathed his last and died, and he was gathered to his people.
    Genesis 25:17

    38 Death of Isaac  |  1887 BC
    (approx. 3900 Years ago)
    Isaac died at age of 180-years old

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