Church Councils

church fathers

For 300 years, Christianity was an outlawed religion

In 380 AD, a whole 347 years after Jesus' Crucifixion, Christianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire.

From thereon, Christian doctrine began its evolutionary journey.

The Bishop of Rome ('Pope') could call a Church Council of bishops to discuss religious matters. At the end, the Pope would officially sanction the decrees passed.

The table below lists ten major Church Councils and the decrees sanctioned.


Jesus' Crucifixion
33 AD
Although, the crucifixion of Jesus was not a formal Council, it was a gathering of 'a few women' followers of Jesus. What these women discussed as they watched on is unknown.
Year: 33 AD
Ecumenical: * NO
Attendance: A few women, based on gospel accounts
Discussed: Unknown
Council of Jerusalem I
48 AD
According to Acts, Jesus' disciples called the Council of Jerusalem to discuss major differences between two parties. This was not an official Council under Rome's rulership.

Peter & James
Jesus' disciples, Peter and James stressed the importance of Judaism, its laws and upholding the views of the stringent Jewish-Christian community that had lived and studied with Jesus in his lifetime. At the time, Jesus' followers were Jewish by birth, and even new Christian converts were considered within Judaism.

Paul
The other party, led by Paul stressed the mission of Christians to the whole inhabited world, with particular emphasis on the Gentiles (or non-Jews).

Christianity, a new religion for the Gentiles was born
Paul succeeded. Christianity would no longer be contained within Jerusalem. Christian theology would be updated in subsequent church councils and designed to appeal to mass audiences across the world.
Year: 48 AD
15-years after Jesus
Ecumenical: NO
Attendance: Unknown
Discussed:
  1. Relevance of Judaism
Council of Nicaea I
325 AD
The First Council of Nicaea, the first ecumenical council, devoted itself to the problem of the Trinity, in an attempt to settle the controversy raised by Arianism over the nature of the Trinity.

Jesus Christ is, 'God of God, and of one substance with the Father'
It was the decision of the council, formalized in the Nicene Creed, that God the Father and God the Son were consubstantial and co-eternal

The Arian belief that Jesus was created by and thus inferior to the Father was deemed heretical. Arius himself was excommunicated and banished.

The council was also important for its disciplinary decisions concerning the status and jurisdiction of the clergy in the early church and for establishing the date on which Easter is celebrated.
Year: 325 AD
292-years after Jesus
Ecumenical: YES
Attendance: 318
Discussed:
  1. Arianism, the nature of Christ
  2. celebration of Passover (Easter)
  3. ordination of eunuchs
  4. prohibition of kneeling on Sundays and from Easter to Pentecost
  5. validity of baptism by heretics
  6. lapsed Christians
  7. sundry other matters
Council of Constantinople I
381 AD
Constantinople I was called primarily to confront Arianism. It re-affirmed the doctrines of the Nicene Creed and condemned Apollinarianism. The council affirmed the doctrine that Jesus was fully human and fully God.

The Holy Spirit is co-equal with the Father
The council defined the position of the Holy Spirit within the Trinity; it described the Holy Spirit proceeded from God the Father, co-equal and consubstantial with him.
Year: 381 AD
348-years after Jesus
Ecumenical: YES
Attendance: 150
Discussed:
  1. Arianism
  2. Apollinarism
  3. Sabellianism
  4. Holy Spirit
  5. successor to Meletius
Council of Carthage
397 AD
The Bible Canon as we have it today, was finalized
Carthage formally decided on the Bible canon for the first-time ever, some 60 years after Constantine's death and 360 years after Jesus' crucifixion.

What we know of Carthage is limited, as the only surviving records are indirect accounts and depictions in other sources.

The actual compilation of the Bible was an incredibly complicated project that involved churchmen of different beliefs, in an atmosphere of dissension, jealousy, intolerance, persecution and bigotry.

It was also determined that besides the Canonical Scriptures nothing be read in the Church under the title of divine Scriptures.

The Canonical Scriptures are these: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, Joshua the son of Nun, Judges, Ruth, four books of Kings, two books of Paraleipomena, Job, the Psalter, five books of Solomon, the books of the twelve prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezechiel, Daniel, Tobit, Judith, Esther, two books of Esdras, two Books of the Maccabees.

