Valentinus was the best known and for a time most successful early Christian gnostic theologian.
He founded his school in Rome. According to Tertullian, Valentinus was a candidate for bishop of Rome but started his own group when another was chosen. Valentinus produced a variety of writings, but only fragments survive, largely those embedded in refuted quotations in the works of his opponents, not enough to reconstruct his system except in broad outline.
His doctrine is known to us only in the developed and modified form given to it by his disciples. He taught that there were three kinds of people, the spiritual, psychical, and material; and that only those of a spiritual nature (his own followers) received the gnosis (knowledge) that allowed them to return to the divine Pleroma, while those of a psychic nature (ordinary Christians) would attain a lesser form of salvation, and that those of a material nature (pagans and Jews) were doomed to perish.
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|Authorship: (Assumed)||Valentinus |
|Year Written: (Assumed)||120-160 AD|
|Scripture Type:||Gnostic Authors|
Gnosticism is a modern term categorizing a collection of pre-Christian ancient religions whose adherents shunned the material world which they viewed as created by the demiurge; and instead embraced the spiritual world. Gnostic Authors are the writers of Gnostic texts and works.
|Further Reading:|| _|
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All SCRIPTURE TEXT has Context and Background. Text should never be read literally or in isolation. Always seek clarification from religious scholars and teachers. In general, to study Text requires four principles:
1. Literal Meaning - What the Text says
2. Historical Setting - The story events; how the Text was understood in its time
3. Grammar - The surrounding sentence and paragraph; textual context
4. Synthesis - A comparison with similar Texts to give a better contextual understanding