Torah - Did Moses Write It?

moses

Did Moses write the Torah: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers & Deuteronomy?

Most Jews and Christians believe Moses received and wrote the entire Torah: five books of Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy. In modern times, Biblical scholarship using textual criticism and other techniques has disputed this claim.

The table below lists Biblical scholars and academics who dispute the "Moses' authorship" claim in favour of the JEDP Theory ('Graf-Wellhausen Hypothesis') or similar model.


W Alexander_Geddes
Arthur Peake | 1929 AD
Arthur Peake
Arthur Samuel Peake (1865-1929) was an English biblical scholar, born in Leek, Staffordshire.
Peake was educated at St John's College, Oxford. He was the first holder of the Rylands Chair of Biblical Criticism and Exegesis in the University of Manchester, from its establishment as an independent institution in 1904.

Peake popularized modern biblical scholarship, including the new "higher criticism." He approached the Bible not as the infallible word of God, but a record of revelation written by fallible humans.
Robertson Smith | 1894
Robertson Smith
William Robertson Smith (1846-1894) was a Scottish orientalist, Old Testament scholar, professor of divinity, and minister of the Free Church of Scotland.
Smith is known for his book "Religion of the Semites", which is considered a foundational text in comparative studies of religion. His criticisms include the following:
  • The Torah contains laws and history. It's history "does not profess to be written by Moses" as he himself is habitually spoken of in the third person.
  • From internal evidence found in the Bible, Torah history was "written in the land of Canaan" after the death of Moses (c. 13th century BCE), probably as late as "the period of kings", perhaps [Torah was] written under Saul or under David (c.1010-970).
  • Deuteronomy [xii-xxvi] laws are also demonstrated to date to a time long after Moses [318-320].
  • King Josiah (r.640-609) reforms are found written in the Deuteronomic code. His "Book of the Covenant" probably is none other than "the law of Deuteronomy, which, in its very form, appears to have once been a separate volume".
  • Abraham Kuenen | 1891
    Abraham Keunen
    Abraham Kuenen (1828-1891) was a Dutch Protestant theologian, the son of an apothecary.
    Kuenen was born in Haarlem. He was educated at the University of Leiden. He studied theology, and won his doctor's degree by an edition of 34 chapters of Genesis from the Arabic version of the Samaritan Pentateuch. In 1853 he became professor extraordinarius of theology at Leiden, and in 1855 full professor.

    Kunen was known throughout Europe and America as one of the greatest scholars of the century. He shared with Wellhausen ('Graf-Wellhausen Hypothesis') acknowledged leadership in the field of Old Testament criticism. 2
    Eduard Reuss | 1891
    Eduard Reuss
    Eduard Reuss (1804-1891) was a Protestant theologian.
    From 1829 to 1834 he taught Biblical criticism and Oriental languages at the Strasbourg Theological School. In 1864, he became Professor of Old Testament.

    Reuss turned his attention to Old Testament criticism. His critical position was to some extent that of K. H. Graf and Julius Wellhausen. He was in a sense their forerunner, and was actually for a time Graf's teacher.
    Julius Wellhausen | 1883
    Julius Wellhausen
    Julius Wellhausen (1844-1918) was a German biblical scholar and orientalist.
    In 1883, Julius Wellhausen published his JEDP Theory ('Graf-Wellhausen Hypothesis'). Wellhausen's work proved very influential. He was able to correlate the development of the Torah with Israelite and Jewish history.

    Wellhausen's theory held the Torah was not a unified work from a single author (Moses) but instead was made up of multiple, independent texts written over many centuries by many different writers.

    Wellhausen set the chronological order of the independent sources as J, E, D and P with reference to the evolving religious history of Israel, which he saw as one of ever-increasing priestly power.
    Wilhelm Vatke | 1882
    Wilhelm Vatke
    Wilhelm Vatke (1806-1882) was German Protestant theologian.
    He was appointed in 1837 professor extraordinarius. He was one of the founders of the newer Hexateuch criticism.

    Vatke issued his book, "Die Religion des Alten Testaments", which contained the seeds of a revolution for the Old Testament. In future, Vatke's ideas were associated with progressive Torah studies by the names of Abraham Kuenen and Julius Wellhausen.
    Karl Heinrich Graf | 1869
    Karl Heinrich Graf
    Karl Heinrich Graf (1815-1869) was a German Old Testament scholar and orientalist.
    He studied Biblical exegesis and oriental languages at the University of Strassburg under Édouard Reuss, and, after holding various teaching posts, was made instructor in French and Hebrew at the Landesschule of Meissen, receiving in 1852 the title of professor.