Of the New Testament: four books of the Gospels [Mark, Matthew, Luke, John], one book of the Acts of the Apostles, thirteen Epistles of the Apostle Paul, one epistle of the same [writer] to the Hebrews, two Epistles of the Apostle Peter, three of John, one of James, one of Jude, one book of the Apocalypse of John.
Year: 397 AD
364-years after Jesus
Ecumenical: YES
Attendance: Unknown number
Discussed:
  1. Bible canon
  2. books to include and exclude
Council of Ephesus I
431 AD
Ephesus was significant for its dogmatic decrees on the position of the Virgin Mary and he nature of the incarnation of Jesus Christ. It was in response to the Nestorian teachings that Mary was the 'mother of Christ', and not the 'mother of God'.

Mary is the mother of God
After lengthy debates, the council reached a decision: Mary is the 'mother of God', was decreed by the council and accepted by all.

The council also refined the dogma on the human and divine nature of Jesus; two separate natures, though perfectly united in Christ.
Year: 431 AD
398-years after Jesus
Ecumenical: YES
Attendance: 200-250
Discussed:
  1. Nestorianism
  2. Theotokos
  3. Pelagianism
Council of Chalcedon
451 AD
Chalcedon defined how the divine and the human elements related in Jesus ("unconfusedly, unchangeably, indivisibly, inseparably"), used some terms that are unfamiliar to contemporary ears.

Jesus' is fully-God and fully-human
Chalcedon was in response to the confusion among the early theologians on the idea of the one divine person being both God and man, or were their two natures: human and divine, in the one person of the Word?
Year: 451 AD
418-years after Jesus
Ecumenical: YES
Attendance: 520
Discussed:
  1. Nature of Jesus' divinity
Council of Orange
529 AD
Augustine held that all humans required God's help to do good and His grace was a free gift from God regardless of human merit.

God decides who will receive Salvation
Thus God alone determines who will receive the grace that alone assures salvation; God predestines some to salvation.

Augustine's teaching was generally upheld by the church, but the further idea that some are predestined to condemnation was explicitly rejected at the Council of Orange.
Year: 529 AD
496-years after Jesus
Ecumenical: YES
Attendance: 15
Discussed:
  1. Salvation, pre-destined by God
Council of Constantinople II
553 AD
Constantinople II was convoked to condemn the Nestorian writings and re-confirm the doctrine that Jesus's two natures, one human and one divine, are perfectly united in one person.
Year: 553 AD
520-years after Jesus
Ecumenical: YES
Attendance: 152
Discussed:
  1. Nestorianism Origenism
Council of Constantinople III
680 AD
Constantinople III condemned Monothelitism and affirmed that Jesus has two wills, one human and one divine, and they are without division or confusion.
Year: 680 AD
647-years after Jesus
Ecumenical: YES
Attendance: 300
Discussed:
  1. Monothelitism
  2. human will of Jesus
  3. divine will of Jesus
Council of Nicaea II
787 AD
This Council ruled on the use of saints' images and icons in religious devotion, declaring that whereas the veneration of images was legitimate and the intercession of saints effective, the veneration of icons must be carefully distinguished from the worship due God alone.
Year: 787 AD
754-years after Jesus
Ecumenical: YES
Attendance: 350
Discussed:
  1. Iconoclasm


* Ecumenical Council is a conference of ecclesiastical dignitaries and theological experts convened to discuss and settle matters of Church doctrine and practice.

CREDIT
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_seven_Ecumenical_Councils
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Outline_of_the_Catholic_ecumenical_councils
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Catholic_ecumenical_councils
https://www.gotquestions.org/Constantine-Bible.html
http://www.tertullian.org/rpearse/nicaea.html
http://mb-soft.com/believe/txs/councils.htm
  Share Article if you found it useful
7928 views · 34 mins ago |   Author: Guest   •   Updated: 11 Jun 2019
ALL ARTICLES ARE INTENDED FOR GENERAL EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES ONLY. ALL INFORMATION IS BELIEVED TO BE CORRECT, ACCURATE AND TRUTHFUL. YOU ARE ADVISED TO DO YOUR OWN RESEARCH. ARTICLES ARE LIVE DOCUMENTS AND MAY BE UPDATED WITH NEW CONTENT AT ANY TIME. WHERE AVAILABLE, SOURCES AND REFERENCES ARE CREDITED. IF YOU SPOT ANY ERRORS, OMISSIONS OR GIVE FEEDBACK KINDLY CONTACT US WITH DETAILS
117-christian-church-councils

