Timeline of Church Councils

Church Council or Synod is a council of a church, usually convened to decide an issue of doctrine, administration or application.
The word synod comes from the Greek σύνοδος (sýnodos) meaning 'assembly' or 'meeting', and it is synonymous with the Latin word concilium meaning 'council'. Originally, synods were meetings of bishops, and the word is still used in that sense in Catholicism, Oriental Orthodoxy and Eastern Orthodoxy.

It was the Church Councils who determined the fate of Christianity. They were fraught with conflict and disagreements between Church council attendees, priests and bishops who either finally agreed, or decided by votes, the Christian doctrine.
W Synod
Crucifixion of Jesus 30 AD
1 of 75 0 years later
Council of Jerusalem 50 AD
Council of Jerusalem

The Council of Jerusalem, which occurred around 50 AD is not counted as an Ecumenical Council. About Judaisers. Described in the Acts of the Apostles [15:6-29]. Led by Saint James ("the brother of the Lord"), bishop of Jerusalem.
  • Determined that Gentile converts did not have to embrace Judaism to be Christians.
  • 2 of 75 20 years later
    Council of Carthage (Cyprian) 251 AD
    Council of Carthage (Cyprian)
  • About the lapsed.
  • Novatianism was defended by Navatius, condemned by Saint Cyprian.
  • Set requirements for readmission to Church of those who had lapsed during persecutions.
  • Declared baptisms by heretics were worthless (no "baptisms" outside the Church).
  • Required baptism for entry into the Church by those "baptised" by heretics (outside the Church).
  • Forbade re-baptism of those who had received Church baptism, then fallen into heresy who sought readmission.
  • 3 of 75 221 years later
    Council of Carthage (Cyprian) 252 AD
    Council of Carthage (Cyprian)
  • Reduced requirements for readmission of lapsed who showed serious penance
  • Repeated decisions regarding baptism of previous year
  • 4 of 75 222 years later
    Council of Carthage (Cyprian) 255 AD
    Council of Carthage (Cyprian)
  • Repeated decisions regarding baptism of 251 and 252
  • Determined that clerics falling into heresy should be received back into the Church as laymen
  • 5 of 75 225 years later
    Council of Carthage (Cyprian) 256 AD
    Council of Carthage (Cyprian)
  • Rejected decisions by Pope Stephen regarding "baptism" outside the Church
  • Re-affirmed previous decisions regarding baptism
  • 6 of 75 226 years later
    Council at Elvira 303 AD
    Council at Elvira
  • Imposed celibacy on clergy
  • Established canon forbidding converts from heresy to ever become clergy
  • 7 of 75 273 years later
    Council at Ancyra 314 AD
    Council at Ancyra
  • About the lapsed
  • First synod following the end of persecutions
  • Condemned as liars, those who publicly proclaimed adherence to the national religion (paganism) in order to receive an official document that allowed them to avoid persecution
  • Established punishments for these lapsed
  • Established punishments for various types of sexual immorality
  • 8 of 75 284 years later
    Council at Neo-Caesaria 315 AD
    Council at Neo-Caesaria
  • Established punishments for various types of sexual immorality
  • Established qualifications for clergy
  • 9 of 75 285 years later
    Council of Nicaea I
    Jesus is same substance and nature as Father, both divine but different persons
    325 AD
    Council of Nicaea I
    Jesus is same substance and nature as Father, both divine but different persons

    Pope Sylvester I, 314-335
    Emperor Constantine, 306-337

    The Council of Nicaea lasted two months and twelve days. Three hundred and eighteen bishops were present. Hosius, Bishop of Cordova, assisted as legate of Pope Sylvester. The Emperor Constantine was also present. To this council we owe the Nicene Creed, defining against Arius the true Divinity of the Son of God (homoousios), and the fixing of the date for keeping Easter (against the Quartodecimans).

  • Convened regarding Arianism (Arian Controversy)
  • Paulianism, defended by Arius who claimed the Lord Jesus Christ was created by God, denying His divinity
  • Paulianism condemned by Athanasius
  • Defined the consubstantiality of the Father and the Son
  • Embraced the philosophical term homoousios ('of the same essence') as the only term the Arians were unable to distort into compatibility with their heresy
  • Established Symbol of Faith (Nicene Creed)
  • Determined formula for determining Pascha (Easter)
  • Condemned mandatory celibacy for all ranks of clergy
  • Established regulations on moral issues and church discipline
  • Required Paulianists to be baptised upon entry to Church, even if baptised by Paulianists
  • Determined prayers on Sundays should be offered standing
  • 10 of 75 295 years later
    Council of Gangra 340 AD
    Council of Gangra
    The synod of Gangra dealt with a local sectarian group.

    Group characteristics:
  • Condemned marriage altogether (rather like the Cathari, several centuries later)
  • Condemned eating meat
  • Refused to be obedient to lawful authorities (considered their own authority the only thing to be obeyed)
  • Encouraged women to dress as men (clothes and haircuts)
  • Encouraged parents to abandon their children (to go live the 'pure' life)
  • Encouraged children to abandon their parents (for the same reason)
  • Fasting on Sundays (which became a major issue later).

  • Decisions:
  • To condemn this sectarian group
  • 11 of 75 310 years later
    Council of Antioch 341 AD
    Council of Antioch
  • Reinforced Nicaea I's ruling on Pascha
  • Established regulations regarding clergy
  • The organisation of the local churches, church discipline
  • Use of canonical letters (used by travelling Christians as proof of being Christians in good standing)
  • 12 of 75 311 years later
    Council of Serdica 347 AD
    Council of Serdica
  • Established canons concerning church order and discipline
  • Reaffirmed the Symbol of Faith from Nicaea I.
  • 13 of 75 317 years later
    Council of Laodicaea 364 AD
    Council of Laodicaea
  • Established canons concerning church order and discipline
  • 14 of 75 334 years later
    Council of Constantinople I
    Trinity: Holy Spirit is divine, proceeding from Father and Son
    381 AD
    Council of Constantinople I
    Trinity: Holy Spirit is divine, proceeding from Father and Son

    Pope Damasus I, 366-384
    Emperor Theodosius, 379-395

    The First General Council of Constantinople, under Pope Damasus and the Emperor Theodosius I, was attended by 150 bishops. It was directed against the followers of Macedonius, who impugned the Divinity of the Holy Ghost. To the above-mentioned Nicene Creed it added the clauses referring to the Holy Ghost (qui simul adoratur) and all that follows to the end.

    Convened regarding Macedonianism, Apollinarians, Eunomians, Eudoxians, Sabellians, Marcellians, Photinians.