    Graf was one of the chief founders of Old Testament criticism. Graf taught the Torah we currently possess was largely the product of the weaving together of four independent texts: Jehovist, Elohist, Deuteronomy and Priestly ("JEDP Theory"). These different documents developed at different times during the history of Israel, and were eventually brought together to form our current Torah. 5
    Hermann Hupfeld | 1853
    Hermann Hupfeld
    Hermann Hupfeld (1796-1866) was a Protestant German Orientalist and Biblical commentator.
    He is known for his historical-critical studies of the Old Testament. He was born at Marburg, where he studied philosophy and theology from 1813 to 1817. In 1825, Hupfeld was appointed extraordinary professor of theology at Marburg. There he received professorships of theology and Oriental languages.

    In 1853, Hupfeld on the JEDP Theory ("Gaff-Wellhausen"), suggested Elohist (E) was really two sources and should be split, thus isolating the Priestly (P) source. Hupfeld also emphasized the importance of the Redactor, or final editor, in producing the Torah from the four JEDP sources.
    Heinrich Ewald | 1823
    Heinrich Ewald
    Heinrich Ewald (1803-1875) was a German orientalist, Protestant theologian, and Biblical exegete.
    He studied at the University of Göttingen. In 1827 he became extraordinary professor there, in 1831 ordinary professor of theology, and in 1835 professor of oriental languages.

    Ewald maintained the Elohistic (E) source was basic for the composition of the Torah. He suggested this work had been supplemented by the addition of older sections such as the Decalogue (D). Finally, a compilation of sources (Jehovistic or J) were placed in the basic Elohistic (E) document.

    In essence, Ewald was suggesting that at different periods, the [Torah] books underwent a revision each time new additions were incorporated. 6
    Friedrich Bleek | 1822
    Friedrich Bleek (1793-1859) was a German Biblical scholar.
    In 1822, he identified Joshua as a continuation of the Torah via Deuteronomy. Others had identified signs of the Deuteronomist in Judges, Samuel and Kings.
    Wilhelm de Wette | 1805
    Wilhelm De Wette
    Wilhelm de Wette (1780-1849) was a German theologian and biblical scholar.
    In 1805, De Wette concluded that Deuteronomy represented a third independent source. Also,the Torah was composed after the time of David.

    In general, the Torah we possess was largely the product of weaving together four independent texts: Jehovist, Elohist, Deuteronomy and Priestly (JEDP Theory). These different documents developed at different times during the history of Israel, and were eventually brought together to form our current Torah. 5
    Alexander Geddes | 1800
    Alexander Geddes (1737-1802) was a Scottish theologian and scholar.
    His translation of the "Satires of Horace" made him known as a scholar, but his liberalism led to his suspension.

    Geddes postulated that the Torah was put together in Solomon's era (990-931 BCE) from a number of fragments, some of which existed before the time of Moses.
    Johann Gottfried Eichhorn | 1780
    Johann Eichhorn
    Johann Gottfried Eichhorn (1752-1827) was a German Protestant theologian of the Enlightenment and an early orientalist.
    In 1775 he was made professor of Oriental languages at the Faculty of Theology at Jena University. During his professorship in Jena he wrote his seminal Introduction to the Old Testament, a breakthrough in the historical understanding of the Torah.

    Eichhorn has been called "the founder of modern Old Testament criticism." In 1823, Eichhorn concluded that "most of the writings of the Hebrews passed through several hands." Eichhorn regarded many books of the Old Testament as fictitous and fake. Moses had had no part in writing any of it.
    Jean Astruc | 1766
    Jean Astruc
    Jean Astruc (1684-1766) was a professor of medicine at Montpellier and Paris.
    He wrote the first great treatise on syphilis and venereal diseases. He played a fundamental part in the origins of critical textual analysis of works of scripture.

