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BIBLE CANONS (5) | HEBREWS
BIBLE CANON
A list of Texts a particular religious community regard as authoritative scripture
1. Marcion Canon (140 AD)
Marcionism was a religious movement based on the teachings of the 2nd-century Marcion of Sinope. Marcions Canon lists 14 books out of the 27 books in the New Testament. More specifically, these were Luke and Paul's 13 writings. Marcion even rejected the entire Old Testament of 39 books.

bible.ca/marcion
W Marcion_of_Sinope

Hebrews was Rejected (0%) by Marcion Canon
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
2. Muratorian Canon (170 AD)
The Muratorian Canon is an ancient list of New Testament books - the oldest such list we have found and lists 22 of the 27 books that were later included in the New Testament of the Christian Bible.

It is noteworthy that the Muratorian Canon omits several epistles that later did win acceptance in the Christian New Testament such as the books of James and 2 Peter.

gotquestions.org/muratorian
W Muratorian_fragment

Hebrews was Rejected (0%) by Muratorian Canon
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
3. Apostolic Canon (300 AD)
Apostolic Canons or Ecclesiastical Canons
W Canons_of_the_Apostles

Hebrews was Fully Accepted (100%) by Apostolic Canon
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
4. Cheltenham/ Mommsen List (360 AD)
The Cheltenham or Mommsen List is a Latin manuscript discovered by the German classical scholar Theodor Mommsen (published 1886) which probably originated in North Africa in the 4th century.

It has 24-book Old Testament and 24-book New Testament which omits Jude and James, and perhaps Hebrews, and questions the epistles of John and Peter.

bible-researcher.com/cheltenham
W Theodor_Mommsen

Hebrews was Rejected (0%) by Cheltenham/ Mommsen List
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
5. Council of Rome (382 AD)
The Council of Rome was a meeting of Catholic Church officials and theologians which took place in 382 under the authority of Pope Damasus I, bishop of Rome.

According to a document appended to some manuscripts, the Council of Rome affirmed the authority of the Old and New Testament canon in a decretal or damasine list.
W Council_of_Rome

Hebrews was Fully Accepted (100%) by Council of Rome
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
Bible Canon (367 AD)
In 367 AD, Bishop Athanasius of Alexandria, first gave a list of the 27-books to become the New Testament 'Bible Canon'
W Development_of_the_New_Testament_canon

CHURCH FATHERS (17) | HEBREWS
Bible Canon (367 AD)
In 367 AD, Bishop Athanasius of Alexandria, first gave a list of the 27-books to become the New Testament 'Bible Canon'
W Development_of_the_New_Testament_canon

TEXTUAL CRITICISM | HEBREWS
CHURCH FATHER
Ancient and generally influential Christian theologians, eminent teachers and great bishops
1. Clement of Rome (97 AD)

Hebrews was Approved (75%) by Clement of Rome
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
2. Ignatius of Antioch (110 AD)

Hebrews was Rejected (0%) by Ignatius of Antioch
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
3. Barnabas (130 AD)

Hebrews was Approved (75%) by Barnabas
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
4. Hermas (140 AD)

Hebrews was Approved (75%) by Hermas
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
5. Papias of Hierapolis (140 AD)

Hebrews was Rejected (0%) by Papias of Hierapolis
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
6. Polycarp (150 AD)

Hebrews was Rejected (0%) by Polycarp
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
7. Didache (150 AD)

Hebrews was Rejected (0%) by Didache
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
8. Diognetus (150 AD)

Hebrews was Rejected (0%) by Diognetus
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
9. Justin Martyr (155 AD)

Hebrews was Rejected (0%) by Justin Martyr
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
10. Irenaeous (202 AD)

Hebrews was Approved (75%) by Irenaeous
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
11. Clement of Alexandria (215 AD)

Hebrews was Fully Accepted (100%) by Clement of Alexandria
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
12. Tertullian (220 AD)

Hebrews was Approved (75%) by Tertullian
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
13. Origen (254 AD)

Hebrews was Disputed (50%) by Origen
(Dubious; useful for inspiration)
14. Eusebius of Caesarea (340 AD)

Hebrews was Fully Accepted (100%) by Eusebius of Caesarea
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
15. Athanasius of Alexandria (367 AD)

Hebrews was Fully Accepted (100%) by Athanasius of Alexandria
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
16. Cyril of Jerusalem (386 AD)

Hebrews was Fully Accepted (100%) by Cyril of Jerusalem
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
17. Augustine of Hippo (400 AD)