    Macedonius defended the issues, and Saint Gregory the Theologian (aka St Gregory of Nazianzus) and Saint Gregory of Nyssa were champions of Orthodoxy.
  • Condemned Arianism.
  • Condemned Macedonianism which denied divinity of the Holy Spirit.
  • Defined the Holy Trinity as one God in Three Persons, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit each fully God of the same essence.
  • Expanded Symbol of Faith from Nicaea I into what is now commonly labelled 'Nicene Creed' but is more properly known as the Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed. As expanded, this Symbol of Faith has remained the basic proclamation of the Christian Faith.
  • Condemned Apollinarianism which taught the Lord Jesus Christ possessed the divine Logos in place of a human mind and was therefore fully divine, but not fully human.
  • Condemned Eunomians (an extreme form of Arianism),
  • Condemned the Eudoxians (semi-Arians)
  • Condemned the Sabellians (who taught the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit were three modes of manifestation of the one God, denying the distinction of Three Persons)
  • Condemned the Marcellians (who taught the Logos was an impersonal divine power that issued from God and entered into a relationship with Jesus to make him the Son of God)
  • Condemned the Photinians (who taught that Jesus was a mere man upon whom the Logos rested).
  • Ranked relative importance of the five patriarchates with Old Rome first and New Rome (Constantinople) second.
  • Established regulations for church discipline, including standing during prayer on Sundays and the days of Pentecost.
  • Established manner in which heretics were to be received into the Church.
  • 15 of 75 351 years later
    Synod of Rome 382 AD
    Synod of Rome
    The Synod of Rome (presided by Pope Damasus) started the ball rolling for the definition of a universal canon for all city-churches. It listed the New Testament books in their present number and order.
    16 of 75 352 years later
    Synod of Hippo Regius 393 AD
    Synod of Hippo Regius
    The Synod of Hippo Regius in North Africa accepted the present canon of the New Testament.
    17 of 75 363 years later
    Council of Constantinople 394 AD
    Council of Constantinople
  • Established various regulations
  • Requirement of at least three bishops to ordain a bishop
  • 18 of 75 364 years later
    Council of Carthage (Denzinger) 397 AD
    Council of Carthage (Denzinger)

    The Council of Carthage, called the third by Denzinger issued a canon of the Bible on 28 August 397. The primary source of information about the third Council of Carthage comes from the Codex Canonum Ecclesi African. Presents a compilation of ordinances enacted by various church councils in Carthage during 4th and 5th centuries.
    19 of 75 367 years later
    Third Synod of Carthage 397 AD
    Third Synod of Carthage
    The third Synod of Carthage, which refined the canon for the Western Church, sent it to Innocent I, bishop of Rome, for ratification. Its list is similar to the present canon of scriptures. In the East, the canonical process was hampered by a number of schisms.
    20 of 75 367 years later
    Council of Carthage (Marcellinus) 411 AD
    Council of Carthage (Marcellinus)
    Emperor Honorius
    Marcellinus of Carthage

    The Conference of Carthage, held by the command of the Emperor Honorius in 411. One of the most important assemblies in the history of the African sees, and of the whole Catholic Church.
  • Presided over by Marcellinus of Carthage who found in favour of the Catholic party
  • Seeking to terminating the Donatist schism, while not strictly a synod
  • Led to the violent suppression of the Donatists
  • 21 of 75 381 years later
    Council of Carthage 419 AD
    Council of Carthage
    Bishop Aurelius
    Apiarius of Sicca

    When Apiarius of Sicca, a priest excommunicated by the African Church, went to Rome for reinstatement in 419, Pope Zosimus sent envoys to Africa in order to investigate.
  • A council was called in Carthage to deny the papal jurisdiction.
  • Envoys defended the pope's authority by quoting the Canons of the Council of Nicaea,
  • Saint Augustine and Saint Aurelius condemned Pope Zosimus for interfering with the African Church's jurisdiction by falsifying the text of Canon.
  • African church leaders told Rome that Nicaea indeed "gave no authority for appeals by priests against their episcopal superiors."
  • African church leaders warned Pope Zosimus, and later Pope Celestine I, not to "introduce the empty pride of the world into the Church of Christ"
  • African church leaders warned to "keep their Roman noses out of African affairs".
  • The Council ruled that no bishop may call himself "Prince of Bishops" or "Supreme Bishop" or any other title which suggests Supremacy (Canon 39).
  • It also ruled that if any of the African clergy dared to appeal to Rome, "the same was ipso facto cast out of the clergy".
  • 22 of 75 389 years later
    Fourth Synod of Carthage 419 AD
    Fourth Synod of Carthage
    The fourth Synod of Carthage reaffirmed the canon defined by the previous synod in its present number and order (similar to the Ecumenical Council of Trent).
    23 of 75 389 years later
    Council of Carthage (Council of Africa) 422 AD
    Council of Carthage (Council of Africa)
    Bishop Aurelius
    Augustine of Hippo

    Convened regarding Pelagianism and Donatism, which were defended by Pelagius, Celestius, and Donatus. Orthodoxy was championed by Bishop Aurelius.
  • Established regulations for clergy
  • Excommunication for clerics lower than bishop who appealed decisions outside of Africa (specifically mentioning 'across the sea', i.e. the pope of Rome)
  • Denied jurisdiction of pope of Rome in African church
  • Enumerated canon of Scripture (OT & NT)
  • Set requirements for Donatists received into the Church
  • Prohibition of rebaptising those baptised as Donatists
  • Established canon requiring baptism where proof of previous baptism was not available
  • Condemned beliefs of Pelagians
  • Condemned belief that Adam was created mortal
  • Condemned belief that infants need not be baptised because they are not subject to the consequences of Adam's sin
  • Condemned belief that grace is not needed to avoid sin
  • Condemned belief that grace only enables us to recognise sin but does not assist us in avoiding sin

  • Council Issued Eight Canons
  • Canon I: Adam was not created for death
  • Canon II: Infants are to be baptized
  • Canon III: Baptismal graces afford the remission of sins and assistance against occasions of sin
  • Canon IV: Grace provides knowledge, inspiration and desire to perform required duty
  • Canon V: Without grace no good is possible
  • Canon VI: Christians should humbly admit that they have sinned
  • Canon VII: Minor exposition of the Lord's Prayer "forgive our trespass
  • Canon VIII: Those who say "forgive our trespass" in humility but not in truth has lied in his heart.
  • 24 of 75 392 years later
    First Council of Ephesus addresses Nestorius doctrine 431 AD
    First Council of Ephesus addresses Nestorius doctrine
    First Council of Ephesus addresses Nestorius doctrine that Jesus was two distinct person. Complete diety of Christ as fully human and fully God that homeostase (One Unity and inseparatable) reaffirmed. Nicene Creed reaffirmed.Nestorian's Christotokos (Bringer forth of Christ) was rejected as heresy, while Theotokos is affirmed. Mary the mother(God bearer) for both 'Jesus the Man' and 'Jesus the God' that inseparable (Homousia) affirmed 120 yrs later in 2nd council of Constantinople 553 CE, while the Theotokos foundation was started in this council.
    25 of 75 401 years later
    Council of Ephesus
    Jesus' divine and human nature emphasized equally. Virgin Mary is Mother of God
    431 AD
    Council of Ephesus
    Jesus' divine and human nature emphasized equally. Virgin Mary is Mother of God

