Paul - 50% of his Writings are Inauthentic Forgeries  

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Paul is one of the most important figures in the development of early Christianity.

In his letters ('Epistles'), we get an insight into the struggles and convictions Paul and the early Jewish-Christian movement faced. It can be seen how Paul mythologizes Jesus for a Greek and Roman audience.

Paul failed to write much about the actual historical Jesus, probably because he never met him in person. For Paul, the primary message was that of Jesus' death and resurrection, and how to live 'in Christ' the saviour.

Bart Ehrman
Paul was one voice amongst many

Bart Ehrman: My sense is that despite the centrality that Paul has to the New Testament today, he did not have that kind of importance in his day. He was one voice amongst many. The other voices, in places, drowned his out. And in yet other places, probably his voice was not heard at all, for example, in Matthew's Jewish-Christian community.

In the majority of Paul's letters (Romans, 1/2 Corinthians, Galatians and Philippians – five of the seven), Paul attacks those who disagree with him. Those others are in every case Christians. And they are Christians with different views not only from Paul but from one another.
  Bart Ehrman Blog
F.F. Bruce: I think Paul would roll over in his grave if he knew we were turning his letters into Torah [Revealed Scripture].
  F. F. Bruce Quotes

Of the 14 books attributed to Apostle Paul, seven are undisputed: Romans, 1 Corinthians, 2 Corinthians, Philemon, Galatians, Philippians and 1 Thessalonians.

The remaining seven: 2 Thessalonians, Ephesians, Colossians, Titus, 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy and Hebrews are believed by most modern Bible scholars to be forgeries; written in Paul's name long after his death.

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Galatians Letter
Paul writes an 'angry' letter to Galatia to correct their misunderstanding of salvation and Jewish law.
  1. Galatians is possibly the first letter Paul wrote
  2. Paul greeted the Galatia churches
  3. Someone had told the people of Galatia they had to observe Jewish laws and customs ('legalism')
  4. Were Gentile believers in Jesus required to circumcise and follow Jewish law to be accepted by God?
  5. Paul was full of anger and attacks the Christians who disagree with him, with scathing wit and white-hot anger
  6. Paul reminded the Galatians they were redeemed through faith in Jesus Christ, and not by following Jewish law
  7. Belief in Jesus Christ had set the people 'free from the yoke' of Jewish law. No longer does anyone have to burden themselves with any Jewish custom
  8. Paul requested the Galatians be cautious of false teachers
  9. Paul encouraged the people of Galatia to let the Holy Spirit guide them
DATE49 AD   (Early period)
FROMPaul (Authentic)
TOEarly Christian communities and churches in Roman province of Galatia in southern Anatolia (Asia Minor)
MANUSCRIPTP46 (175-225 AD)
WORDS2230 words    (or 0.016 % of entire New Testament)
1 of 14
1 Thessalonians Letter
Paul in his first letter to the Thessalonica church, urges them to continue loving God, despite facing persecutions for their faith.
  1. Some consider this Paul's first letter and oldest writing in the New Testament
  2. Paul wrote this letter to the Greek Thessalonia church shortly after it was built
  3. Paul greeted the members of the church with words of appreciation for their unwavering faith and good example
  4. Paul addressed the growing concern that Christ had not returned
  5. Paul is adamant that Christ will come again and the dead will be raised
  6. Paul encouraged them to continue living a life pleasing to God, love one another and to work hard
  7. In the end of the letter, Paul gave practical encouragement to the church
1 Thessalonians
DATE51 AD   (Early period)
FROMPaul (Authentic)
TOChurch in the Greek city of Thessalonica (Europe)
MANUSCRIPTP46 (175-225 AD)
WORDS1481 words    (or 0.011 % of entire New Testament)
2 of 14
2 Thessalonians Letter
Paul advises the Thessalonica church to stand firm on their faith as Jesus Christ would return in the near future.
  1. Paul wrote of his love and admiration for the Thessalonica church and its members
  2. Paul showed understanding of hardship the church suffered
  3. Paul encouraged the Thessalonians to trust in God to deliver them from persecution
  4. Paul asked the church to question anyone who claimed to know the time of Jesus' second coming
  5. He reassured the Thessalonians that Christ would return, but no one including himself, knew when, where or how
  6. Paul urged the church to continue working hard, and not waste time in idle activities
  7. Paul ends the letter with a request for prayers
2 Thessalonians
DATE51 AD   (Early period)
FROMPaul (Disputed authenticity; forgery)
TOChurch in the Greek city of Thessalonica (Europe)
WORDS823 words    (or 0.006 % of entire New Testament)
3 of 14
1 Corinthians Letter
Paul admonished the Corinth church he founded. He felt compelled to explain Christian doctrinal matters in detail.
  1. Paul addressed various subjects from church matters to personal issues


  3. To reconcile disputes within the church
  4. Spiritual pride
  5. Consumption of food previously sacrificed to idols
  6. Instructions on orderly public worship
  7. How to conduct the Lord's supper
  8. Tongues and prophecies
  9. Resurrection of Christ, those who died, and the body

