Church Councils

church fathers

For 300 years, Christianity was an outlawed religion

In 380 AD, a whole 347 years after Jesus' Crucifixion, Christianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire.

From thereon, Christian doctrine began its evolutionary journey.

The Bishop of Rome ('Pope') could call a Church Council of bishops to discuss religious matters. At the end, the Pope would officially sanction the decrees passed.

The table below lists ten major Church Councils and the decrees sanctioned.


Jesus' Crucifixion
33 AD
Although, the crucifixion of Jesus was not a formal Council, it was a gathering of 'a few women' followers of Jesus. What these women discussed as they watched on is unknown.
Year: 33 AD
Ecumenical: * NO
Attendance: A few women, based on gospel accounts
Discussed: Unknown
Council of Jerusalem I
48 AD
According to Acts, Jesus' disciples called the Council of Jerusalem to discuss major differences between two parties. This was not an official Council under Rome's rulership.

Peter & James
Jesus' disciples, Peter and James stressed the importance of Judaism, its laws and upholding the views of the stringent Jewish-Christian community that had lived and studied with Jesus in his lifetime. At the time, Jesus' followers were Jewish by birth, and even new Christian converts were considered within Judaism.

Paul
The other party, led by Paul stressed the mission of Christians to the whole inhabited world, with particular emphasis on the Gentiles (or non-Jews).

Christianity, a new religion for the Gentiles was born
Paul succeeded. Christianity would no longer be contained within Jerusalem. Christian theology would be updated in subsequent church councils and designed to appeal to mass audiences across the world.
Year: 48 AD
15-years after Jesus
Ecumenical: NO
Attendance: Unknown
Discussed:
  1. Relevance of Judaism
Council of Nicaea I
325 AD
The First Council of Nicaea, the first ecumenical council, devoted itself to the problem of the Trinity, in an attempt to settle the controversy raised by Arianism over the nature of the Trinity.

Jesus Christ is, 'God of God, and of one substance with the Father'
It was the decision of the council, formalized in the Nicene Creed, that God the Father and God the Son were consubstantial and co-eternal

The Arian belief that Jesus was created by and thus inferior to the Father was deemed heretical. Arius himself was excommunicated and banished.

The council was also important for its disciplinary decisions concerning the status and jurisdiction of the clergy in the early church and for establishing the date on which Easter is celebrated.
Year: 325 AD
292-years after Jesus
Ecumenical: YES
Attendance: 318
Discussed:
  1. Arianism, the nature of Christ
  2. celebration of Passover (Easter)
  3. ordination of eunuchs
  4. prohibition of kneeling on Sundays and from Easter to Pentecost
  5. validity of baptism by heretics
  6. lapsed Christians
  7. sundry other matters
Council of Constantinople I
381 AD
Constantinople I was called primarily to confront Arianism. It re-affirmed the doctrines of the Nicene Creed and condemned Apollinarianism. The council affirmed the doctrine that Jesus was fully human and fully God.

The Holy Spirit is co-equal with the Father
The council defined the position of the Holy Spirit within the Trinity; it described the Holy Spirit proceeded from God the Father, co-equal and consubstantial with him.
Year: 381 AD
348-years after Jesus
Ecumenical: YES
Attendance: 150
Discussed:
  1. Arianism
  2. Apollinarism
  3. Sabellianism
  4. Holy Spirit
  5. successor to Meletius
Council of Carthage
397 AD
The Bible Canon as we have it today, was finalized
Carthage formally decided on the Bible canon for the first-time ever, some 60 years after Constantine's death and 360 years after Jesus' crucifixion.

What we know of Carthage is limited, as the only surviving records are indirect accounts and depictions in other sources.

The actual compilation of the Bible was an incredibly complicated project that involved churchmen of different beliefs, in an atmosphere of dissension, jealousy, intolerance, persecution and bigotry.

It was also determined that besides the Canonical Scriptures nothing be read in the Church under the title of divine Scriptures.

The Canonical Scriptures are these: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, Joshua the son of Nun, Judges, Ruth, four books of Kings, two books of Paraleipomena, Job, the Psalter, five books of Solomon, the books of the twelve prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezechiel, Daniel, Tobit, Judith, Esther, two books of Esdras, two Books of the Maccabees.