    Pope Celestine I, 422-432
    Emperor Theodosius II, 408-450
    Cyril of Alexandria

    The Council of Ephesus, of more than 200 bishops, presided over by St. Cyril of Alexandria representing Pope Celestine I, defined the true personal unity of Christ, declared Mary the Mother of God (theotokos) against Nestorius, Bishop of Constantinople, and renewed the condemnation of Pelagius.

  • Convened regarding Nestorianism, defended by Nestorius, and condemned by Saint Cyril of Alexandria
  • Condemned Pelagianism, which held that man could earn his own salvation through his natural powers.
  • Condemned Nestorianism which denied the unity of Christ's divinity and humanity. Nestorianism manifested this in the rejection of the traditional term 'Theotokos' (literally, 'God Birth-Giver')
  • Condemned belief that Mary only gave birth to the Lord's humanity and should thus be called 'Christotokos'
  • Defined that Mary is the Mother of God (Theotokos), a doctrine denied by the Nestorians and by most of today's Protestants
  • Defined that the Lord Jesus Christ was a single person who was fully God and fully human
  • Since mother's give birth to persons (not natures), Mary should be known as 'Theotokos'
  • Insisting on the unity of the two natures in the one person of Christ
  • Upheld Christology of Saint Cyril of Alexandria
  • The Symbol of Faith (Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed) was affirmed
  • Any changes to Nicene Creed were forbidden with punishment of deposition for clerics and excommunication for laity prescribed
  • Established that the rights of each province should be preserved and inviolate (i.e. bishops from one province have no rights over other provinces)
  • 26 of 75 401 years later
    Council at Constantinople 448 AD
    Council at Constantinople

    Convened regarding Eutychianism (Monophysitism), which was defended by Eutyches and condemned by Saint Flavian. Eutyches, who rejects the 'union'.
  • The belief of 'two natures' in 'one person' is condemned
  • 27 of 75 418 years later
    Council at Ephesus ('Robber Council') 449 AD
    Council at Ephesus ('Robber Council')
    After Eutyches appeals to the patriarch of Alexandria (Dioscorus) who exonerates him (although it was against canon law to do so)
  • To restricts the number of Flavian's supporters allowed to attend whilst augmenting the number of Eutyches' supporters
  • Chaired by Dioscorus who refuses to allow Flavian to speak in his own defence
  • Refusal to hear Saint Leo of Rome's Tome of Leo (his response to reports of the Synod of 448)
  • Eutyches is exonerated
  • Saint Flavian deposed (and then beaten to death by supporters of Eutyches)
  • To declare anyone who confess 'two natures' in the Lord Jesus Christ's Person are declared anathema
  • 28 of 75 419 years later
    Council of Chalcedon
    Jesus is one divine person, both God and Man with two natures, human and divine
    451 AD
    Council of Chalcedon
    Jesus is one divine person, both God and Man with two natures, human and divine

    Pope Leo the Great, 440-461
    Emperor Marcian, 450-457

    The Council of Chalcedon -- 150 bishops under Pope Leo the Great and the Emperor Marcian -- defined the two natures (Divine and human) in Christ against Eutyches, who was excommunicated.

  • Convened regarding Eutychianism (Monophysitism), which was defended by Eutyches and Dioscorus, and condemned by Saint Leo (the Great) of Rome
  • Condemned Monophysitism which denied Christ's human nature.
  • Annulled and invalidated 'Robber Council' of 449 in Ephesus
  • Condemned Eutyches and Dioscorus
  • Affirmed canons of previous three Ecumenical (Imperial) Councils
  • Condemned Monophysitism
  • After examination of the Tome of Leo affirmed it as 'the faith of the Fathers'
  • Affirmed completeness of the two natures of the Lord Jesus Christ: divinity and humanity (perfect God and perfect man).
  • Condemned Nestorianism and those 'who divide the one and only-begotten Son'.
  • Condemned simony
  • Reaffirmed prohibitions of bishops acting outside their territory
  • Reaffirmed New Rome (Constantinople) as second in honour (following Old Rome) of the patriarchates
  • 29 of 75 421 years later
    Council of Carthage (Vandal) 484 AD
    Council of Carthage (Vandal)
    Vandal King Huneric

    The Vandal Synod of Carthage (484) was a largely unsuccessful church council meeting called by the Vandal King Huneric.
  • To persuade the Catholic bishops in his recently acquired North African territories to convert to Arian Christianity.
  • The Catholic bishops refused and many, including Fulgentius of Ruspe and Tiberiumus, were exiled to Sardinia, and some executed.
  • The Notitia Provinciarum at Civitatum Africa says that nearly 500 went into exile.
  • The bishops had requested that Catholic bishops from outside Huneric's dominions be allowed to attend but this was refused
  • The king reportedly said "When you make me master of the whole world, then what you want shall be done".
  • The synod appears to have been an exercise in royal browbeating more than a genuine debate, with bias toward Arian bishops.
  • 30 of 75 454 years later
    Council of Orange 529 AD
    Council of Orange
    Convened regarding Pelagianism.
  • Condemned various beliefs of Pelagianism: that humans are unaffected by Adam's sin
  • Condemned belief a person's move towards God can begin without grace
  • Condemned belief an increase of faith can be attained apart from grace
  • Condemned belief that salvation can be attained apart from the Holy Spirit
  • Condemned belief that man's free will can be restored from its destruction apart from baptism
  • Condemned belief that 'merit' may precede grace
  • Condemned belief that man can do good and attain salvation without God's help
  • 31 of 75 499 years later
    Council of Constantinople II
    Jesus, incarnation of the Word had a single, divine nature, or a 'mix' of human and divine
    553 AD
    Council of Constantinople II
    Jesus, incarnation of the Word had a single, divine nature, or a 'mix' of human and divine

    Pope Vigilius, 537-555
    Emperor Justinian I, 527-565

    The Second General Council of Constantinople, of 165 bishops under Pope Vigilius and Emperor Justinian I, condemned the errors of Origen and certain writings (The Three Chapters) of Theodoret, of Theodore, Bishop of Mopsuestia and of Ibas, Bishop of Edessa; it further confirmed the first four general councils, especially that of Chalcedon whose authority was contested by some heretics.