  11. Conflicts between members (fighting, division, competition)
  12. Instructions to refrain from lawsuits against other Christians
  13. The true meaning of community, love, and authentic spiritual maturity
  14. To refrain from sexual sins
  15. Marriage matters
  16. Spiritual gifts
  17. Understand that love was the greatest

1 Corinthians
DATE56 AD   (Major period)
FROMPaul (Authentic)
TOChristian community and church in city of Corinth (Europe)
MANUSCRIPTP46 (175-225 AD)
WORDS6830 words    (or 0.049 % of entire New Testament)
4 of 14
2 Corinthians Letter
Paul writes another letter to the Corinth church. He reminds them of the need for forgiveness and reconciliation.
  1. Relations between Paul and the people at Corinth had deteriorated
  2. Paul sought to address the hurt and frustration people of faith have when conflicts cannot seem to be resolved.
  3. Paul reminded the people of Corinth that God is the source of all comfort. To rely on Him during moments of weakness
  4. Paul encouraged the people to live harmoniously and to "greet one another with Christian love"
  5. Paul wrote of the generosity of the Macedonian churches' towards the Christians in Jerusalem
  6. Paul requested the Corinthians to match the Macedonians, by being equally as generous and giving
  7. Paul's opponents (other Christians) believe they have attained salvation. Paul attacks them harshly and with brilliant sarcasm.
  8. Paul cautioned the Corinthians against following false prophets
  9. Paul defended his authority as apostle of Christ. He wrote of the personal trials he faced as apostle of Christ
2 Corinthians
DATE57 AD   (Major period)
FROMPaul (Authentic)
TOChristian community and church in city of Corinth (Europe)
MANUSCRIPTP46 (175-225 AD)
WORDS4477 words    (or 0.032 % of entire New Testament)
5 of 14
Romans Letter
Paul writes to the community in Rome and explains that salvation is available through the gospel of Jesus Christ.
  1. Paul's letter to the Romans his longest, most organized writing. It is his 'most important theological legacy'
  2. Paul wrote this letter before he visited the Rome
  3. Paul was in Corinth when he wrote this letter. It is likely he was staying in the house of Gaius, and the letter was transcribed by Tertius, his amanuensis
  4. Paul was planning to sail to Rome and meet with the new converts
  5. Paul put much effort into writing this letter explaining God's relationship with man
  6. According to Paul, sin became redundant after Jesus Christ was crucified, as this was the ultimate sacrifice, and meant we are no longer bound by Jewish laws. As sinners we all deserved to be punished for violating God's laws.
  7. God had provided a way for a man to be redeemed from the 'yoke of the law'. Salvation from sins was through the death of Jesus Christ and the gospel of Jesus Christ
  8. God's salvation was available to everyone, Israelites and Gentiles alike
  9. Paul attacked those who disagree with him, i.e. other Christians
  10. Paul ended his letter with encouragement for Rome to live righteously, and he promised to visit Rome very soon
DATE57 AD   (Major period)
FROMPaul (Authentic)
TOChurches in the Roman provinces of Galatia, Macedonia, Achaia and Asia (Europe)
MANUSCRIPTP46 (175-225 AD)
WORDS7111 words    (or 0.052 % of entire New Testament)
6 of 14
Ephesians Letter
Paul writes a letter to the Ephesus church from inside prison in Rome. In Ephesians, he explains the doctrines of grace, peace and salvation.
  1. Ephesians was written for members of the Ephesus church, and surrounding churches in Asia Minor
  2. The main theme of Ephesians was "the Church, which is the Body of Christ"
  3. Paul urged the Ephesus church to walk in a manner worthy of Jesus Christ
  4. Paul dispatched mulitple letters: Ephesians, Colossians and Philemon through his co-worker Tychicus at the same time
  5. In Ephesians, Paul wrote of doctrinal issues and practical matters
  6. Paul outlined God's plan to redeem his creation through Jesus Christ. Anyone who believed in Jesus were made alive in him
  7. Paul taught the believers how to live as 'children of light'
  8. Paul gave practical advice on how people should behave towards their marital spouses, children, employers and fellow Christians
DATE61 AD   (Prison period)
FROMPaul (Disputed authenticity; forgery)
TOA circular letter intended for many churches in city of Ephesus (Asia Minor)
MANUSCRIPTP46 (175-225 AD)
WORDS2422 words    (or 0.018 % of entire New Testament)
7 of 14
Philippians Letter
Paul writes to the Philippi church from inside prison. He urges them to adopt a Christ-like attitude.
  1. Paul wrote to the church in the Greek city of Philippi, whilst imprisoned in Rome
  2. Despite his difficult circumstances, Paul started with thanksgiving, prayer and expressing confidence in Christ
  3. Paul praised Timothy and Epaphroditus
  4. Paul repeated his earlier teachings against adopting Jewish laws and customs ('legalism')