5  Videos with 'Church+council'
Video: 24:18
3244 views · 21 mins ago | 7 years ago
1 of 5   
Video: 50:14
6848 views · 2 hrs ago | 6 years ago
2 of 5   
Video: 7:32
3653 views · 27 mins ago | 6 years ago
3 of 5   
Video: 5:42
7294 views · 54 mins ago | 6 years ago
4 of 5   
Video: 56:50
5869 views · 53 mins ago | 5 years ago
5 of 5   


News on 'Church council'

Results: 0 News Items
Displayed in Date Order (most recent first)
Watch Video 
NAVIGATE ARTICLES
ORDER: Article Title A-Z
Articles
All Articles (154)
10 Commandments - Bible vs Quran
20519 views · 3 hrs ago
10 Commandments - Christian vs Muslim
12927 views · 8 hrs ago
10 Red Heifers (Cows)
13551 views · 1 hr ago
5 reasons Abraham sacrificed Ishmael
11428 views · 3 hrs ago
Abrahamic Religions
15811 views · 5 hrs ago
Angels - 41 Angels from the Abrahamic Religions
17470 views · 28 mins ago
Are you a Muslim?
40612 views · 8 hrs ago
Arius vs Bishop Athanasius
15402 views · 5 hrs ago
Bible - 12% of New Testament copied from Old Testament
10888 views · 56 mins ago
Bible - 18 Ego Eimi (I AM) statements, like John 8:58
14514 views · 58 mins ago
Bible - 27 Verses on Yahweh, Elohim(s) and The Gods
15994 views · 4 hrs ago
Bible - 400 NT Jesus Prophecies copied from OT
8161 views · 1 hr ago
Bible - 75 Verses on drinking Wine & Alcohol
14663 views · 3 hrs ago
Bible - Exodus 3:14 Translations
10418 views · 1 hr ago
Bible - King James (KJV) & 37 'Disputed' Verses
8450 views · 4 hrs ago
Bible - Lost Books of the Bible
9081 views · 5 hrs ago
Bible - Mark 16:9-20 Text Analysis
9598 views · 13 hrs ago
Bible - Matthew 28:19: Greek vs Hebrew
16563 views · 2 hrs ago
Bible - Pagan Texts in the Bible
8434 views · 9 mins ago
Bible - Revelation, A Forgery
9581 views · 9 hrs ago
Bible - Scholars on John's Gospel
9177 views · 2 hrs ago
Bible - The Synoptic Problem
9242 views · 6 hrs ago
Bible - Violence & Killings
8185 views · 4 hrs ago
Bible Authors: Who Wrote It?
9831 views · 7 hrs ago
Bible Errors - 672 Variants
8816 views · 4 hrs ago
Bible History - KJV vs NIV
9834 views · 3 hrs ago
Bible NT - 55% of New Testament Papyrus contain under 3% of Biblical Text
8291 views · 15 hrs ago
Bible NT - Codex Sinaiticus exposes 312 year gap since Jesus crucifixion
9197 views · 2 hrs ago
Bible NT Canons - Church Fathers, Councils & Apocrypha
6676 views · 8 hrs ago
Bible OT - Dead Sea Scrolls expose a 1303 year gap since Moses life
6946 views · 7 hrs ago
Bible OT Canons - Church Fathers, Councils & Apocrypha
7311 views · 10 hrs ago
Bible Verses - KJV vs NIV
10155 views · 38 mins ago
Blasphemy Laws in 35 Christian Countries
6783 views · 3 hrs ago
Book Burnings in Roman, Catholic and Protestant society
11058 views · 52 mins ago
Catholic vs Protestant - Bible
8454 views · 10 hrs ago
Catholic vs Protestant - Christianity
8937 views · 46 mins ago
Child Abuse & Grooming Gangs (UK)
6171 views · 12 mins ago
Child Abuse, Sexual Crimes & Prison Figures (UK)
7326 views · 10 hrs ago
Child Marriage - Muhammad married 9-year old Aisha
15661 views · 6 hrs ago
Christian Heresies
8610 views · 2 hrs ago
Christian: 28 Heretical Sects
9669 views · 2 hrs ago
Christian: 32 Church Denominations
6516 views · 18 hrs ago