    Convened regarding Monophysitism (Nestorianism) and Origenism. Nestorius, Theodore of Mopsuestia, Eutyches, and Origen defended these issues, which were condemned by Emperor (Saint) Justinian (the Great).
  • Condemned the person and writings of Theodore of Mopsuestia, who had been Nestorius' teacher
  • Condemned those who declared the Logos to be a different God than the one called Christ and who taught the Lord Jesus Christ was troubled by desires of human flesh and passions of the human soul
  • Condemned writings of Thedoret of Cyrus which rejected Saint Cyril of Alexandria's Christology
  • Condemned Ibas of Edessa's letter to Maris the Persian for its Nestorian tone
  • Condemned writings of Diodorus of Tarsus as Nestorian
  • Repeated condemnations from previous councils of Arius, Eunomius, Macedonius, Apollinaris, Nestorius, and Eutyches
  • Condemned Origen, Didymus, and Evagrius
  • Condemned belief in the pre-existence of souls, re-incarnation
  • Condemned belief in the ultimate salvation of demons
  • Condemned belief that heavenly bodies possessed souls, and other errors
  • 32 of 75 523 years later
    Council of Todelo (Spain) 589 AD
    Council of Todelo (Spain)
    In an effort to combat Arianism in Spain by making the Son like the Father in all things (specifically, being a source of the Holy Spirit's procession although this subordinated the Holy Spirit), added the additional phrase 'and the Son' (the Filioque) to the Nicene-Constantinoplitan Creed despite declarations of previous Ecumenical (Imperial) Councils that no changes were to be made in perpetuity. It was this belief in a 'double procession' of the Holy Spirit that led to the eventual separation between Orthodoxy in the East and Roman Catholicism in the West.
    33 of 75 559 years later
    Council of Constantinople III
    Jesus had both human and divine will, not one will
    680 AD
    Council of Constantinople III
    Jesus had both human and divine will, not one will

    Pope Agatho, 678-681
    Emperor Constantine IV, 668-685

    Convened regarding Monothelitism, representing Sergius, Pyrrhus, Paul, Peter, Pope Honorius, and Cyrus.

    The Third General Council of Constantinople, under Pope Agatho and the Emperor Constantine Pogonatus, was attended by the Patriarchs of Constantinople and of Antioch, 174 bishops, and the emperor. It put an end to Monothelitism by defining two wills in Christ, the Divine and the human, as two distinct principles of operation. It anathematized Sergius, Pyrrhus, Paul, Macarius, and all their followers.
  • Condemned Monothelitism (a belief that Jesus Christ had only one will and one energy).
  • Condemned as Monothelite heretics Sergius, Pyrrhus, Paul, and Peter (Patriarchs of Constantinople); Pope Honorius; Patriarch Cyrus of Alexandria, and others
  • Affirmed that Jesus Christ, though but one person, after His incarnation possessed two natural wills and two natural energies, just as He possessed two natures.
  • Censured Pope Honorius I for a letter in which he made an ambiguous but not infallible statement about the unity of operations in Christ (an episode commonly used by anti-Catholic writers as an argument against papal infallibility)
  • 34 of 75 650 years later
    Council in Trullo (Constantinople) 692 AD
    Council in Trullo (Constantinople)
    This Council was held in Constantinople (aka in Trullo, literally, 'under the dome' because of the building used) It was convened due to the lack of canons from Fifth and Sixth Ecumenical Councils, Called by Emperor to promulgate canons necessary to correct issues still outstanding from the previous Councils.
  • Professed faith in all the previous Ecumenical Councils
  • Anathematised those who did not 'hold and embrace' the dogmas promulgated by these Councils
  • Prohibited ordination of man married more than once or married to previously married woman
  • Deposition of any clergy discovered to be guilty of same or marrying after ordination
  • Declared the patriarch of New Rome (Constantinople) should have equal privileges as the patriarch of Old Rome
  • Established monastic regulations
  • Enacted canon permitting only the Liturgy of the Pre-Sanctified (a vespers service where communion is received from that which was previously consecrated) on days of Lent because these are days of fasting (Saturdays, Sundays, and the Feast of the Annunciation excluded)
  • Enacted canons regarding fasting (prohibition of fasting on Saturdays or Sundays, except Holy Saturday; prohibition of eggs and cheese)
  • Enacted canon mandating excommunication for one week for laymen administering the Divine Mysteries when a bishop, priest, or deacon present
  • Condemned soothsaying, fortune-telling, casting of spells, superstition, etc.
  • Prohibited marriage to heretics.
  • Made assisting in abortion or having abortion equivalent to murder
  • Established procedures for accepting heretics into the Church
  • 35 of 75 662 years later
    Council in Constantinople 754 AD
    Council in Constantinople
    After many years of persecution by the Iconoclast Emperor Leo III and his son, the Iconoclast Emperor Constantine V, a council was called to 'determine' if images were proper.
  • Patriarchates of Rome, Antioch, Alexandria, and Jerusalem refused to participate
  • The bishops who were compelled to attend, accepted the heresy of Iconoclasm under pressure from the emperor
  • Saint John of Damascus and Saint Germanus of Constantinople condemned for idolatry of images.
  • 36 of 75 724 years later
    Second Ecumenical Council of Nicaea 787 AD
    Second Ecumenical Council of Nicaea
    The Second Ecumenical Council of Nicaea, which adopted the canon of Carthage. At this point, both the Latin West and the Greek/Byzantine East had the same canon. However, the non-Greek, Monophysite and Nestorian Churches of the East (the Copts, the Ethiopians, the Syrians, the Armenians, the Syro-Malankars, the Chaldeans, and the Malabars) were still left out. But these Churches came together in agreement in 1442 AD in Florence.
    37 of 75 757 years later
    Council of Nicaea II
    Worship and honour of holy pictures and images
    787 AD
    Council of Nicaea II
    Worship and honour of holy pictures and images

    Pope Hadrian I, 772-795
    Emperor Constantine VI, 780-797

    Convened regarding Iconoclasm. The decisions of the council of 754 were never accepted by the faithful and was resisted by the monasteries (despite fierce persecution from the government). Upon the death of the Iconoclast Emperor Leo IV (son of Constantine V, grandson of Leo III) and the beginning of the regency of Empress Irene, the reign of Iconoclasm came to an end.