    Astruc was the founding father of biblical criticism. He used the pattern of divine names YHWH and Elohim in Genesis and Exodus, to explain the contradictory Biblical accounts. Astruc suggested Moses wrote Genesis based on two different sources, the Yahwist (J) and Elohist (E) traditions, known as Documentary Hypothesis (DH).
    Campegius Vitringa | 1689
    Campegius Vitringa
    Campegius Vitringa (1659-1722) was a Dutch Protestant theologian and Hebraist.
    Vitringa, a follower of Johannes Cocceius, was a supporter of prophetic theology. He was educated at the universities of Franeker and Leiden, and became professor of Oriental languages in 1681.

    Vitringa in his work entitled "Observationes Sacrae" suggested that Moses had access to ancient sources from the patriarchal period (1813-1506 BCE).
    John Hampden | 1688
    John Hampden was a 17th century English scholar.
    Hampden affirmed affirmed Richard Simon's views, that Moses could not be the author of much of the [Torah] writings attributed to him.
    Richard Simon | 1678
    Richard Simon (1638-1712) was a French priest, a member of the Oratorians.
    He was an influential biblical critic, orientalist and controversialist. Simon was influenced by the ideas of Isaac La Peyrère who came to live with the Oratorians, and by Baruch Spinoza.

    Unlike the arguments made by previous men, Simon was the first prominent Christian leader who denied Mosaic authorship, creating conflict between him and both Catholics and Protestants alike.

    Simon declared that Moses could not be the author of much of the [Torah] writings attributed to him.
    Isaac de la Peyrère | 1676
    Isaac La Peyrere
    Isaac La Peyrère (1596-1676) was a French theologian, Bible critic and anthropologist.
    La Peyrère was a lawyer by training and a Calvinist by upbringing, though he later converted to Catholicism.

    Peyrere wrote the "Praeadamitae" book which was banned and burned everywhere for various heretical claims, including Moses did not write the Torah, and that no accurate copy of the Bible exists. 3
    Jean Morin | 1659
    Jean Morin
    Jean Morin (1591-1659) or 'Joannes Morinus' was a French theologian and biblical scholar.
    He invigorated discussions with a traditional-critical thesis that doubted the integritas of the Old Testament.

    In Morin's view, the Hebrew text of the Old Testament was certainly not deliberately falsified, nevertheless, due to the careless work of copyists it was garbled to such an extent that it does not represent an authentic basis. 4
    Louis Cappel | 1658
    Louis Cappel
    Louis Cappel (1585-1658) was a French Protestant churchman and scholar.
    He studied theology at the Academy of Sedan and the Academy of Saumur, and Arabic at the University of Oxford. At the age of twenty-eight he accepted the chair of Hebrew at Saumur, and twenty years later was appointed professor of theology.

    Cappel's second important work, "Critica sacra", went further, and was controversial from a theological point of view. Based on the various readings in text and differences between the ancient versions and Masoretic text, the consonantal text of the Hebrew Bible was susceptible to change, corruption, and human interference, which amounted to an attack on the verbal inspiration of Scripture.
    Baruch Spinoza | 1656
    Baruch Spinoza
    Baruch Spinoza (1632-1677) was a Jewish-Dutch philosopher of Portuguese Sephardi origin.
    Spinoza was raised in a Portuguese-Jewish community in Amsterdam. He developed highly controversial ideas regarding the authenticity of the Hebrew Bible and the nature of the Divine. By laying the groundwork for the Enlightenment and modern biblical criticism. He was considered one of the great rationalists of 17th-century philosophy.

    Spinoza's break with the prevailing dogmas of Judaism, and particularly his insistence on non-Mosaic authorship of the Torah, was not sudden; rather, he wrote of a lengthy internal struggle, "Indeed, I may add that I write nothing here that is not the fruit of lengthy reflection".

    Spinoza's analysis had a lasting impact on biblical criticism and laid the foundations for authorship theories to come.
    Thomas Hobbes | 1651
    Thomas Hobbes
    Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) was an English philosopher who is considered one of the founders of modern political philosophy.
    In addition to political philosophy, Hobbes also contributed to a diverse array of other fields, including history, jurisprudence, geometry, the physics of gases, theology, ethics and general philosophy.