  5. Paul attacked those who disagreed with him, i.e. other Christians
  6. Paul wrote words of encouragement to the Philippi church
  7. Paul praised the Philippi church members for the financial gifts he received in his hour of need
DATE61 AD   (Prison period)
FROMPaul (Authentic)
TOChurches in city of Philippi (Europe)
MANUSCRIPTP46 (175-225 AD)
WORDS1629 words    (or 0.012 % of entire New Testament)
8 of 14
Colossians Letter
Paul writes to the Colossae church reminding them of their status in Christ.
  1. Paul opened the letter to the Colossians with thanksgiving and prayer
  2. Paul addressed the gradual mix of pagan teachings and philosophies with Christian beliefs
  3. Paul wrote against the observing of any Jewish laws and customs ('legalism')
  4. Christ died to set us free of such Jewish laws
  5. Paul ended his letter with a reminder on how to live properly and how to deal with other people
DATE61 AD   (Prison period)
FROMPaul (Disputed authenticity; forgery)
TOChurches in city of Colossae (Asia Minor)
MANUSCRIPTP46 (175-225 AD)
WORDS1582 words    (or 0.011 % of entire New Testament)
9 of 14
Philemon Letter
Onesimus, a runaway servant who converted to Christianity was sent back to his master, Philemon.
  1. Philemon had a slave who escaped from him. The slave converted to Christianity. Paul sent the slave back to his master, Philemon with this letter
  2. Paul encouraged Philemon to welcome the runaway slave as a brother, not a slave
  3. Philemon was a member of the church in Colosse.
  4. Paul felt he may have influence the slaves master, Philemon, who was a member of the church in Colosse
  5. Paul sent Onesimus back to his master with a letter asking him to forgive his servant, take him back, and consider him as a brother in Christ
DATE61 AD   (Prison period)
FROMPaul (Authentic)
TOIndividual friend, Philemon
WORDS335 words    (or 0.002 % of entire New Testament)
10 of 14
Titus Letter
Paul left his assistant, Titus in Crete, Greece to build the church. Paul writes to Titus with instructions on how to lead a counter-cultural Church.
  1. Titus, the recipient of this letter, was one of Paul's assistants
  2. Titus was entrusted to lead a church in the island of Crete
  3. Paul wrote to Titus with instructions on how to properly lead a church and reminded him to promote the right teachings
  4. Paul encouraged Titus to remind the members of the church to submit to the authorities
  5. Paul urged Titus to refrain from quarrelling or slandering other members
DATE64 AD   (Pastoral period)
FROMPaul (Disputed authenticity; forgery)
TOIndividual pastor, Titus (Europe)
MANUSCRIPTP32 Egypt (100-300 AD)
WORDS659 words    (or 0.005 % of entire New Testament)
11 of 14
1 Timothy Letter
Paul gives Timothy, a young leader in the Ephesus church, advice on godliness and sound teaching.
  1. Paul writes to Timothy, a young leader in the church in Ephesus
  2. Paul's letter was written before his final imprisonment in Rome
  3. Paul acknowledged the pressures Timothy, as a young church leader endured
  4. Paul's letter was full of instructions on church matters, such as responsibility to converts, church leaders and worship
  5. Paul repeatedly cautioned Timothy against false teachers
1 Timothy
DATE64 AD   (Pastoral period)
FROMPaul (Disputed authenticity; forgery)
TOIndividual pastor, Timothy (Asia Minor)
MANUSCRIPTP32 Egypt (100-300 AD)
WORDS1591 words    (or 0.012 % of entire New Testament)
12 of 14
2 Timothy Letter
Paul's death is drawing near, and he instructs Timothy to carry on his gospel work.
  1. Paul's second letter to Timothy contained a sense of urgency
  2. Paul is suffering in prison, and perhaps knew his demise (death) was near
  3. Paul informed Timothy he did not hold grudges against his friends who had now abandoned him
  4. Paul desperately urged Timothy to come as quickly as he could. He gave the impression he was alone
2 Timothy
DATE67 AD   (Pastoral period)
FROMPaul (Disputed authenticity; forgery)
TOIndividual pastor, Timothy (Asia Minor)
MANUSCRIPTP32 Egypt (100-300 AD)
WORDS1238 words    (or 0.009 % of entire New Testament)
13 of 14
Hebrews Letter
Hebrews was written for the Jewish-Christians who lived in Jerusalem
  1. Paul is not believed to have written this letter
  2. Hebrews is considered more polished and eloquent than any other book in New Testament
  3. The overall theme is on the person of Christ and his role as mediator between God and humanity
  4. Christians were reverting back to Judaism to escape persecution
  5. The letter urged Christians to persevere in the face of persecutions
DATE69 AD   (4953 period)
FROMPaul (Unknown author; anonymous sermon; not authentic)
TOJewish-Christians who lived in Jerusalem
MANUSCRIPTP46 (175-225 AD)
WORDS words    (or 0 % of entire New Testament)
14 of 14

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List of scholars who hold to Paul's letters were interpolated, corrupted and forgeries
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