In truth, many of the early Jewish believers were slipping back into the rites and rituals of Judaism in order to escape the mounting persecution.

This letter is an exhortation for those persecuted believers to continue in the grace of Jesus Christ.
W Epistle_to_the_Hebrews
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Authorship: (Assumed)
Flavius Arrianus, grandson of Arrius Piso (circa 140 AD)

The True Authorship of the New Testament, by Abelard Reuchlin 1986
[source]


Flavius Arrianus was the real name of the historian who wrote as 'Appian'. This person was the half-brother of the emperor Antoninus Pius. Antoninus Pius, by the way, also wrote history under the name of Suetonius. Flavius Arrianus also wrote other works, most notably, he wrote under the name of 'Ptolemy'.
Year Written: (Assumed)
70-90 AD
Manuscript: (Earliest Available)
175-225 AD - Fragment - Papyrus(12,13,17,46)
Scripture Type:
Letters - Other
An epistle (or letter) is a writing directed or sent to a person or group of people, usually an elegant and formal didactic letter. Other epistles are known as catholic (or general) epistles.
Further Reading:

www.openbible.info/geo/preview/heb
google.com/search
   VIDEO (17 ) | HEBREWS
BIBLE CANONS (5) | HEBREWS
BIBLE CANON
A list of Texts a particular religious community regard as authoritative scripture
1. Marcion Canon (140 AD)
Marcionism was a religious movement based on the teachings of the 2nd-century Marcion of Sinope. Marcions Canon lists 14 books out of the 27 books in the New Testament. More specifically, these were Luke and Paul's 13 writings. Marcion even rejected the entire Old Testament of 39 books.

bible.ca/marcion
W Marcion_of_Sinope

Hebrews was Rejected (0%) by Marcion Canon
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
2. Muratorian Canon (170 AD)
The Muratorian Canon is an ancient list of New Testament books - the oldest such list we have found and lists 22 of the 27 books that were later included in the New Testament of the Christian Bible.

It is noteworthy that the Muratorian Canon omits several epistles that later did win acceptance in the Christian New Testament such as the books of James and 2 Peter.

gotquestions.org/muratorian
W Muratorian_fragment

Hebrews was Rejected (0%) by Muratorian Canon
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
3. Apostolic Canon (300 AD)
Apostolic Canons or Ecclesiastical Canons
W Canons_of_the_Apostles

Hebrews was Fully Accepted (100%) by Apostolic Canon
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
4. Cheltenham/ Mommsen List (360 AD)
The Cheltenham or Mommsen List is a Latin manuscript discovered by the German classical scholar Theodor Mommsen (published 1886) which probably originated in North Africa in the 4th century.

It has 24-book Old Testament and 24-book New Testament which omits Jude and James, and perhaps Hebrews, and questions the epistles of John and Peter.

bible-researcher.com/cheltenham
W Theodor_Mommsen

Hebrews was Rejected (0%) by Cheltenham/ Mommsen List
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
5. Council of Rome (382 AD)
The Council of Rome was a meeting of Catholic Church officials and theologians which took place in 382 under the authority of Pope Damasus I, bishop of Rome.

According to a document appended to some manuscripts, the Council of Rome affirmed the authority of the Old and New Testament canon in a decretal or damasine list.
W Council_of_Rome

Hebrews was Fully Accepted (100%) by Council of Rome
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
Bible Canon (367 AD)
In 367 AD, Bishop Athanasius of Alexandria, first gave a list of the 27-books to become the New Testament 'Bible Canon'
W Development_of_the_New_Testament_canon

CHURCH FATHERS (17) | HEBREWS
Bible Canon (367 AD)
In 367 AD, Bishop Athanasius of Alexandria, first gave a list of the 27-books to become the New Testament 'Bible Canon'
W Development_of_the_New_Testament_canon

TEXTUAL CRITICISM | HEBREWS
CHURCH FATHER
Ancient and generally influential Christian theologians, eminent teachers and great bishops
1. Clement of Rome (97 AD)

Hebrews was Approved (75%) by Clement of Rome
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
2. Ignatius of Antioch (110 AD)

Hebrews was Rejected (0%) by Ignatius of Antioch
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
3. Barnabas (130 AD)

Hebrews was Approved (75%) by Barnabas
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
4. Hermas (140 AD)

Hebrews was Approved (75%) by Hermas
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
5. Papias of Hierapolis (140 AD)