    In his major work "Leviathan", Hobbes writes, "It is therefore sufficiently evident that the five Books of Moses were written after his time, though how long after it be not so manifest" (pg. 173). Nonetheless, Hobbes still argues that Moses wrote the parts concerning the law itself.
    Alfonso Salmeron | 1585
    Alfonso Salmeron
    Alfonso Salmeron (1515-1585) was a Spanish biblical scholar, a Catholic priest.
    He was one of the first Jesuits. He studied literature and philosophy at Alcalá and then philosophy and theology at the Sorbonne in Paris. The Jesuit tradition of biblical criticism starting with Alfonso Salmeron had paved the way for his approach.
    Abraham Ibn Ezra | 1167
    Abraham Ibn Ezra
    Abraham Ibn Ezra (1089-1167) was one of the most distinguished Jewish biblical commentators and philosophers of the Middle Ages.
    He was a proponent of the higher biblical criticism of the Torah as one of its earliest pioneers.

    Spinoza concluded that Ibn Ezra's hints about "the truth" throughout his commentary as "a clear indication it was not Moses who wrote the Torah but someone else who lived long after him, and it was a different book that Moses wrote" as sufficient evidence for Non-Mosaic authorship.

    Despite his affirmation of Mosaic authorship for the vast majority of the Torah, many scholars refer to Ibn Ezra as the "father of modern biblical criticism". 7


    In Islam, Moses received the 'Oral' Torah
    Islam teaches that Moses received the Torah from God. This was an 'oral transmission' from God through the Angel Gabrial to Moses. Today, the Torah is presented in a written book format. This is a corrupted version of the original Oral Torah. The JEDP Theory (or "Graf-Wellhausen Hypothesis") supports the Islamic position on Biblical corruption.
    Maurice Bucaille
    Maurice Bucaille (d. 1998), a Muslim scholar supported Documentary Hypothesis (DH)
    Maurice Bucaille (1920-1998), a French medical doctor, author, convert and scholar of Islam. Bucaille writes the Old Testament has been distorted due to the numerous translations and corrections, as it was transmitted orally. Bucaille argued for biblical criticism, including the Documentary Hypothesis (DH) and JEDP Theory.
    W Maurice_Bucaille
      Bucaille on Documentary Hypothesis


    CREDIT
    1https://thetorah.com/yhwh-the-god-that-is-vs-the-god-that-becomes/
    2 The Jewish Quarterly Review Vol. 4, No. 4 (July 1892), pp. 571
    3 https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/la-peyr-x00e8-re-isaac
    4 p.749 Hebrew Bible / Old Testament: The History of Its Interpretation: II: From the Renaissance to the Enlightenment. Magne Saebo
    5 p.87 Three Perspectives: Jewish, Christian, and Muslim. Steven H. Propp
    6 Ewald, The Composition of Genesis Critically Examined
    7 Encyclopedia Judaica, "ibn Ezra"
    https://otterdoxy.wordpress.com/2015/10/16/jedp-and-stuff-before-wellhausen/
      Share Article if you found it useful
    978 views · 12 hrs ago |   Author: Guest   •   Updated: 11 Jun 2019
    ALL ARTICLES ARE INTENDED FOR GENERAL EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES ONLY. ALL INFORMATION IS BELIEVED TO BE CORRECT, ACCURATE AND TRUTHFUL. YOU ARE ADVISED TO DO YOUR OWN RESEARCH. ARTICLES ARE LIVE DOCUMENTS AND MAY BE UPDATED WITH NEW CONTENT AT ANY TIME. WHERE AVAILABLE, SOURCES AND REFERENCES ARE CREDITED. IF YOU SPOT ANY ERRORS, OMISSIONS OR GIVE FEEDBACK KINDLY CONTACT US WITH DETAILS
    142-jedp-torah-authors

    3  Videos with 'Wellhausen'

    Video: 9:04
    487 views · 11 hrs ago | 1 year ago
    1 of 3   
    Video: 48:45
    443 views · 4 hrs ago | 1 year ago
    2 of 3   
    Video: 16:06
    455 views · 3 hrs ago | 1 year ago
    3 of 3   
     MOSES