Of the New Testament: four books of the Gospels [Mark, Matthew, Luke, John], one book of the Acts of the Apostles, thirteen Epistles of the Apostle Paul, one epistle of the same [writer] to the Hebrews, two Epistles of the Apostle Peter, three of John, one of James, one of Jude, one book of the Apocalypse of John.
Year: 397 AD
364-years after Jesus
Ecumenical: YES
Attendance: Unknown number
Discussed:
  1. Bible canon
  2. books to include and exclude
Council of Ephesus I
431 AD
Ephesus was significant for its dogmatic decrees on the position of the Virgin Mary and he nature of the incarnation of Jesus Christ. It was in response to the Nestorian teachings that Mary was the 'mother of Christ', and not the 'mother of God'.

Mary is the mother of God
After lengthy debates, the council reached a decision: Mary is the 'mother of God', was decreed by the council and accepted by all.

The council also refined the dogma on the human and divine nature of Jesus; two separate natures, though perfectly united in Christ.
Year: 431 AD
398-years after Jesus
Ecumenical: YES
Attendance: 200-250
Discussed:
  1. Nestorianism
  2. Theotokos
  3. Pelagianism
Council of Chalcedon
451 AD
Chalcedon defined how the divine and the human elements related in Jesus ("unconfusedly, unchangeably, indivisibly, inseparably"), used some terms that are unfamiliar to contemporary ears.

Jesus' is fully-God and fully-human
Chalcedon was in response to the confusion among the early theologians on the idea of the one divine person being both God and man, or were their two natures: human and divine, in the one person of the Word?
Year: 451 AD
418-years after Jesus
Ecumenical: YES
Attendance: 520
Discussed:
  1. Nature of Jesus' divinity
Council of Orange
529 AD
Augustine held that all humans required God's help to do good and His grace was a free gift from God regardless of human merit.

God decides who will receive Salvation
Thus God alone determines who will receive the grace that alone assures salvation; God predestines some to salvation.

Augustine's teaching was generally upheld by the church, but the further idea that some are predestined to condemnation was explicitly rejected at the Council of Orange.
Year: 529 AD
496-years after Jesus
Ecumenical: YES
Attendance: 15
Discussed:
  1. Salvation, pre-destined by God
Council of Constantinople II
553 AD
Constantinople II was convoked to condemn the Nestorian writings and re-confirm the doctrine that Jesus's two natures, one human and one divine, are perfectly united in one person.
Year: 553 AD
520-years after Jesus
Ecumenical: YES
Attendance: 152
Discussed:
  1. Nestorianism Origenism
Council of Constantinople III
680 AD
Constantinople III condemned Monothelitism and affirmed that Jesus has two wills, one human and one divine, and they are without division or confusion.
Year: 680 AD
647-years after Jesus
Ecumenical: YES
Attendance: 300
Discussed:
  1. Monothelitism
  2. human will of Jesus
  3. divine will of Jesus
Council of Nicaea II
787 AD
This Council ruled on the use of saints' images and icons in religious devotion, declaring that whereas the veneration of images was legitimate and the intercession of saints effective, the veneration of icons must be carefully distinguished from the worship due God alone.
Year: 787 AD
754-years after Jesus
Ecumenical: YES
Attendance: 350
Discussed:
  1. Iconoclasm


* Ecumenical Council is a conference of ecclesiastical dignitaries and theological experts convened to discuss and settle matters of Church doctrine and practice.

CREDIT
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_seven_Ecumenical_Councils
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Outline_of_the_Catholic_ecumenical_councils
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Catholic_ecumenical_councils
https://www.gotquestions.org/Constantine-Bible.html
http://www.tertullian.org/rpearse/nicaea.html
http://mb-soft.com/believe/txs/councils.htm
  Share Article if you found it useful
1402 views · 41 mins ago |   Author: Guest   •   Updated: 11 Jun 2019
ALL ARTICLES ARE INTENDED FOR GENERAL EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES ONLY. ALL INFORMATION IS BELIEVED TO BE CORRECT, ACCURATE AND TRUTHFUL. YOU ARE ADVISED TO DO YOUR OWN RESEARCH. ARTICLES ARE LIVE DOCUMENTS AND MAY BE UPDATED WITH NEW CONTENT AT ANY TIME. WHERE AVAILABLE, SOURCES AND REFERENCES ARE CREDITED. IF YOU SPOT ANY ERRORS, OMISSIONS OR GIVE FEEDBACK KINDLY CONTACT US WITH DETAILS
117-christian-church-councils

5  Videos with 'Church+council'

Video: 24:18
535 views · 16 hrs ago | 2 years ago
1 of 5   
Video: 50:14
622 views · 8 hrs ago | 2 years ago
2 of 5   
Video: 7:32
571 views · 9 hrs ago | 1 year ago
3 of 5   
Video: 5:42
725 views · 17 hrs ago | 1 year ago
4 of 5   
Video: 56:50
492 views · 6 hrs ago | 10 months ago
5 of 5   


