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Hebrews 13
6 of 25
Let brotherly love continue.
7 of 25
Be not forgetful to entertain strangers: for thereby some have entertained angels unawares.
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Remember them that are in bonds, as bound with them; and them which suffer adversity, as being yourselves also in the body.
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Marriage is honourable in all, and the bed undefiled: but whoremongers and adulterers God will judge.
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Let your conversation be without covetousness; and be content with such things as ye have: for he hath said, I will never leave thee, nor forsake thee.
11 of 25
So that we may boldly say, The Lord is my helper, and I will not fear what man shall do unto me.
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Remember them which have the rule over you, who have spoken unto you the word of God: whose faith follow, considering the end of their conversation.
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Jesus Christ the same yesterday, and to day, and for ever.
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Be not carried about with divers and strange doctrines. For it is a good thing that the heart be established with grace; not with meats, which have not profited them that have been occupied therein.
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We have an altar, whereof they have no right to eat which serve the tabernacle.
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For the bodies of those beasts, whose blood is brought into the sanctuary by the high priest for sin, are burned without the camp.
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Wherefore Jesus also, that he might sanctify the people with his own blood, suffered without the gate.
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Let us go forth therefore unto him without the camp, bearing his reproach.
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For here have we no continuing city, but we seek one to come.
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By him therefore let us offer the sacrifice of praise to God continually, that is, the fruit of our lips giving thanks to his name.
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But to do good and to communicate forget not: for with such sacrifices God is well pleased.
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Obey them that have the rule over you, and submit yourselves: for they watch for your souls, as they that must give account, that they may do it with joy, and not with grief: for that is unprofitable for you.
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Pray for us: for we trust we have a good conscience, in all things willing to live honestly.
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But I beseech you the rather to do this, that I may be restored to you the sooner.
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Now the God of peace, that brought again from the dead our Lord Jesus, that great shepherd of the sheep, through the blood of the everlasting covenant,
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Make you perfect in every good work to do his will, working in you that which is wellpleasing in his sight, through Jesus Christ; to whom be glory for ever and ever. Amen.
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And I beseech you, brethren, suffer the word of exhortation: for I have written a letter unto you in few words.
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Know ye that our brother Timothy is set at liberty; with whom, if he come shortly, I will see you.
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Salute all them that have the rule over you, and all the saints. They of Italy salute you.
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Grace be with you all. Amen.


Chapter:
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Hebrews 13
  CHURCH FATHERS: 17
1. Clement of Rome | CHURCH FATHER 97 AD
Hebrews was APPROVED (75%) by Clement of Rome
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
2. Ignatius of Antioch | CHURCH FATHER 110 AD
Hebrews was REJECTED (0%) by Ignatius of Antioch
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
3. Barnabas | CHURCH FATHER 130 AD
Hebrews was APPROVED (75%) by Barnabas
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
4. Hermas | CHURCH FATHER 140 AD
Hebrews was APPROVED (75%) by Hermas
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
5. Papias of Hierapolis | CHURCH FATHER 140 AD
Hebrews was REJECTED (0%) by Papias of Hierapolis
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
6. Polycarp | CHURCH FATHER 150 AD
Hebrews was REJECTED (0%) by Polycarp
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
7. Didache | CHURCH FATHER 150 AD
Hebrews was REJECTED (0%) by Didache
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
8. Diognetus | CHURCH FATHER 150 AD
Hebrews was REJECTED (0%) by Diognetus
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
9. Justin Martyr | CHURCH FATHER 155 AD
Hebrews was REJECTED (0%) by Justin Martyr
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
10. Irenaeous | CHURCH FATHER 202 AD
Hebrews was APPROVED (75%) by Irenaeous
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
11. Clement of Alexandria | CHURCH FATHER 215 AD
Hebrews was FULLY ACCEPTED (100%) by Clement of Alexandria
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
12. Tertullian | CHURCH FATHER 220 AD
Hebrews was APPROVED (75%) by Tertullian
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
13. Origen | CHURCH FATHER 254 AD
Hebrews was DISPUTED (50%) by Origen
(Dubious; useful for inspiration)
14. Eusebius of Caesarea | CHURCH FATHER 340 AD
Hebrews was FULLY ACCEPTED (100%) by Eusebius of Caesarea
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
15. Athanasius of Alexandria | CHURCH FATHER 367 AD
Hebrews was FULLY ACCEPTED (100%) by Athanasius of Alexandria
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
16. Cyril of Jerusalem | CHURCH FATHER 386 AD
Hebrews was FULLY ACCEPTED (100%) by Cyril of Jerusalem
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
17. Augustine of Hippo | CHURCH FATHER 400 AD
Hebrews was FULLY ACCEPTED (100%) by Augustine of Hippo
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
Hebrews 13
  BIBLE CANON: 5
A biblical canon is a set of texts (or "books") which a particular religious community regards as authoritative scripture. Christians were the first to use the term in reference to scripture.

These bible canons have developed through debate and agreement by the religious authorities.
W Biblical_canon
1. Marcion Canon | BIBLE CANON 140 AD
Marcionism was a religious movement based on the teachings of the 2nd-century Marcion of Sinope. Marcions Canon lists 14 books out of the 27 books in the New Testament. More specifically, these were Luke and Paul's 13 writings. Marcion even rejected the entire Old Testament of 39 books.

bible.ca/marcion
Hebrews was REJECTED (0%) by Marcion Canon
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
2. Muratorian Canon | BIBLE CANON 170 AD
The Muratorian Canon is an ancient list of New Testament books - the oldest such list we have found and lists 22 of the 27 books that were later included in the New Testament of the Christian Bible.