    The Second Council of Nicaea was convoked by Emperor Constantine VI and his mother Irene, under Pope Adrian I, and was presided over by the legates of Pope Adrian; it regulated the veneration of holy images. Between 300 and 367 bishops assisted.
  • This council annulled the council of 754 and condemned Iconoclasm
  • Condemned iconoclasm (which was mainly confined to the East), a heresy that held that the use of images constituted idolatry
  • Affirmed veneration (but not adoration, which was for God alone) of images
  • Condemned Adoptionism, which held that Christ was not the Son of God by nature but only by adoption, thereby denying the hypostatic union
  • Germanus and John of Damascus proclaimed saints
  • Condemned simony
  • Decreed that those secretly keeping Jewish customs (e.g. keeping the Sabbath) but pretending to be Christians should live as Jews openly, but be excluded from the Church
  • Established monastic regulations
  • 38 of 75 757 years later
    Council in Frankfurt 794 AD
    Council in Frankfurt
    Opposed decisions of Nicaea II, denying it had been an ecumenical council. Pope Hadrian condemned for supporting Nicaea II.
  • The worship of images, under the terms worship, adoration, and service of any kind, was forbidden
  • Destruction of images was also opposed, inasmuch as the synod did not condemn depictions as decorations or tools for instructing the illiterate, only the worship or adoration of depictions
  • 39 of 75 764 years later
    Council in Aachen 809 AD
    Council in Aachen
    Decreed that belief in the Filioque (Trinity) was necessary for salvation.
    40 of 75 779 years later
    Council in Constantinople 861 AD
    Council in Constantinople
    Established regulations for monasticism.
  • Requiring local bishop's permission to build monaster
  • Condemned castration
  • Established regulations for clergy
  • 41 of 75 831 years later
    Council in Constantinople 867 AD
    Council in Constantinople
    Tension begun by Frankish missionaries in Bulgaria, acting as Pope Nicholas' emissaries, began to introduce the Symbol of Faith with the addtion of the Filioque (Trinity).
  • Escalated by desire on part of Rome and Constantinople to have jurisdiction in Bulgaria.
  • Pope Nicholas, who in 865 for the first time put forward the never-before-heard claim that the Pope had authority 'over all the earth, that is, over every Church.'
  • This council, convened by Saint Photius and including archbishops of Treves, Cologne and Ravenna from the West, excommunicated and condemned Pope Nicolas
  • 42 of 75 837 years later
    Council in Constantinople 870 AD
    Council in Constantinople
    Only 12 bishops attended at first, and attendance never exceeded 103. The legates of Pope Adrian II presided. Saint Photius had already been condemned, without a hearing, at a Roman synod and Pope Adrian, taking advantage of political changes in Constantinople, pressed for a council.
  • Saint Photius' defense was cut short, and when he refused to sign his own condemnation, he was excommunicated
  • The result of these councils was to intensify the bitterness between East and West
  • Not regarded as 'Ecumenical' by Roman Catholicism until 11th or 12th century, it has never been accepted by Orthodoxy
  • 43 of 75 840 years later
    Council of Constantinople IV
    Disagreement between Eastern Christianity and Rome
    880 AD
    Council of Constantinople IV
    Disagreement between Eastern Christianity and Rome

    Pope Hadrian II, 867-872
    Emperor Basil, 867-886

    The Fourth General Council of Constantinople, under Pope Adrian II and Emperor Basil numbering 102 bishops, 3 papal legates, and 4 patriarchs, consigned to the flames the Acts of an irregular council (conciliabulum) brought together by Photius against Pope Nicholas and Ignatius the legitimate Patriarch of Constantinople; it condemned Photius who had unlawfully seized the patriarchal dignity. The Photian Schism, however, triumphed in the Greek Church, and no other general council took place in the East.

  • Recondemned Adoptionism
  • Resolved scandals between East and West regarding Bulgaria
  • Expelled those who did not recognise Nicaea II as 7th Ecumenical Council
  • Outlawed and repudiated local councils of Rome and Constantinople against Saint Photius
  • Deposed Photius as patriarch of Constantinople, thereby ending the Photian Schism, but this did not completly remove disaffections between the West and the East (in 1054 came the final break, when the Eastern Orthodox Churches broke away from unity with Rome).
  • Established that the Symbol of Faith from Constantinople I (the Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed) was to be forever 'un-innovated' and 'immutable'
  • Required those excommunicated by Rome to be treated as such by Constantinople and vice-versa
  • Accepted by all five patriarchates, including Pope John VIII
  • 44 of 75 850 years later
    Council in Constantinople 1082 AD
    Council in Constantinople
    Convened regarding John Italus.
  • Condemned those who seek to discover exactly how the Word was joined to His human substance
  • Greek doctrines of the soul, heaven, earth, and creation
  • The destruction of the soul after death
  • Those who say that creation is eternal or immutable
  • Those who do not accept the miracles of Christ, the Theotokos, and all his saints
  • Those who think Greek philosophy true
  • That creation is not the result of God's free will
  • The pre-existence of souls
  • Those who deny that creation is created ex nihilo
  • Those who say that hell is temporary or that all of creation will be restored
  • Those who understand the Kingdom of Heaven to be temporary
  • 45 of 75 1052 years later
    Council of Lateran I
    Peace between Church and State
    1123 AD
    Council of Lateran I
    Peace between Church and State

    Pope Callistus II, 1119-1124
    Emperor Henry V, 1105-1125

    The First Lateran Council, the first held at Rome, met under Pope Callistus II. About 900 bishops and abbots assisted. It abolished the right claimed by lay princes, of investiture with ring and crosier to ecclesiastical benefices and dealt with church discipline and the recovery of the Holy Land from the infidels.

  • Confirmed the Concordat of Worms (1122), in which the Pope and Emperor sought to end the dispute over investiture (the attempt by the secular powers to assume authority in appointing bishops; this was a main source of Church/state friction during the Middle Ages).
  • 46 of 75 1093 years later
    Council of Lateran II
    Roger II of Sicily is excommunicated
    1139 AD
    Council of Lateran II
    Roger II of Sicily is excommunicated

    Pope Innocent II, 1130-1143
    Emperor Conrad III, 1138-1152

    The Second Lateran Council was held at Rome under Pope Innocent II, with an attendance of about 1000 prelates and the Emperor Conrad. Its object was to put an end to the errors of Arnold of Brescia.