DESCENDING DATE ORDER
NAVIGATE ARTICLES
ORDER: Article Title A-Z
Watch Video 
Articles
All Articles (148)
10 Commandments - Bible vs Quran
8962 views · 32 mins ago
10 Commandments - Christian vs Muslim
3277 views · 1 hr ago
10 Red Heifers (Cows)
1592 views · 8 hrs ago
5 reasons Abraham sacrificed Ishmael
3617 views · 8 hrs ago
Abrahamic Religions
8263 views · 3 hrs ago
Angels - 41 Angels from the Abrahamic Religions
3756 views · 6 hrs ago
Are you a Muslim?
24323 views · 3 hrs ago
Arius vs Bishop Athanasius
5273 views · 31 mins ago
Bible - 12% of New Testament copied from Old Testament
1972 views · 4 hrs ago
Bible - 18 Ego Eimi (I AM) statements, like John 8:58
3496 views · 3 hrs ago
Bible - 27 Verses on Yahweh, Elohim(s) and The Gods
1409 views · 32 mins ago
Bible - 400 NT Jesus Prophecies copied from OT
1368 views · 16 hrs ago
Bible - 75 Verses on drinking Wine & Alcohol
1762 views · 9 mins ago
Bible - Exodus 3:14 Translations
1944 views · 33 mins ago
Bible - King James (KJV) & 37 'Disputed' Verses
1246 views · 6 hrs ago
Bible - Lost Books of the Bible
1693 views · 8 hrs ago
Bible - Mark 16:9-20 Text Analysis
1666 views · 4 hrs ago
Bible - Matthew 28:19: Greek vs Hebrew
5177 views · 4 hrs ago
Bible - Pagan Texts in the Bible
1598 views · 6 mins ago
Bible - Revelation, A Forgery
1447 views · 1 hr ago
Bible - Scholars on John's Gospel
999 views · 6 hrs ago
Bible - The Synoptic Problem
1622 views · 1 hr ago
Bible - Violence & Killings
1587 views · 4 hrs ago
Bible Authors: Who Wrote It?
1645 views · 1 hr ago
Bible Errors - 672 Variants
2127 views · 8 hrs ago
Bible History - KJV vs NIV
2040 views · 3 hrs ago
Bible NT - 55% of New Testament Papyrus contain under 3% of Biblical Text
801 views · 58 mins ago
Bible NT - Codex Sinaiticus exposes 312 year gap since Jesus crucifixion
1530 views · 37 mins ago
Bible NT Canons - Church Fathers, Councils & Apocrypha
1131 views · 3 hrs ago
Bible OT - Dead Sea Scrolls expose a 1303 year gap since Moses life
1132 views · 3 hrs ago
Bible OT Canons - Church Fathers, Councils & Apocrypha
884 views · 42 mins ago
Bible Verses - KJV vs NIV
3515 views · 10 hrs ago
Blasphemy Laws in 35 Christian Countries
718 views · 2 hrs ago
Book Burnings in Roman, Catholic and Protestant society
1182 views · 4 hrs ago
Catholic vs Protestant - Bible
2009 views · 5 hrs ago
Catholic vs Protestant - Christianity
2410 views · 1 hr ago
Child Abuse & Grooming Gangs (UK)
957 views · 4 hrs ago
Child Abuse, Sexual Crimes & Prison Figures (UK)
1318 views · 2 days ago
Child Marriage - Muhammad married 9-year old Aisha
5226 views · 21 hrs ago
Christian Heresies
1453 views · 1 hr ago
Christian: 28 Heretical Sects
2828 views · 10 hrs ago
Christian: 32 Church Denominations
484 views · 4 hrs ago
Christianity: Founded by Paul on Road to Damascus, Syria
1106 views · 3 hrs ago
Church Councils
1402 views · 41 mins ago
Church Fathers - Quotes from 18 Men of God
782 views · 5 hrs ago
Church Fathers on Jesus Divinity
1663 views · 13 mins ago
Codex Sinaiticus & Vaticanus - Corruption in the KJV Bible books
2460 views · 2 hrs ago
Codex Sinaiticus & Vaticanus - Corruption in the KJV Bible verses
1672 views · 1 hr ago
Constantine and Christianity
3394 views · 13 hrs ago
Constantine, Nicaea and History
2118 views · 4 hrs ago
Council of Nicaea 325 AD
1134 views · 14 mins ago
Did Jesus pray to God or Allah?
6496 views · 4 hrs ago
God (Allah) - His Names & Attributes
5159 views · 4 hrs ago
God vs Allah
3310 views · 1 day ago
God, Evidence For
1469 views · 1 day ago
Gods & Roman Emperors
710 views · 12 hrs ago
Gods - 6 Dying & Rising Mythical Gods
1600 views · 48 mins ago
Gods - 60 Pagan deities in the Bible
2084 views · 4 hrs ago
How do Muslims pray?
4653 views · 5 hrs ago
Ishmael and Isaac in Bible and Quran
4926 views · 28 mins ago
Islam: Biggest Threat to Europe?
567 views · 15 hrs ago
Islamic Countries. Who are they?
600 views · 20 hrs ago
Jesus - 91% chance he was a fictitous Mythical-Hero (Raglan Scale)
1158 views · 20 hrs ago
Jesus - 17 'Crucified' Savior Gods
1166 views · 1 day ago
Jesus - Crucifixion in the Gospels
1966 views · 2 days ago
Jesus - Crucifixion Timing
2180 views · 10 hrs ago
Jesus - God of 99 Faces
3466 views · 21 hrs ago
Jesus - God with No Face
645 views · 19 hrs ago
Jesus - Resurrection in the Gospels
1646 views · 4 hrs ago