Christianity: Founded by Paul on Road to Damascus, Syria
7775 views · 1 hr ago
Church Councils
7928 views · 34 mins ago
Church Fathers - Quotes from 18 Men of God
8339 views · 11 mins ago
Church Fathers on Jesus Divinity
10135 views · 47 mins ago
Codex Sinaiticus & Vaticanus - Corruption in the KJV Bible books
13817 views · 54 mins ago
Codex Sinaiticus & Vaticanus - Corruption in the KJV Bible verses
11646 views · 2 hrs ago
Constantine and Christianity
10937 views · 7 hrs ago
Constantine, Nicaea and History
9017 views · 4 hrs ago
Council of Nicaea 325 AD
8806 views · 3 hrs ago
COVID deaths vs Other Causes
4586 views · 11 mins ago
COVID: 7 Medical Studies on why Face Masks fail
5129 views · 5 hrs ago
COVID: Lockdowns & Contact Tracing in 78 Countries
7977 views · 2 hrs ago
COVID: Monthly UK deaths compared over 5 Years (2015-20)
5050 views · 3 hrs ago
COVID: Weekly UK deaths compared over 5-Years (2015-20)
4598 views · 3 hrs ago
Did Jesus pray to God or Allah?
16625 views · 6 hrs ago
God (Allah) - His Names & Attributes
11920 views · 1 hr ago
God vs Allah
9857 views · 10 hrs ago
God, Evidence For
6883 views · 36 mins ago
Gods & Roman Emperors
6610 views · 5 mins ago
Gods - 6 Dying & Rising Mythical Gods
11306 views · 9 hrs ago
Gods - 60 Pagan deities in the Bible
25507 views · 1 hr ago
How do Muslims pray?
11838 views · 5 hrs ago
Ishmael and Isaac in Bible and Quran
14820 views · 2 hrs ago
Islam: Biggest Threat to Europe?
5595 views · 3 hrs ago
Islamic Countries. Who are they?
6726 views · 16 hrs ago
Jesus - 91% chance he was a fictitous Mythical-Hero (Raglan Scale)
7755 views · 1 hr ago
Jesus - 17 'Crucified' Savior Gods
7321 views · 15 hrs ago
Jesus - Crucifixion in the Gospels
8482 views · 3 hrs ago
Jesus - Crucifixion Timing
8187 views · 38 mins ago
Jesus - God of 99 Faces
13464 views · 20 mins ago
Jesus - God with No Face
6709 views · 5 hrs ago
Jesus - Resurrection in the Gospels
7456 views · 4 hrs ago
Jesus - Resurrection Theories
7731 views · 7 mins ago
Jesus - Sons of God
11288 views · 2 hrs ago
Jesus and the 12 Disciples
12479 views · 2 hrs ago
Jesus in the Quran
9474 views · 24 mins ago
Jesus on the Cross or Tree?
10224 views · 2 hrs ago
Jesus the God
11590 views · 6 hrs ago
Jesus the Jewish Prophet
9254 views · 10 hrs ago
Jesus the Muslim
9895 views · 7 hrs ago
Jesus the Son of God
7034 views · 6 mins ago
Jesus the Sun-God over 12 Zodiac Star Gods
24006 views · 10 hrs ago
Jesus vs Isaac - The Sacrifice
11188 views · 8 mins ago
Jesus vs Jonah & Whale
10470 views · 10 hrs ago
Jesus vs Krishna
14174 views · 2 hrs ago
Jesus vs Paul
10843 views · 6 hrs ago
Jesus vs Romulus - 50 Reasons both are Mythical Gods
11315 views · 9 mins ago
Jesus vs Zeus
27513 views · 59 mins ago
Jesus was 30, 40 or 50 years old?
11946 views · 11 hrs ago
Jesus, 12 Disciples and Paul Interview
10014 views · 4 hrs ago
Jesus, from Iesous and Yeshua
10797 views · 1 hr ago
Jesus, Serapis & 7 Pagan Gods
26275 views · 34 mins ago
Jewish Laws & Rituals
7502 views · 6 mins ago
Judaism - Maimonides 13 Principles of Jewish Belief
9231 views · 1 hr ago
Mark, Matthew, Luke and John
12457 views · 2 hrs ago
Messiah - His Aims & Objectives
7242 views · 5 hrs ago
Messiah - Jesus?