  • Ended a papal schism by antipope Anacletus II;
  • reaffirmed baptism of infants;
  • reaffirmed the sacramental nature of the priesthood, marriage, and the Eucharist against Medieval heretics;
  • decreed that holy orders is an impediment to marriage, making the attempted marriage of a priest invalid.
  • 47 of 75 1109 years later
    Synod of Blachernae in Constantinople 1157 AD
    Synod of Blachernae in Constantinople
    Convened regarding Basilakes and Soterichus.
  • Condemned those who say Christ offered His sacrifice to the Father alone, and not to himself and to the Holy Spirit
  • Those who say the sacrifice of the Divine Liturgy is only figuratively the sacrifice of Christ's body and blood
  • Those who deny that the sacrifice in the Liturgy is one and the same as that of Christ on the cross
  • Those who say men were reconciled to the Son through the incarnation and to the Father through the passion
  • Those who think the deification of Christ's humanity destroyed his human nature
  • Those who deny that his deified human nature is worthy of worship
  • Those who say that, since the human nature of Christ was swallowed up into Divinity, his passion was an illusion
  • Those who say that characteristics of Christ's human nature (creaturehood, circumscription, mortality, and blameless passions) exist only hypothetically, when one considers Christ's human nature in abstraction, and not really and truly
  • 48 of 75 1127 years later
    Council in Constantinople 1166 AD
    Council in Constantinople
    Convened regarding Constantine the Bulgarian.
  • Condemned those who maintain that 'My father is greater than I' refers only to Christ's human nature, taken in abstraction and who explain the statement in various ways, one of which is that the statement refers to the fact that Christ's human nature retained its properties in the hypostatic union
  • 49 of 75 1136 years later
    Council of Lateran III
    Condemnation of Albigenses and Waldenses
    1179 AD
    Council of Lateran III
    Condemnation of Albigenses and Waldenses

    Pope Alexander III, 1159-1181
    Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, 1152-1190

    The Third Lateran Council took place under Pope Alexander III, Frederick I being emperor. There were 302 bishops present. It condemned the Albigenses and Waldenses and issued numerous decrees for the reformation of morals.
  • Regulated papal elections by requiring a two-thirds vote of the cardinals;
  • condemned Waldensianism and Albigensianism, a form of Manichaeanism (an ancient heresy that held that matter is evil;
  • Albigensians opposed the authority of the state and of the Church, opposed the sacrament of matrimony, and practiced ritual suicide;
  • despite these tenets, many anti-Catholics believe Albigensianism was the continuation of "real Christianity" during the Middle Ages and was a forerunner of Protestantism).
  • 50 of 75 1149 years later
    Council of Lateran IV
    Transubstantiation, bread and wine become Body and Blood of Jesus
    1215 AD
    Council of Lateran IV
    Transubstantiation, bread and wine become Body and Blood of Jesus

    Pope Innocent III, 1198-1216
    Emperor Otto IV, 1209-1215

    he Fourth Lateran Council was held under Innocent III. There were present the Patriarchs of Constantinople and Jerusalem, 71 archbishops, 412 bishops, and 800 abbots the Primate of the Maronites, and St. Dominic. It issued an enlarged creed (symbol) against the Albigenses (Firmiter credimus), condemned the Trinitarian errors of Abbot Joachim, and published 70 important reformatory decrees. This is the most important council of the Middle Ages, and it marks the culminating point of ecclesiastical life and papal power.
  • Ordered annual reception of penance and the Eucharist;
  • used the term "transubstantiation" to explain the Real Presence of Christ in the Eucharist;
  • adopted further canons against the Albigensians.
  • 51 of 75 1185 years later
    Council of Lyons I
    Promote the war against the Turks
    1245 AD
    Council of Lyons I
    Promote the war against the Turks

    Pope Innocent IV, 1243-1254
    Emperor Frederick II, 1220-1250

    The First General Council of Lyons was presided over by Innocent IV; the Patriarchs of Constantinople, Antioch, and Aquileia (Venice), 140 bishops, Baldwin II, Emperor of the East, and St. Louis, King of France, assisted. It excommunicated and deposed Emperor Frederick II and directed a new crusade, under the command of St. Louis, against the Saracens and Mongols.
  • Excommunicated and deposed Frederick II for heresy and crimes against the Church.
  • 52 of 75 1215 years later
    Council of Lyons II
    Holy Spirit proceeds eternally from Father and Son
    1274 AD
    Council of Lyons II
    Holy Spirit proceeds eternally from Father and Son

    Pope Gregory X, 1271-1276
    Emperor Rudolf I, 1273-1291

    The Second General Council of Lyons was held by Pope Gregory X, the Patriarchs of Antioch and Constantinople, 15 cardinals, 500 bishops, and more than 1000 other dignitaries. It effected a temporary reunion of the Greek Church with Rome. The word filioque was added to the symbol of Constantinople and means were sought for recovering Palestine from the Turks. It also laid down the rules for papal elections.
  • Motivated by a desire of popes to gain recognition of primacy and by a desire of emperors to receive material and martial aide. Emperor Michael basically compelled the few Orthodox bishops in attendance to rubber-stamp papal claims.
  • Rejected throughout the East and regarded as meaningless
  • Effected only temporary union of the Eastern Churches with the Roman Church;
  • Emperor Michael's sister stated: 'Better my brother's empire should perish than the purity of the Orthodox faith.'
  • Promulgated regulations for conclaves
  • Repudiated by Michael's successor
  • 53 of 75 1244 years later
    Council at Constantinople 1285 AD
    Council at Constantinople
    Convened regarding the Procession of the Holy Spirit. Clarified the teaching on the Holy Spirit's origin.

    The Statement: It is recognised that the very Paraclete shines and manifests Himself eternally by the intermediary of the Son, as light shines from the sun by the intermediary of rays ...; but that does not mean that He comes into being through the Son or from the Son.
    54 of 75 1255 years later
    Council of Vienne
    Suppress order of Knights Templars. Reform abuses in Church
    1311 AD
    Council of Vienne
    Suppress order of Knights Templars. Reform abuses in Church

    Pope Clement V, 1305-1314
    Emperor Henry VII, 1308-1313

    The Council of Vienne was held in that town in France by order of Clement V, the first of the Avignon popes. The Patriarchs of Antioch and Alexandria, 300 bishops (114 according to some authorities), and 3 kings -- Philip IV of France, Edward II of England, and James II of Aragon -- were present. The synod dealt with the crimes and errors imputed to the Knights Templars, the Fraticelli, the Beghards, and the Beguines, with projects of a new crusade, the reformation of the clergy, and the teaching of Oriental languages in the universities.
  • Suppressed the Knights Templars;
  • issued decrees on the reform of morals.
  • 55 of 75 1281 years later
    Council at Constantinople
    1349 AD
    Council at Constantinople