Jesus - Resurrection Theories
1796 views · 3 hrs ago
Jesus - Sons of God
3787 views · 6 hrs ago
Jesus and the 12 Disciples
2989 views · 32 mins ago
Jesus in the Quran
2063 views · 4 hrs ago
Jesus on the Cross or Tree?
4569 views · 11 hrs ago
Jesus the God
4210 views · 3 hrs ago
Jesus the Jewish Prophet
2846 views · 5 hrs ago
Jesus the Muslim
2698 views · 5 hrs ago
Jesus the Son of God
1569 views · 16 hrs ago
Jesus the Sun-God over 12 Zodiac Star Gods
7036 views · 4 mins ago
Jesus vs Isaac - The Sacrifice
2364 views · 2 mins ago
Jesus vs Jonah & Whale
2608 views · 6 hrs ago
Jesus vs Krishna
3041 views · 4 hrs ago
Jesus vs Paul
4007 views · 4 hrs ago
Jesus vs Romulus - 50 Reasons both are Mythical Gods
877 views · 3 hrs ago
Jesus vs Zeus
9361 views · 4 mins ago
Jesus was 30, 40 or 50 years old?
1855 views · 2 hrs ago
Jesus, 12 Disciples and Paul Interview
1920 views · 5 hrs ago
Jesus, from Iesous and Yeshua
3619 views · 21 hrs ago
Jesus, Serapis & 7 Pagan Gods
8621 views · 30 mins ago
Jewish Laws & Rituals
943 views · 6 hrs ago
Judaism - Maimonides 13 Principles of Jewish Belief
3141 views · 15 hrs ago
Mark, Matthew, Luke and John
3799 views · 8 hrs ago
Messiah - His Aims & Objectives
1045 views · 10 hrs ago
Messiah - Jesus?
1629 views · 3 hrs ago
Monotheism vs Polytheism
2018 views · 8 hrs ago
Muhammad - Most Influential Man in History
2995 views · 2 hrs ago
Muhammad in Bible: He is is altogether lovely - Song 5:16
6117 views · 11 mins ago
Muhammad in Bible: Kedar rejoice and Sela sing - Isaiah 41/42
4974 views · 15 mins ago
Muhammad in Bible: Prophet like unto Moses - Deuteronomy 18:18
9033 views · 43 mins ago
Muhammad in Bible: Select Verses
3929 views · 59 mins ago
New Age - Alice Bailey's 10 Point Charter
2026 views · 1 hr ago
Nicene Creed - Council of Nicaea 325 AD
1734 views · 8 hrs ago
Nicene Creed - Foundation of Christianity
935 views · 1 day ago
Noahide Laws
1555 views · 4 hrs ago
Palestine and Creation of Israel in 1948
2130 views · 4 hrs ago
Paul - 50% of his Writings are Inauthentic Forgeries
953 views · 5 hrs ago
Paul copied 152 Old Testament verses
391 views · 18 hrs ago
Paul vs James
1842 views · 14 hrs ago
Prophets - Sinful Beings in the OT Bible
834 views · 4 hrs ago
Prophets of God
43582 views · 3 hrs ago
Prophets were Sinners?
3072 views · 7 hrs ago
Purpose of Life
3257 views · 9 mins ago
Quran - 5 Recitations: Hafs, Warsh, Hisham, Qalun & Al-Duri
1680 views · 15 hrs ago
Quran - A Mathematical Miracle
6920 views · 2 hrs ago
Quran - Chapter & Verse Miracle
901 views · 5 hrs ago
Quran - Comparing Hafs & Warsh for 51 textual variants
12636 views · 2 hrs ago
Quran and Violence
3820 views · 1 day ago
Quran refers to Torah & Gospel
1290 views · 6 hrs ago
Quran vs Science
3027 views · 4 hrs ago
Roman Calendar
3833 views · 5 hrs ago
Roman Emperors in Bible
94 views · 2 days ago
Rome, Caesar & Emperors in the Bible
1104 views · 5 hrs ago
Sin Atonement: Jesus Blood vs 21 Offerings
400 views · 3 days ago
Terrorism, the Risk to Americans
894 views · 2 days ago
The Lost Gospels
4295 views · 23 hrs ago
The Prophets Prayer
3688 views · 6 hrs ago
Timeline of Bible
943 views · 1 hr ago
Timeline of Church Councils
863 views · 2 hrs ago
Timeline of Muhammad
1004 views · 5 hrs ago
Timeline of New Testament Bible
1083 views · 1 hr ago
Timeline of Old Testament Bible
1049 views · 20 mins ago
Timeline of Prophets
4369 views · 15 mins ago
Timeline of Quran
1860 views · 9 hrs ago
Timeline of Roman Empire
985 views · 36 mins ago
Timeline of Trinity
933 views · 5 hrs ago
Torah - Did Moses Write It?
1417 views · 2 hrs ago
Torah - Wellhausen/JEDP Theory
1675 views · 3 hrs ago
Trinity - 13 Three God Pagan concepts
2097 views · 11 mins ago
Trinity - 27 Attributes of the Father, Son and Holy Ghost
2756 views · 2 hrs ago
Trinity - 4 Creeds: Apostles, Nicene, Athanasian to Chalcedon over 418 years
2722 views · 6 hrs ago
Trinity - Different Views
2073 views · 1 hr ago
Trinity - Three Are One
3267 views · 8 hrs ago
Trinity in the Bible
1835 views · 6 hrs ago
Wars - 67 Bloody Christian Conflicts
632 views · 1 day ago
Wars - From Yinon, 9/11 to Springs, Invasions, ISIS & 6M Dead
1975 views · 4 hrs ago
Wars: 46 Major Conflicts ranked by Religion
2093 views · 4 hrs ago
What does LGBTQ+ mean?
406 views · 5 hrs ago
Women in Religion
3802 views · 15 hrs ago