7805 views · 3 hrs ago
Monotheism vs Polytheism
7760 views · 9 hrs ago
Muhammad - Most Influential Man in History
9753 views · 10 hrs ago
Muhammad in Bible: He is is altogether lovely - Song 5:16
16290 views · 44 mins ago
Muhammad in Bible: Kedar rejoice and Sela sing - Isaiah 41/42
19802 views · 1 hr ago
Muhammad in Bible: Prophet like unto Moses - Deuteronomy 18:18
19998 views · 2 hrs ago
Muhammad in Bible: Select Verses
11057 views · 3 hrs ago
New Age - Alice Bailey's 10 Point Charter
15853 views · 59 mins ago
Nicene Creed - Council of Nicaea 325 AD
9285 views · 57 mins ago
Nicene Creed - Foundation of Christianity
7077 views · 1 hr ago
Noahide Laws
8942 views · 26 mins ago
Palestine and Creation of Israel in 1948
11905 views · 6 hrs ago
Paul - 50% of his Writings are Inauthentic Forgeries
7865 views · 32 mins ago
Paul copied 152 Old Testament verses
7110 views · 1 hr ago
Paul vs James
8893 views · 6 hrs ago
Prophets - Sinful Beings in the OT Bible
6607 views · 9 hrs ago
Prophets of God
51252 views · 3 hrs ago
Prophets were Sinners?
19812 views · 1 hr ago
Purpose of Life
8490 views · 9 hrs ago
Quran - 5 Recitations: Hafs, Warsh, Hisham, Qalun & Al-Duri
15566 views · 5 mins ago
Quran - A Mathematical Miracle
16793 views · 2 hrs ago
Quran - Chapter & Verse Miracle
7615 views · 3 hrs ago
Quran - Comparing Hafs & Warsh for 51 textual variants
55153 views · 1 hr ago
Quran and Violence
10156 views · 4 hrs ago
Quran refers to Torah & Gospel
15286 views · 5 hrs ago
Quran vs Science
9309 views · 3 hrs ago
Roman Calendar
10070 views · 2 hrs ago
Roman Emperors in Bible
5314 views · 4 hrs ago
Rome, Caesar & Emperors in the Bible
8082 views · 7 hrs ago
Sin Atonement: Jesus Blood vs 21 Offerings
4203 views · 18 mins ago
Terrorism, the Risk to Americans
6016 views · 5 hrs ago
The Lost Gospels
11902 views · 27 mins ago
The Prophets Prayer
10022 views · 1 hr ago
Timeline of Bible
6963 views · 5 hrs ago
Timeline of Church Councils
8560 views · 47 mins ago
Timeline of Muhammad
7124 views · 5 hrs ago
Timeline of New Testament Bible
9383 views · 4 hrs ago
Timeline of Old Testament Bible
9828 views · 5 hrs ago
Timeline of Prophets
32602 views · 17 mins ago
Timeline of Quran
16201 views · 44 mins ago
Timeline of Roman Empire
7642 views · 3 hrs ago
Timeline of Trinity
7993 views · 2 hrs ago
Torah - Did Moses Write It?
8957 views · 4 hrs ago
Torah - Wellhausen/JEDP Theory
9438 views · 9 hrs ago
Trinity - 13 Three God Pagan concepts
9700 views · 32 mins ago
Trinity - 27 Attributes of the Father, Son and Holy Ghost
13839 views · 2 hrs ago
Trinity - 4 Creeds: Apostles, Nicene, Athanasian to Chalcedon over 418 years
10557 views · 4 hrs ago
Trinity - Different Views
8645 views · 6 hrs ago
Trinity - Three Are One
9121 views · 1 hr ago
Trinity in the Bible
7546 views · 7 hrs ago
UN Agenda 21/2030: 17 Sustainable Goals of the New World Order
6312 views · 5 hrs ago
War - 46 Major Conflicts ranked by Religion
8943 views · 1 hr ago
War - 67 Bloody Christian Conflicts
6392 views · 16 hrs ago
War - From Yinon, 9/11 to Springs, Invasions, ISIS & 6M Dead
8937 views · 39 secs ago
What does LGBTQ+ mean?
6921 views · 7 hrs ago
Women in Religion
9472 views · 1 hr ago

