In the early days, the Catholic Church condemned many Christian sects as hereticalAs a result, these Christian sects were shunned and their followers killed or forced to flee.
Jesus was in nature a man who became God by adoption. Therefore, God adopted Jesus the Man, who then became God himself.
Theodotus of Byzantium, Rome
Jesus had a human body and lower soul (the seat of the emotions) but a divine mind.
Apollinaris of Laodicea
Jesus is the Son of God, created by God the Father. Jesus was distinct from the Father and therefore below the Father.
Arius of Alexandria
Jesus only seemed to be human, and that his human form was an illusion, as was his crucifixion;
Jesus only seemed to have a physical body and to physically die, but in reality he was incorporeal, a pure spirit, and hence could not physically die.
Strongly anti-Arian sect in Sardinia
Lucifer Calaritanus a bishop of Cagliari
|6 Macedonians or Pneumatomachians ("Spirit fighters")|
accepted the divinity of Jesus Christ, but denied divinity of the Holy Spirit who was a creation of the Son, and a servant of the Father and Son.
The substance of Jesus Christ as being of "similar substance" (homoiousios) but not of the "same essence" (homoousios) as that of God the Father.
Macedonius of Constantinople
Jesus Christ is Melchizedek who lives, preaches, dies and is resurrected.
Jesus Christ is identified as "a priest forever in the order of Melchizedek", and so Jesus assumes the role of High Priest once and for all.
| God is one person. Opposite of Trinity which defines God as three persons, coexisting as one in being.
|9 Monophysitism or Eutychianism|
Belief that Jesus' divinity dominates and overwhelms his humanity
W Miaphysitism In Jesus, the divinity and humanity are united in one nature, without separation, without confusion, and without alteration
Jesus had two natures, but only one will
|12 Dyothelitism or Chalcedonian|
Jesus has two natures and two wills (human and divine)
Jesus had two natures, divine and human. He was a separate human united, but not identical, to the divine Son of God.
Father, Jesus and the Holy Spirit are three different aspects of one God.
The Father suffered out of love, when His beloved Son, Jesus was made to suffer on Earth.
God the Father suffered on the cross as Jesus.
| Jesus was simply human, the literal son of human parents.
Jesus was not born of the virgin birth and he was not divine.
Father, Jesus and the Holy Spirit are three different aspects of one God as perceived by the Christian believer, rather than three distinct persons within the Godhead (Trinity)
Noetus of Smyrna
Pure Christianity of Paul (of Tarsus) is the truth and needs to be rejuvenated.
A Gnostic and dualistic sect. Belief in the two kingdoms of Good and Evil.
Salvation is by faith and divine grace alone. It does not require following the Law of Moses.
| God has human form
| Martyrdom (dying for your religion) is the true Christian virtue.
Disagreed with chastity, sobriety, humility, and charity. Focused on bringing about their own martyrdom.
They would attack random travellers on the road, while shouting "Praise God". The aim being to provoke their victim to kill them, thereby the Christian adherents become "martyrs".
A militant subset of Donatism
Donatists were rigorists, holding that the church must be a church of saints, not sinners.
They regarded martyrdom as the supreme Christian virtue and regarded those that actively sought martyrdom as saints.
| Jesus was not divine.
The Father and Son (Jesus) are not of the same substance, the same "person" or being.
Need to observe Jewish law and rites.
|23 Euchites / Messalians|
| God takes different forms in order to reveal himself to the senses.
Trinity could be perceived by the carnal senses.
The Threefold God transformed himself into a single hypostasis (substance) in order to unite with the souls of the perfect (i.e. clergy)
Bishop Flavian of Antioch
All religious idols, images and monuments must be destroyed.
Jesus was sent by God and Paul was his chief apostle.
The God of the New Testament was all-forgiving; unlike the Hebrew God who was wrathful, avenging and a lower entity.
Rejected the Hebrew Bible and the Hebrew God.
Marcion of Sinope, Rome
Christians who fell from grace could not be redeemed.
Avoid sin and church discipline, emphasize chastity, including forbidding re-marriage.
Some of the Montanists were also "Quartodeciman"
Montanus of Hierapolis
Original sin did not taint human nature. Man is seen as effecting his own salvation.
Man is capable of living a sin-free life; determining good and evil, without the need of Gods' assistance.
Man cannot come to God without the grace of God.
Increased faith is the work of God, while the beginning of faith is an act of mans free-will.
|16 hrs ago | 1312 views • Author: Guest • Updated: 06 Oct 2017|