    Gregory Palamas

    Convened regarding Barlaam the Calabrian and Acindynus.
  • Condemned Barlaam the Calabrian and Acindynus
  • Condemned those who think the light of Christ's Transfiguration was an apparition, or the essence of God and those who do not believe the divine light is the uncreated grace and energy of God which proceeds from God's essence
  • Condemned those who do not recognise the undivided distinction between God's essence and his energy
  • Condemned those who deny the energy of God is uncreated
  • Condemned those who say the distinction between energy and essence implies that God is not simple and uncompounded
  • Condemned those claim the term 'Godhead' should only be applied to the essence of God, and not to the divine energy
  • Condemned those who maintain the Divine Essence can be communicated
  • 56 of 75 1319 years later
    Council of Constance
    Transubstantiation, bread and wine is changed into the Body, Blood, Soul and Divinity of Jesus
    1414 AD
    Council of Constance
    Transubstantiation, bread and wine is changed into the Body, Blood, Soul and Divinity of Jesus

    Popes Gregory XII, 1406-1415
    Emperor Sigismund, 1410-1437

    It deposed John XXIII and Benedict XIII whilst the third pope, Gregory XII, resigned. This settled the division of mutliple claimants to the papacy and cleared the way for the Council's election of Martin V.

    The Council of Constance was held during the great Schism of the West, with the object of ending the divisions in the Church. It became legitimate only when Gregory XII had formally convoked it. Owing to this circumstance it succeeded in putting an end to the schism by the election of Pope Martin V, which the Council of Pisa (1403) had failed to accomplish on account of its illegality. The rightful pope confirmed the former decrees of the synod against Wyclif and Hus. This council is thus ecumenical only in its last sessions (42-45 inclusive) and with respect to the decrees of earlier sessions approved by Martin V.
  • Taught that a general council was highest authority (higher than pope) and required regular meeting of bishops in general council
  • Ended the Great Schism, which involved three rival claimaints to the papacy
  • Opposed the teachings of John Wycliffe, who taught sola scriptura, denied the authority of the pope and bishops, denied the Real Presence of Christ in the Eucharist, and wrote against penance and indulgences
  • Condemned as a heretic John Huss, who denied papal authority and taught wrongly about the nature of the Church and who was burned at the stake in 1415 (in 1457 his followers established what became known commonly as the Moravian Church, which was the first independent Protestant church)
  • 57 of 75 1384 years later
    Council of Basel 1431 AD
    Council of Basel
    Met in accordance with decree of Constance.
  • Re-affirmed that a general council was superior in authority to a pope
  • Pope demanded the council be transferred to Ferrara, but only a minority of bishops complied with most continuing to meet in Basel
  • 58 of 75 1401 years later
    Council of Ferrara 1438 AD
    Council of Ferrara
    Motivated by a desire of popes to gain recognition of primacy and by a desire of emperors to receive material and military assistance. Began in Ferrara, was subsequently transferred to Florence.
  • Primary focus was Filioque (Trinity). Ended with most Orthodox bishops accepting addition of Filioque
  • Claims of papal primacy
  • Accepting Latin notion of Purgatory
  • Upon return to East, most bishops renounced agreement which had been forced on them by Emperor John
  • Soundly rejected by Orthodox faithful throughout Roman Empire and Slavic areas
  • Officially repudiated by Constantinople Patriarchate in 1472
  • Served as model for Roman Catholicism's Uniates
  • 59 of 75 1408 years later
    Council of Florence
    Roman Pontiff holds primacy over entire world. He is the successor of Peter, prince of the Apostles
    1440 AD
    Council of Florence
    Roman Pontiff holds primacy over entire world. He is the successor of Peter, prince of the Apostles

    Pope Eugene IV, 1431-1447
    Emperors: Albert II, 1438-1439
    Frederick III, 1440-1493

    The Council of Basle met first in that town, Eugene IV being pope, and Sigismund Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. Its object was the religious pacification of Bohemia. Quarrels with the pope having arisen, the council was transferred first to Ferrara (1438), then to Florence (1439), where a short-lived union with the Greek Church was effected, the Greeks accepting the council's definition of controverted points. The Council of Basle is only ecumenical till the end of the twenty-fifth session, and of its decrees Eugene IV approved only such as dealt with the extirpation of heresy, the peace of Christendom, and the reform of the Church, and which at the same time did not derogate from the rights of the Holy See.
  • Reaffirmed papal primacy against claims of conciliarists that an ecumenical council is superior to a pope;
  • approved reunion with several Eastern Churches, but the reunion was only temporary.
  • 60 of 75 1410 years later
    Ecumenical Council of Florence 1442 AD
    Ecumenical Council of Florence
    At the Ecumenical Council of Florence, the entire Church recognized the 27 books. This council confirmed the Roman Catholic Canon of the Bible which Damasus I, bishop of Rome, had published a thousand years earlier. So, by 1439 AD, all orthodox branches of the Church were legally bound to the same canon. This is 100 years before the Reformation.
    61 of 75 1412 years later
    Council at Constantinople 1484 AD
    Council at Constantinople
  • Condemned Council of Florence
  • Condemned Filioque
  • Determined that Latin converts to Orthodoxy should be received into the Church only by Chrismation and by signing an appropriate Statement (Libellus) of Faith which would include denunciation of Latin errors.
  • Composed Acolouthy (Service) for the Reception of Latins into the Orthodox Church
  • 62 of 75 1454 years later
    Council of Lateran V
    Pope's authority over all Church Councils
    1515 AD
    Council of Lateran V
    Pope's authority over all Church Councils

    Popes Julius II, 1503-1513
    Leo X, 1513-1521
    Emperor Maximilian I, 1493-1519

    The Fifth Lateran Council sat from 1512 to 1517 under Popes Julius II and Leo X, the emperor being Maximilian I. Fifteen cardinals and about eighty archbishops and bishops took part in it. Its decrees are chiefly disciplinary. A new crusade against the Turks was also planned, but came to naught, owing to the religious upheaval in Germany caused by Luther.
  • Opposed erroneous teachings about the soul;
  • reaffirmed the doctrine of indulgences;
  • restated the relationship between popes and ecumenical councils;
  • on the eve of the Protestant Reformation, failed to inaugurate an authentic and thoroughgoing reform of the Church, inadvertently helping Protestantism.
  • 63 of 75 1485 years later
    Ecumenical Council of Trent 1546 AD
    Ecumenical Council of Trent
    At the Ecumenical Council of Trent, the Catholic Church reaffirmed once and for all the full list of 27 books. The council also confirmed the inclusion of the Deuterocanonical books which had been a part of the Bible canon since the early Church and was confirmed at the councils of 393 AD, 373 AD, 787 AD and 1442 AD. At Trent, the Church of Rome actually dogmatized the canon, making it more than a matter of canon law, which had been the case up to that point, closing it for good.
    64 of 75 1516 years later
    Council of Trent
    Original sin defined. Condemnation of Luther and Calvin
    1563 AD
    Council of Trent
    Original sin defined. Condemnation of Luther and Calvin