Hebrews was Rejected (0%) by Papias of Hierapolis
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
6. Polycarp (150 AD)

Hebrews was Rejected (0%) by Polycarp
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
7. Didache (150 AD)

Hebrews was Rejected (0%) by Didache
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
8. Diognetus (150 AD)

Hebrews was Rejected (0%) by Diognetus
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
9. Justin Martyr (155 AD)

Hebrews was Rejected (0%) by Justin Martyr
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
10. Irenaeous (202 AD)

Hebrews was Approved (75%) by Irenaeous
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
11. Clement of Alexandria (215 AD)

Hebrews was Fully Accepted (100%) by Clement of Alexandria
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
12. Tertullian (220 AD)

Hebrews was Approved (75%) by Tertullian
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
13. Origen (254 AD)

Hebrews was Disputed (50%) by Origen
(Dubious; useful for inspiration)
14. Eusebius of Caesarea (340 AD)

Hebrews was Fully Accepted (100%) by Eusebius of Caesarea
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
15. Athanasius of Alexandria (367 AD)

Hebrews was Fully Accepted (100%) by Athanasius of Alexandria
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
16. Cyril of Jerusalem (386 AD)

Hebrews was Fully Accepted (100%) by Cyril of Jerusalem
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
17. Augustine of Hippo (400 AD)

Hebrews was Fully Accepted (100%) by Augustine of Hippo
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
Textual Criticism

EVIDENCE: Was Paul the Author?
Today, it is assumed Paul is the author. However, it is known that Paul extensively used Scribes ('Amanuensis') to write his letters. Paul dictated his thoughts and the Scribe wrote the letter as they saw fit. Therefore, all, if not the majority of Paul's Epistles (letters) in the New Testament Bible are authored by unknown Scribes.
EVIDENCE: Paul had a troubling 'Thorn'
In his Corinthians letter, Paul speaks of a 'Thorn In My Flesh' troubling him. Bible scholars have 4 theories on the 'thorn':

    1 Physical Sickness - The 'thorn' is a physical sickness (i.e. malaria, malta fever, epilepsy, convulsive attacks, chronic ophthalmia etc.). Many of these illnesses affect the eye-sight and would explain why Paul suffered from poor vision.
    2 Mental Illness - The 'thorn' is a mental illness (i.e. brain disorder, hallucination, schizophrenia, depression etc.)
    3 Spiritual Problem - The 'thorn' is a spiritual or moral problem (i.e. demon, evil-spirit, devil possession etc.)
    4 Ministerial Opposition - The 'thorn' is the Jewish persecution, opposition and resistance to Paul's ministry. This is considered a weak theory because if Paul was referring to a opposing person or movement, he would have referred to such individuals by name.

EVIDENCE: Paul had Eye-Sight Problems
It is known that Paul used Scribes ('Amanuensis') to write his letters as he suffered from poor eye-sight and was unable to write. According to early sources, Paul was 'a short, bony, little Jew with constant running eyes from his eye problems, squinting with a very large angular nose'.

    See what large letters I use as I write to you with my own hand [Paul's eyesight was defective and he needed help to write]

    As you know, it was because of an illness that I first preached the gospel to you, and even though my illness was a trial to you, you did not treat me with contempt or scorn. Instead, you welcomed me as if I were an angel of God, as if I were Christ Jesus himself. Where, then, is your blessing of me now? I can testify that, if you could have done so, you would have torn out your eyes and given them to me.

    Paul replied, Brothers, I did not know [due to bad eye-sight] that he was the high priest; for it is written: 'Do not speak evil about the ruler of your people.'

EVIDENCE: Church was aware of Paul's Eye-Sight problem
In Galatians, Paul confirms the Galatian Church was aware of his eye-sight problem. So much so, they would have 'plucked out their own eyes and given them to him' were it possible.

    Where, then, is your blessing of me now? I can testify that, if you could have done so, you would have torn out your eyes and given them to me.

EVIDENCE: Paul used Scribes to write his Epistles (Letters)
Paul composed his letters in accordance with the writing conventions of his time. Scribes were essential as the skills required for writing with primitive pens and paper made writing legibly a challenge.