Hebrews was Fully Accepted (100%) by Augustine of Hippo
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
Textual Criticism

EVIDENCE: Was Paul the Author?
Today, it is assumed Paul is the author. However, it is known that Paul extensively used Scribes ('Amanuensis') to write his letters. Paul dictated his thoughts and the Scribe wrote the letter as they saw fit. Therefore, all, if not the majority of Paul's Epistles (letters) in the New Testament Bible are authored by unknown Scribes.
EVIDENCE: Paul had a troubling 'Thorn'
In his Corinthians letter, Paul speaks of a 'Thorn In My Flesh' troubling him. Bible scholars have 4 theories on the 'thorn':

    1 Physical Sickness - The 'thorn' is a physical sickness (i.e. malaria, malta fever, epilepsy, convulsive attacks, chronic ophthalmia etc.). Many of these illnesses affect the eye-sight and would explain why Paul suffered from poor vision.
    2 Mental Illness - The 'thorn' is a mental illness (i.e. brain disorder, hallucination, schizophrenia, depression etc.)
    3 Spiritual Problem - The 'thorn' is a spiritual or moral problem (i.e. demon, evil-spirit, devil possession etc.)
    4 Ministerial Opposition - The 'thorn' is the Jewish persecution, opposition and resistance to Paul's ministry. This is considered a weak theory because if Paul was referring to a opposing person or movement, he would have referred to such individuals by name.

EVIDENCE: Paul had Eye-Sight Problems
It is known that Paul used Scribes ('Amanuensis') to write his letters as he suffered from poor eye-sight and was unable to write. According to early sources, Paul was 'a short, bony, little Jew with constant running eyes from his eye problems, squinting with a very large angular nose'.

    See what large letters I use as I write to you with my own hand [Paul's eyesight was defective and he needed help to write]

    As you know, it was because of an illness that I first preached the gospel to you, and even though my illness was a trial to you, you did not treat me with contempt or scorn. Instead, you welcomed me as if I were an angel of God, as if I were Christ Jesus himself. Where, then, is your blessing of me now? I can testify that, if you could have done so, you would have torn out your eyes and given them to me.

    Paul replied, Brothers, I did not know [due to bad eye-sight] that he was the high priest; for it is written: 'Do not speak evil about the ruler of your people.'

EVIDENCE: Church was aware of Paul's Eye-Sight problem
In Galatians, Paul confirms the Galatian Church was aware of his eye-sight problem. So much so, they would have 'plucked out their own eyes and given them to him' were it possible.

    Where, then, is your blessing of me now? I can testify that, if you could have done so, you would have torn out your eyes and given them to me.

EVIDENCE: Paul used Scribes to write his Epistles (Letters)
Paul composed his letters in accordance with the writing conventions of his time. Scribes were essential as the skills required for writing with primitive pens and paper made writing legibly a challenge.

Tertius was one Roman Scribe ('Amanuensis') who wrote on behalf of Paul. Tertius wrote Paul's Epistles (letters), either from notes, ideas or direct from Paul's mouth. At the end of the Epistle (letter), Paul would conclude with personal greetings in his own writing. [John Gill's commentary]

Timothy is present as Paul and Tertius write Romans. Did Timothy have any influence over the final text? If so, what was that influence? Was any text in Romans written by Timothy?

    I, Tertius, the one writing this letter for Paul, send my greetings, too, as one of the Lord's followers

    Paul, write this greeting in my own hand. Remember my chains. Grace be with you.

    I, Paul, write this greeting in my own hand, which is the distinguishing mark in all my letters. This is how I write.

    I, Paul, write this greeting in my own hand.

    Timothy, my co-worker, sends his greetings to you, as do Lucius, Jason and Sosipater, my fellow Jews.