    Popes Paul III, 1534-1549
    Julius III, 1550-1555
    Pius IV, 1559-1565
    Emperors Charles V, 1519-1558
    Ferdinand I, 1558-1564

    The Council of Trent lasted eighteen years (1545-1563) under five popes: Paul III, Julius III, Marcellus II, Paul IV and Pius IV, and under the Emperors Charles V and Ferdinand. There were present 5 cardinal legates of the Holy See, 3 patriarchs, 33 archbishops, 235 bishops, 7 abbots, 7 generals of monastic orders, and 160 doctors of divinity. It was convoked to examine and condemn the errors promulgated by Luther and other Reformers, and to reform the discipline of the Church. Of all councils it lasted longest, issued the largest number of dogmatic and reformatory decrees, and produced the most beneficial results.
  • Affirmed Catholic doctrines against the errors of the Protestant Reformers;
  • reaffirmed teachings on the role of the Bible and Tradition, grace, sin, justification by faith (not "faith alone"), the Mass as a real sacrifice, purgatory, indulgences, jurisdiction of the pope;
  • initiated the Counter-Reformation;
  • reformed the clergy and morals;
  • promoted religious instruction;
  • ordered the establishment of seminaries for the future training of priests.
  • 65 of 75 1533 years later
    Synod of Jerusalem 1583 AD
    Synod of Jerusalem
    Convened regarding various Roman Catholic beliefs. The 1583 Synod of Jerusalem condemned the following:
    1. Those who do not believe the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father alone in essence, and from Father and Son in time;
    2. Those who believe the Lord Jesus Christ used unleavened bread at the Last Supper;
    3. Those who believe in Purgatory;
    4. Those who believe the pope, rather than the Lord Jesus Christ is head of the Church;
    5. Those who use the Gregorian calendar and its new Paschalion.
    66 of 75 1553 years later
    Council at Iasi (Romania) 1642 AD
    Council at Iasi (Romania)
  • Re-affirmed as 'genuine parts of scripture': 1 Esdras (3 Esdras in the Vulgate), Tobit, Judith, three books of the Maccabees, Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus (Ben Sira), Baruch and the Letter of Jeremiah
  • Approved revised version of Confession of Peter of Moghila corrected for its Roman Catholic errors (purgatory, the claim that the change in the eucharistic bread and wine occurs at the 'words of institution'.
  • 67 of 75 1612 years later
    Council of Jerusalem 1672 AD
    Council of Jerusalem
    Convened regarding Cyril Lukaris.
  • Condemned Calvinism of Cyril Lukaris
  • Re-affirmed procession of the Holy Spirit from Father alone
  • Condemned 'justification through faith alone'
  • Explicitly listed Wisdom, Judith, Tobit, The History of the Dragon, Susanna, Maccabees, and Sirach as 'genuine parts of Scripture'
  • Denied unregenerate man is totally depraved.
  • Statement: We believe a man to be not simply justified through faith alone, but through faith which works through love, that is to say, through faith and works. But we regard works not as witnesses certifying our calling, but as being fruits in themselves, through which faith becomes efficacious, and as in themselves meriting, through the Divine promises, that each of the faithful may receive what is done through his own body, whether it is good or bad.
    68 of 75 1642 years later
    Council at Constantinople 1727 AD
    Council at Constantinople
    Convened regarding Purgatory. Condemned the innovation of purgatory.
    69 of 75 1697 years later
    Council at Constantinople 1755 AD
    Council at Constantinople
    Convened regarding Baptism. Decreed that all Westerners, Latin or Protestant had invalid sacraments and were only to be admitted into the Orthodox Church through Baptism.
    70 of 75 1725 years later
    Council at Constantinople 1819 AD
    Council at Constantinople
    Endorsed the teaching of the Kollyvades monks (frequent communion, the empirical experience of hesychasm against metaphysical speculations and rationalism, etc.)
    71 of 75 1789 years later
    Council of Vatican I
    Pope infallibility
    1870 AD
    Council of Vatican I
    Pope infallibility

    Pope Pius IX, 1846-1878

    The Vatican Council was summoned by Pius IX. It met 8 December, 1869, and lasted till 18 July, 1870, when it was adjourned; it is still (1908) unfinished. There were present 6 archbishop-princes, 49 cardinals, 11 patriarchs, 680 archbishops and bishops, 28 abbots, 29 generals of orders, in all 803. Besides important canons relating to the Faith and the constitution of the Church, the council decreed the infallibility of the pope when speaking ex cathedra, i.e. when as shepherd and teacher of all Christians, he defines a doctrine concerning faith or morals to be held by the whole Church.
  • Defined papal infalliblity and primacy;
  • condemned errors regarding the relationship between faith and reason (the council was cut short by war, its work to be taken up again by Vatican II).
  • 72 of 75 1840 years later
    Council at Constantinople 1872 AD
    Council at Constantinople
    Convened regarding Phyletism. Condemned Phyletism, the heresy that the organisation of the Church should be along racial (ethnic) lines in the same geographical area.
    73 of 75 1842 years later
    Council at Constantinople (Inter-Orthodox Congress) 1923 AD
    Council at Constantinople (Inter-Orthodox Congress)
    Authorised local churches to use the Revised Julian calendar whilst maintaining the traditional Paschalion.
    74 of 75 1893 years later
    Council of Vatican II
    Constitution on Sacred Liturgy
    1966 AD
    Council of Vatican II
    Constitution on Sacred Liturgy

    Popes John XXIII, 1958-1963
    Paul VI, 1963-1978
  • Issued pastoral documents on the renewal and reform of the Church, intending the make the Church more effective in dealing with the contemporary world.
  • 75 of 75 1936 years later
    All Timeline events are historical and dating is approximate, or Circa. Circa (from Latin, meaning 'around, about') signifies 'approximately'. Circa is widely used in historical writing when event dates are not accurately known.

    1. Church Councils includes local, general and ecumenical councils.
    2. 'Year' may be the exact year, or the earliest year where a range applies. (for example, Council of Vienne dated 1311-1312, and so 1311 AD is used)
    3. 'Years Later' is difference between the event year, and the first event year in the Timeline.

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    MuslimProphets.com is an educational website on the Prophets of God: Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus and Muhammad, who established the Abrahamic faiths of Judaism, Christianity and Islam. MuslimProphets.com explores contemporary social themes through Scripture, Evidences, Photo, Video, Maps, Current Affairs, Debate and 'alternative' Views held by Theologians, Apologists, Scholars and Street Preachers. Take a Site Tour

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