Tertius was one Roman Scribe ('Amanuensis') who wrote on behalf of Paul. Tertius wrote Paul's Epistles (letters), either from notes, ideas or direct from Paul's mouth. At the end of the Epistle (letter), Paul would conclude with personal greetings in his own writing. [John Gill's commentary]

Timothy is present as Paul and Tertius write Romans. Did Timothy have any influence over the final text? If so, what was that influence? Was any text in Romans written by Timothy?

    I, Tertius, the one writing this letter for Paul, send my greetings, too, as one of the Lord's followers

    Paul, write this greeting in my own hand. Remember my chains. Grace be with you.

    I, Paul, write this greeting in my own hand, which is the distinguishing mark in all my letters. This is how I write.

    I, Paul, write this greeting in my own hand.

    Timothy, my co-worker, sends his greetings to you, as do Lucius, Jason and Sosipater, my fellow Jews.

SCRIPTURE TEXT (28) | HEBREWS
Hebrews   |   Chapter: 7   |   Verses: 28
Chapter:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
To whom also Abraham gave a tenth part of all; first being by interpretation King of righteousness, and after that also King of Salem, which is, King of peace;
1 of 28
Without father, without mother, without descent, having neither beginning of days, nor end of life; but made like unto the Son of God; abideth a priest continually.
2 of 28
Now consider how great this man was, unto whom even the patriarch Abraham gave the tenth of the spoils.
3 of 28
And verily they that are of the sons of Levi, who receive the office of the priesthood, have a commandment to take tithes of the people according to the law, that is, of their brethren, though they come out of the loins of Abraham:
4 of 28
But he whose descent is not counted from them received tithes of Abraham, and blessed him that had the promises.
5 of 28
And without all contradiction the less is blessed of the better.
6 of 28
And here men that die receive tithes; but there he receiveth them, of whom it is witnessed that he liveth.
7 of 28
And as I may so say, Levi also, who receiveth tithes, payed tithes in Abraham.
8 of 28
For he was yet in the loins of his father, when Melchisedec met him.
9 of 28
If therefore perfection were by the Levitical priesthood, (for under it the people received the law,) what further need was there that another priest should rise after the order of Melchisedec, and not be called after the order of Aaron?
10 of 28
For the priesthood being changed, there is made of necessity a change also of the law.
11 of 28
For he of whom these things are spoken pertaineth to another tribe, of which no man gave attendance at the altar.
12 of 28
For it is evident that our Lord sprang out of Juda; of which tribe Moses spake nothing concerning priesthood.
13 of 28
And it is yet far more evident: for that after the similitude of Melchisedec there ariseth another priest,
14 of 28
Who is made, not after the law of a carnal commandment, but after the power of an endless life.
15 of 28
For he testifieth, Thou art a priest for ever after the order of Melchisedec.
16 of 28
For there is verily a disannulling of the commandment going before for the weakness and unprofitableness thereof.
17 of 28
For the law made nothing perfect, but the bringing in of a better hope did; by the which we draw nigh unto God.
18 of 28
And inasmuch as not without an oath he was made priest:
19 of 28
(For those priests were made without an oath; but this with an oath by him that said unto him, The Lord sware and will not repent, Thou art a priest for ever after the order of Melchisedec:)
20 of 28
By so much was Jesus made a surety of a better testament.
21 of 28
And they truly were many priests, because they were not suffered to continue by reason of death:
22 of 28
But this man, because he continueth ever, hath an unchangeable priesthood.
23 of 28
Wherefore he is able also to save them to the uttermost that come unto God by him, seeing he ever liveth to make intercession for them.
24 of 28
For such an high priest became us, who is holy, harmless, undefiled, separate from sinners, and made higher than the heavens;
25 of 28
Who needeth not daily, as those high priests, to offer up sacrifice, first for his own sins, and then for the people's: for this he did once, when he offered up himself.
26 of 28
For the law maketh men high priests which have infirmity; but the word of the oath, which was since the law, maketh the Son, who is consecrated for evermore.
27 of 28
Hebrews   |   Chapter: 7   |   Verses: 28
Chapter:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13


WARNING: Before You Read The Torah, Bible, Quran etc.
All SCRIPTURE TEXT has Context and Background. Text should never be read literally or in isolation. Always seek clarification from religious scholars and teachers. In general, to study Text requires four principles:

1. Literal Meaning - What the Text says
2. Historical Setting - The story events; how the Text was understood in its time
3. Grammar - The surrounding sentence and paragraph; textual context
4. Synthesis - A comparison with similar Texts to give a better contextual understanding

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