HEBREWS
CHAPTER: 11 | VERSES: 40

For by it the elders obtained a good report.
1 of 40
Through faith we understand that the worlds were framed by the word of God, so that things which are seen were not made of things which do appear.
2 of 40
By faith Abel offered unto God a more excellent sacrifice than Cain, by which he obtained witness that he was righteous, God testifying of his gifts: and by it he being dead yet speaketh.
3 of 40
By faith Enoch was translated that he should not see death; and was not found, because God had translated him: for before his translation he had this testimony, that he pleased God.
4 of 40
But without faith it is impossible to please him: for he that cometh to God must believe that he is, and that he is a rewarder of them that diligently seek him.
5 of 40
By faith Noah, being warned of God of things not seen as yet, moved with fear, prepared an ark to the saving of his house; by the which he condemned the world, and became heir of the righteousness which is by faith.
6 of 40
By faith Abraham, when he was called to go out into a place which he should after receive for an inheritance, obeyed; and he went out, not knowing whither he went.
7 of 40
By faith he sojourned in the land of promise, as in a strange country, dwelling in tabernacles with Isaac and Jacob, the heirs with him of the same promise:
8 of 40
For he looked for a city which hath foundations, whose builder and maker is God.
9 of 40
Through faith also Sara herself received strength to conceive seed, and was delivered of a child when she was past age, because she judged him faithful who had promised.
10 of 40
Therefore sprang there even of one, and him as good as dead, so many as the stars of the sky in multitude, and as the sand which is by the sea shore innumerable.
11 of 40
These all died in faith, not having received the promises, but having seen them afar off, and were persuaded of them, and embraced them, and confessed that they were strangers and pilgrims on the earth.
12 of 40
For they that say such things declare plainly that they seek a country.
13 of 40
And truly, if they had been mindful of that country from whence they came out, they might have had opportunity to have returned.
14 of 40
But now they desire a better country, that is, an heavenly: wherefore God is not ashamed to be called their God: for he hath prepared for them a city.
15 of 40
By faith Abraham, when he was tried, offered up Isaac: and he that had received the promises offered up his only begotten son,
16 of 40
Of whom it was said, That in Isaac shall thy seed be called:
17 of 40
Accounting that God was able to raise him up, even from the dead; from whence also he received him in a figure.
18 of 40
By faith Isaac blessed Jacob and Esau concerning things to come.
19 of 40
By faith Jacob, when he was a dying, blessed both the sons of Joseph; and worshipped, leaning upon the top of his staff.
20 of 40
By faith Joseph, when he died, made mention of the departing of the children of Israel; and gave commandment concerning his bones.
21 of 40
By faith Moses, when he was born, was hid three months of his parents, because they saw he was a proper child; and they were not afraid of the king's commandment.
22 of 40
By faith Moses, when he was come to years, refused to be called the son of Pharaoh's daughter;
23 of 40
Choosing rather to suffer affliction with the people of God, than to enjoy the pleasures of sin for a season;
24 of 40
Esteeming the reproach of Christ greater riches than the treasures in Egypt: for he had respect unto the recompence of the reward.
25 of 40
By faith he forsook Egypt, not fearing the wrath of the king: for he endured, as seeing him who is invisible.
26 of 40
Through faith he kept the passover, and the sprinkling of blood, lest he that destroyed the firstborn should touch them.
27 of 40
By faith they passed through the Red sea as by dry land: which the Egyptians assaying to do were drowned.
28 of 40
By faith the walls of Jericho fell down, after they were compassed about seven days.
29 of 40
By faith the harlot Rahab perished not with them that believed not, when she had received the spies with peace.
30 of 40
And what shall I more say? for the time would fail me to tell of Gedeon, and of Barak, and of Samson, and of Jephthae; of David also, and Samuel, and of the prophets:
31 of 40
Who through faith subdued kingdoms, wrought righteousness, obtained promises, stopped the mouths of lions,
32 of 40
Quenched the violence of fire, escaped the edge of the sword, out of weakness were made strong, waxed valiant in fight, turned to flight the armies of the aliens.
33 of 40
Women received their dead raised to life again: and others were tortured, not accepting deliverance; that they might obtain a better resurrection:
34 of 40
And others had trial of cruel mockings and scourgings, yea, moreover of bonds and imprisonment:
35 of 40
They were stoned, they were sawn asunder, were tempted, were slain with the sword: they wandered about in sheepskins and goatskins; being destitute, afflicted, tormented;
36 of 40
(Of whom the world was not worthy:) they wandered in deserts, and in mountains, and in dens and caves of the earth.
37 of 40
And these all, having obtained a good report through faith, received not the promise:
38 of 40
God having provided some better thing for us, that they without us should not be made perfect.
39 of 40
Chapter:
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IMPORTANT: All Scripture text has context and background. Scripture should never be read literally or in isolation. Always seek clarification from religious scholars and teachers. In general, Scripture adheres to four principles: (1) Literal Meaning - What the Scripture says (2) Historical Setting - The story events; how the Scripture was understood in its time (3) Grammar - The surrounding sentence and paragraph; textual context (4) Synthesis - A comparison with similar Scripture to give a better contextual understanding

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