    NAVIGATE ARTICLES
    ORDER: Article Title A-Z
    Articles
    All Articles (147)
    10 Commandments - Bible vs Quran
    8318 views · 1 hr ago
    10 Commandments - Christian vs Muslim
    2822 views · 1 hr ago
    10 Red Heifers (Cows)
    1157 views · 3 hrs ago
    5 reasons Abraham sacrificed Ishmael
    3341 views · 7 hrs ago
    Abrahamic Religions
    7968 views · 1 hr ago
    Angels - 41 Angels from the Abrahamic Religions
    3182 views · 3 hrs ago
    Are you a Muslim?
    20864 views · 4 hrs ago
    Arius vs Bishop Athanasius
    4698 views · 1 hr ago
    Bible - 12% of New Testament copied from Old Testament
    1600 views · 6 hrs ago
    Bible - 18 Ego Eimi (I AM) statements, like John 8:58
    2721 views · 3 hrs ago
    Bible - 27 Verses on Yahweh, Elohim(s) and The Gods
    709 views · 3 hrs ago
    Bible - 400 NT Jesus Prophecies copied from OT
    1181 views · 13 hrs ago
    Bible - 75 Verses on drinking Wine & Alcohol
    897 views · 37 mins ago
    Bible - Exodus 3:14 Translations
    1566 views · 1 hr ago
    Bible - King James (KJV) & 37 'Disputed' Verses
    998 views · 1 day ago
    Bible - Lost Books of the Bible
    1425 views · 15 mins ago
    Bible - Mark 16:9-20 Longer Ending
    1340 views · 7 hrs ago
    Bible - Matthew 28:19: Greek vs Hebrew
    4656 views · 6 mins ago
    Bible - Pagan Texts in the Bible
    1353 views · 6 hrs ago
    Bible - Revelation, A Forgery
    1173 views · 1 hr ago
    Bible - Scholars on John's Gospel
    654 views · 1 day ago
    Bible - The Synoptic Problem
    1363 views · 1 hr ago
    Bible - Violence & Killings
    1337 views · 1 hr ago
    Bible Authors: Who Wrote It?
    1355 views · 1 hr ago
    Bible Errors - 672 Variants
    1845 views · 19 hrs ago
    Bible History - KJV vs NIV
    1780 views · 1 hr ago
    Bible NT - 55% of New Testament Papyrus contain under 3% of Biblical Text
    449 views · 8 hrs ago
    Bible NT - Codex Sinaiticus exposes 312 year gap since Jesus crucifixion
    1297 views · 1 day ago
    Bible NT Canons - Church Fathers, Councils & Apocrypha
    838 views · 49 mins ago
    Bible OT - Dead Sea Scrolls expose a 1303 year gap since Moses life
    913 views · 25 mins ago
    Bible OT Canons - Church Fathers, Councils & Apocrypha
    689 views · 4 mins ago
    Bible Verses - KJV vs NIV
    3329 views · 17 mins ago
    Blasphemy Laws in 35 Christian Countries
    473 views · 1 hr ago
    Book Burnings in Roman, Catholic and Protestant society
    813 views · 26 mins ago
    Catholic vs Protestant - Bible
    1738 views · 24 mins ago
    Catholic vs Protestant - Christianity
    2178 views · 1 day ago
    Child Abuse & Grooming Gangs (UK)
    747 views · 6 hrs ago
    Child Abuse, Sexual Crimes & Prison Figures (UK)
    1093 views · 23 mins ago
    Child Marriage - Muhammad married 9-year old Aisha
    4869 views · 1 hr ago
    Christian Heresies
    1217 views · 1 hr ago
    Christian: 28 Heretical Sects
    2576 views · 3 hrs ago
    Christian: 32 Church Denominations
    214 views · 24 hrs ago
    Christianity: Founded by Paul on Road to Damascus, Syria
    796 views · 3 hrs ago
    Church Councils
    1128 views · 31 mins ago
    Church Fathers - Quotes from 18 Men of God
    510 views · 6 hrs ago
    Church Fathers on Jesus Divinity
    1366 views · 7 mins ago
    Codex Sinaiticus & Vaticanus - Corruption in the KJV Bible books
    1820 views · 51 mins ago
    Codex Sinaiticus & Vaticanus - Corruption in the KJV Bible verses
    1198 views · 1 hr ago
    Constantine and Christianity
    3071 views · 5 hrs ago
    Constantine, Nicaea and History
    1882 views · 7 hrs ago
    Council of Nicaea 325 AD
    892 views · 41 mins ago
    Did Jesus pray to God or Allah?
    6058 views · 24 mins ago
    God (Allah) - His Names & Attributes
    4840 views · 5 hrs ago
    God vs Allah
    3102 views · 17 hrs ago
    God, Evidence For
    1284 views · 1 day ago
    Gods & Roman Emperors
    502 views · 1 day ago
    Gods - 6 Dying & Rising Mythical Gods
    1301 views · 1 hr ago
    Gods - 60 Pagan deities in the Bible
    1097 views · 9 mins ago
    How do Muslims pray?
    4392 views · 1 hr ago
    Ishmael and Isaac in Bible and Quran
    4270 views · 4 hrs ago
    Islam: Biggest Threat to Europe?
    375 views · 17 hrs ago
    Islamic Countries. Who are they?
    416 views · 3 hrs ago
    Jesus - 91% chance he was a fictitous Mythical-Hero (Raglan Scale)
    881 views · 1 day ago
    Jesus - 17 'Crucified' Savior Gods
    952 views · 1 day ago
    Jesus - Crucifixion in the Gospels
    1761 views · 4 hrs ago
    Jesus - Crucifixion Timing
    1992 views · 1 hr ago
    Jesus - God of 99 Faces
    2850 views · 4 hrs ago
    Jesus - God with No Face
    457 views · 30 mins ago
    Jesus - Resurrection in the Gospels
    1459 views · 18 hrs ago
    Jesus - Resurrection Theories