Submit Article


Latest videos  •  4,459 videos  •  0 viewed/24 hour
About Us  |  Help/FAQ  |  Contact Us    •    Terms  |  Privacy/Disclaimer
Be Informed on Social :      Facebook Page  |    Twitter  |    Youtube
MuslimProphets.com is an educational website on the primary teachings of the 'Prophets of God': Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus and Muhammad, who established the Abrahamic faiths of Judaism, Christianity and Islam. MuslimProphets.com explores contemporary social themes through Scripture, Evidences, Photo, Video, Maps, Current Affairs, Debate and 'alternative' Views held by Theologians, Apologists, Scholars and Street Preachers. Take a Site Tour

In accordance with Islamic etiquette, all prophet names should be followed with 'Peace Be Upon Him (PBUH)'. This is omitted to minimise text.

DISCLAIMER: All website content is for general information and educational purposes only and available in the public domain. Whilst all information comes from sources believed to be reliable, this cannot be guaranteed. External links are provided as a convenience and for informational purposes only. They do not constitute endorsement or approval for any products, services or comments by organizations or individuals. External links text may be edited to improve internal site and keyword search options. We bear no responsibility for the accuracy, legality, or content found on any external website or its subsequent links. Unless indicated, all images and content is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License distributed by Wikipedia, Wikimedia Commons, Pixabay, Pxhere, Pexels or Flickr. All Torah, Psalms, Old and New Testament Bible quotes are from the King James Version (KJV) Holy Bible in the public domain. All Quran quotes are from Taqi-ud-Din al-Hilali/Muhsin Khan English Quran translation. You are invited to always conduct your own research. If you spot any mistake, error or omission of information, contact us so we can correct it.
Clustrmaps