It is noteworthy that the Muratorian Canon omits several epistles that later did win acceptance in the Christian New Testament such as the books of James and 2 Peter.

gotquestions.org/muratorian
Hebrews was REJECTED (0%) by Muratorian Canon
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
3. Apostolic Canon | BIBLE CANON 300 AD
Apostolic Canons or Ecclesiastical Canons
Hebrews was FULLY ACCEPTED (100%) by Apostolic Canon
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
4. Cheltenham/ Mommsen List | BIBLE CANON 360 AD
The Cheltenham or Mommsen List is a Latin manuscript discovered by the German classical scholar Theodor Mommsen (published 1886) which probably originated in North Africa in the 4th century.

It has 24-book Old Testament and 24-book New Testament which omits Jude and James, and perhaps Hebrews, and questions the epistles of John and Peter.

bible-researcher.com/cheltenham
Hebrews was REJECTED (0%) by Cheltenham/ Mommsen List
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
5. Council of Rome | BIBLE CANON 382 AD
The Council of Rome was a meeting of Catholic Church officials and theologians which took place in 382 under the authority of Pope Damasus I, bishop of Rome.

According to a document appended to some manuscripts, the Council of Rome affirmed the authority of the Old and New Testament canon in a decretal or damasine list.
Hebrews was FULLY ACCEPTED (100%) by Council of Rome
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
Hebrews 13
  TEXTUAL CRITICISM
Was Paul the Author? Evidence
Today, it is assumed Paul is the author. However, it is known that Paul extensively used Scribes ('Amanuensis') to write his letters. Paul dictated his thoughts and the Scribe wrote the letter as they saw fit. Therefore, most of Paul's Epistles (letters) in the New Testament Bible are authored by unknown Scribes.
Paul had a troubling 'Thorn' Evidence
In his Corinthians letter, Paul speaks of a 'Thorn In My Flesh' troubling him. Bible scholars have 4 theories on the 'thorn':

    1. Physical Sickness - The 'thorn' is a physical sickness (i.e. malaria, malta fever, epilepsy, convulsive attacks, chronic ophthalmia etc.). Many of these illnesses affect the eye-sight and would explain why Paul suffered from poor vision.

    2. Mental Illness - The 'thorn' is a mental illness (i.e. brain disorder, hallucination, schizophrenia, depression etc.)

    3. Spiritual Problem - The 'thorn' is a spiritual or moral problem (i.e. demon, evil-spirit, devil possession etc.)

    4. Ministerial Opposition - The 'thorn' is the Jewish persecution, opposition and resistance to Paul's ministry. This is considered a weak theory because if Paul was referring to a opposing person or movement, he would have referred to such individuals by name.
Paul had poor Eye-Sight Evidence
It is known that Paul used Scribes ('Amanuensis') to write his letters as he suffered from poor eye-sight and was unable to write. According to early sources, Paul was 'a short, bony, little Jew with constant running eyes from his eye problems, squinting with a very large angular nose'.
See what large letters I use as I write to you with my own hand [Paul's eyesight was defective and he needed help to write]
As you know, it was because of an illness that I first preached the gospel to you, and even though my illness was a trial to you, you did not treat me with contempt or scorn. Instead, you welcomed me as if I were an angel of God, as if I were Christ Jesus himself. Where, then, is your blessing of me now? I can testify that, if you could have done so, you would have torn out your eyes and given them to me.
Paul replied, Brothers, I did not know [due to bad eye-sight] that he was the high priest; for it is written: 'Do not speak evil about the ruler of your people.'
Church was aware of Paul's Eye-Sight problem Evidence
In Galatians, Paul confirms the Galatian Church was aware of his eye-sight problem. So much so, they would have 'plucked out their own eyes and given them to him' were it possible.
Where, then, is your blessing of me now? I can testify that, if you could have done so, you would have torn out your eyes and given them to me.
Paul used Scribes to write his Epistles (Letters) Evidence
Paul composed his letters in accordance with the writing conventions of his time. Scribes were essential as the skills required for writing with primitive pens and paper made writing legibly a challenge.

Tertius was one Roman Scribe ('Amanuensis') who wrote on behalf of Paul. Tertius wrote Paul's Epistles (letters), either from notes, ideas or direct from Paul's mouth. At the end of the Epistle (letter), Paul would conclude with personal greetings in his own writing. [John Gill's commentary]

Timothy is present as Paul and Tertius write Romans. Did Timothy have any influence over the final text? If so, what was that influence? Was any text in Romans written by Timothy?
I, Tertius, the one writing this letter for Paul, send my greetings, too, as one of the Lord's followers
Paul, write this greeting in my own hand. Remember my chains. Grace be with you.
I, Paul, write this greeting in my own hand, which is the distinguishing mark in all my letters. This is how I write.
I, Paul, write this greeting in my own hand.
Timothy, my co-worker, sends his greetings to you, as do Lucius, Jason and Sosipater, my fellow Jews.
Hebrews 13
  VIDEO: 17
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