    1621 views · 6 hrs ago
    Jesus - Sons of God
    3534 views · 10 hrs ago
    Jesus and the 12 Disciples
    2602 views · 8 hrs ago
    Jesus in the Quran
    1774 views · 4 hrs ago
    Jesus on the Cross or Tree?
    4357 views · 14 mins ago
    Jesus the God
    3970 views · 10 mins ago
    Jesus the Jewish Prophet
    2564 views · 40 mins ago
    Jesus the Muslim
    2505 views · 59 mins ago
    Jesus the Son of God
    1398 views · 3 hrs ago
    Jesus the Sun-God over 12 Zodiac Star Gods
    6092 views · 47 mins ago
    Jesus vs Isaac - The Sacrifice
    1963 views · 26 mins ago
    Jesus vs Jonah & Whale
    2287 views · 10 hrs ago
    Jesus vs Krishna
    2201 views · 10 hrs ago
    Jesus vs Paul
    3787 views · 33 mins ago
    Jesus vs Romulus - 50 Reasons both are Mythical Gods
    418 views · 7 hrs ago
    Jesus vs Zeus
    7902 views · 14 mins ago
    Jesus was 30, 40 or 50 years old?
    1468 views · 1 hr ago
    Jesus, 12 Disciples and Paul Interview
    1686 views · 56 mins ago
    Jesus, from Iesous and Yeshua
    3353 views · 1 hr ago
    Jesus, Serapis & 7 Pagan Gods
    7279 views · 39 mins ago
    Jewish Laws & Rituals
    689 views · 10 mins ago
    Judaism - Maimonides 13 Principles of Jewish Belief
    2890 views · 7 hrs ago
    Mark, Matthew, Luke and John
    3437 views · 51 secs ago
    Messiah - His Aims & Objectives
    841 views · 19 mins ago
    Messiah - Jesus?
    1439 views · 3 hrs ago
    Monotheism vs Polytheism
    1808 views · 50 mins ago
    Muhammad - Most Influential Man in History
    2792 views · 6 mins ago
    Muhammad in Bible: He is is altogether lovely - Song 5:16
    5573 views · 1 hr ago
    Muhammad in Bible: Kedar rejoice and Sela sing - Isaiah 41/42
    4003 views · 9 mins ago
    Muhammad in Bible: Prophet like unto Moses - Deuteronomy 18:18
    8490 views · 55 mins ago
    Muhammad in Bible: Select Verses
    3660 views · 1 min ago
    New Age - Alice Bailey's 10 Point Charter
    1355 views · 1 hr ago
    Nicene Creed - Council of Nicaea 325 AD
    1464 views · 1 hr ago
    Nicene Creed - Foundation of Christianity
    691 views · 22 hrs ago
    Noahide Laws
    1231 views · 7 hrs ago
    Palestine and Creation of Israel in 1948
    1777 views · 7 hrs ago
    Paul - 50% of his Writings are Inauthentic Forgeries
    681 views · 1 hr ago
    Paul copied 152 Old Testament verses
    180 views · 15 hrs ago
    Paul vs James
    1626 views · 1 hr ago
    Prophets - Sinful Beings in the OT Bible
    625 views · 1 day ago
    Prophets of God
    43257 views · 1 hr ago
    Prophets were Sinners?
    2874 views · 11 hrs ago
    Purpose of Life
    3093 views · 26 mins ago
    Quran - 5 Recitations: Hafs, Warsh, Hisham, Qalun & Al-Duri
    1125 views · 7 hrs ago
    Quran - A Mathematical Miracle
    6335 views · 11 hrs ago
    Quran - Chapter & Verse Miracle
    686 views · 40 mins ago
    Quran - Comparing Hafs & Warsh for 51 textual variants
    10692 views · 3 hrs ago
    Quran and Violence
    3629 views · 1 day ago
    Quran refers to Torah & Gospel
    863 views · 4 hrs ago
    Quran vs Science
    2829 views · 12 hrs ago
    Roman Calendar
    3615 views · 1 hr ago
    Rome, Caesar & Emperors in the Bible
    870 views · 16 hrs ago
    Sin Atonement: Jesus Blood vs 21 Offerings
    258 views · 1 day ago
    Terrorism, the Risk to Americans
    709 views · 13 mins ago
    The Lost Gospels
    4082 views · 9 hrs ago
    The Prophets Prayer
    3470 views · 1 hr ago
    Timeline of Bible
    639 views · 20 hrs ago
    Timeline of Church Councils
    615 views · 10 mins ago
    Timeline of Muhammad
    728 views · 8 hrs ago
    Timeline of New Testament Bible
    744 views · 1 hr ago
    Timeline of Old Testament Bible
    714 views · 17 mins ago
    Timeline of Prophets
    2845 views · 2 hrs ago
    Timeline of Quran
    1203 views · 32 mins ago
    Timeline of Roman Empire
    711 views · 20 mins ago
    Timeline of Trinity
    663 views · 15 hrs ago
    Torah - Did Moses Write It?
    978 views · 12 hrs ago
    Torah - Wellhausen/JEDP Theory
    1266 views · 2 hrs ago
    Trinity - 13 Three God Pagan concepts
    1773 views · 21 hrs ago
    Trinity - 27 Attributes of the Father, Son and Holy Ghost
    2174 views · 13 hrs ago
    Trinity - 4 Creeds: Apostles, Nicene, Athanasian to Chalcedon over 418 years
    2283 views · 5 hrs ago
    Trinity - Different Views
    1770 views · 8 hrs ago
    Trinity - Three Are One
    3092 views · 5 mins ago
    Trinity in the Bible
    1618 views · 4 mins ago
    Wars - 67 Bloody Christian Conflicts
    416 views · 9 hrs ago
    Wars - From Yinon, 9/11 to Springs, Invasions, ISIS & 6M Dead
    1537 views · 1 hr ago
    Wars: 46 Major Conflicts ranked by Religion
    1812 views · 3 mins ago
    What does LGBTQ+ mean?
    179 views · 16 hrs ago
    Women in Religion
    3625 views · 9 hrs ago