Submit Article


Latest videos  •  5,958 videos  •  0 viewed/24 hour

ARTICLES

0 viewed · 24 hour
Are you a Muslim?
3 mins | Online Test
Church Councils
7929 views · 1 sec ago
War - From Yinon, 9/11 to Springs, Invasions, ISIS & 6M Dead
8937 views · 40 secs ago
Quran - 5 Recitations: Hafs, Warsh, Hisham, Qalun & Al-Duri
15566 views · 5 mins ago
Gods & Roman Emperors
6610 views · 5 mins ago
Jewish Laws & Rituals
7502 views · 6 mins ago
ARTICLES   154

SCRIPTURE

Torah 5   BOOKS
Psalms 1   BOOK
Old Testament 32   BOOKS
New Testament 27   BOOKS
Apocrypha 1885 14   BOOKS
Gospels/Texts 367   BOOKS
Codex 120   BOOKS
Quran 1   BOOK
Hadith 10   BOOKS
SCRIPTURES   580

NEWS

0 viewed · 24 hour
  COVID-19 Testing & Tracing Action Plan - Rockefeller Foundation
7255 views · 5 hrs ago · 01 Jul
Saudi Food Wholesaler profits hit $24M on higher food demand in [...] - Arab News
4789 views · 5 hrs ago · 11 May
Saudi Arabia approves Moderna COVID Vaccine for children aged 6 years [...] - The National
5932 views · 4 hrs ago · 25 Apr
Covid Crisis: Australians returning from India may be jailed for 5 [...] - The Guardian
6027 views · 6 hrs ago · 01 May
Upto 5-years jail for anyone who transmits COVID in public in Saudi [...] - Arab News
5959 views · 6 hrs ago · 25 Apr
Coronavirus: Abu Dhabi police urge reports of illegal Ramadhan [...] - The National
5358 views · 7 hrs ago · 25 Apr
NEWS   1,564
About Us  |  Help/FAQ  |  Contact Us    •    Terms  |  Privacy/Disclaimer
Be Informed on Social :      Facebook Page  |    Twitter  |    Youtube
MuslimProphets.com is an educational website on the Prophets of God: Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus and Muhammad, who established the Abrahamic faiths of Judaism, Christianity and Islam. MuslimProphets.com explores contemporary social themes through Scripture, Evidences, Photo, Video, Maps, Current Affairs, Debate and 'alternative' Views held by Theologians, Apologists, Scholars and Street Preachers. Take a Site Tour

In accordance with Islamic etiquette, all prophet names should be followed with 'Peace Be Upon Him (PBUH)'. This is omitted to minimise text.

DISCLAIMER: All website content is for general information and educational purposes only and available in the public domain. Whilst all information comes from sources believed to be reliable, this cannot be guaranteed. External links are provided as a convenience and for informational purposes only. They do not constitute endorsement or approval for any products, services or comments by organizations or individuals. External links text may be edited to improve internal site and keyword search options. We bear no responsibility for the accuracy, legality, or content found on any external website or its subsequent links. Unless indicated, all images and content is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License distributed by Wikipedia, Wikimedia Commons, Pixabay, Pxhere, Pexels, Unsplash or Flickr. All Torah, Psalms, Old and New Testament Bible quotes are from the King James Version (KJV) Holy Bible in the public domain. All Quran quotes are from Taqi-ud-Din al-Hilali/Muhsin Khan English Quran translation. You are invited to always conduct your own research. If you spot any mistake, error or omission of information, contact us so we can correct it.
Clustrmaps