    Submit Article


    About Us  |  Help/FAQ  |  Contact Us    •    Terms  |  Privacy/Disclaimer
    Be Informed on Social :      Facebook Page  |    Twitter  |    Youtube
    MuslimProphets.com is an educational website on the primary teachings of the 'Prophets of God': Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus and Muhammad, who established the Abrahamic faiths of Judaism, Christianity and Islam. MuslimProphets.com explores contemporary social themes through Scripture, Evidences, Photo, Video, Maps, Current Affairs, Debate and 'alternative' Views held by Theologians, Apologists, Scholars and Street Preachers. Take a Site Tour

    In accordance with Islamic etiquette, all prophet names should be followed with 'Peace Be Upon Him (PBUH)'. This is omitted to minimise text.

    DISCLAIMER: All website content is for general information and educational purposes only and available in the public domain. Whilst all information comes from sources believed to be reliable, this cannot be guaranteed. External links are provided as a convenience and for informational purposes only. They do not constitute endorsement or approval for any products, services or comments by organizations or individuals. External links text may be edited to improve internal site and keyword search options. We bear no responsibility for the accuracy, legality, or content found on any external website or its subsequent links. Unless indicated, all images and content is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License distributed by Wikipedia, Wikimedia Commons, Pixabay, Pxhere, Pexels or Flickr. All Torah, Psalms, Old and New Testament Bible quotes are from the King James Version (KJV) Holy Bible in the public domain. All Quran quotes are from Taqi-ud-Din al-Hilali/Muhsin Khan English Quran translation. You are invited to always conduct your own research. If you spot any mistake, error or omission of information, contact us so we can correct it.
    Clustrmaps