Scroll to:
BIBLE CANONS (5) | EPHESIANS
BIBLE CANON
A list of Texts a particular religious community regard as authoritative scripture
1. Marcion Canon (140 AD)
Marcionism was a religious movement based on the teachings of the 2nd-century Marcion of Sinope. Marcions Canon lists 14 books out of the 27 books in the New Testament. More specifically, these were Luke and Paul's 13 writings. Marcion even rejected the entire Old Testament of 39 books.

bible.ca/marcion
W Marcion_of_Sinope

Ephesians was Fully Accepted (100%) by Marcion Canon
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
2. Muratorian Canon (170 AD)
The Muratorian Canon is an ancient list of New Testament books - the oldest such list we have found and lists 22 of the 27 books that were later included in the New Testament of the Christian Bible.

It is noteworthy that the Muratorian Canon omits several epistles that later did win acceptance in the Christian New Testament such as the books of James and 2 Peter.

gotquestions.org/muratorian
W Muratorian_fragment

Ephesians was Fully Accepted (100%) by Muratorian Canon
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
3. Apostolic Canon (300 AD)
Apostolic Canons or Ecclesiastical Canons
W Canons_of_the_Apostles

Ephesians was Fully Accepted (100%) by Apostolic Canon
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
4. Cheltenham/ Mommsen List (360 AD)
The Cheltenham or Mommsen List is a Latin manuscript discovered by the German classical scholar Theodor Mommsen (published 1886) which probably originated in North Africa in the 4th century.

It has 24-book Old Testament and 24-book New Testament which omits Jude and James, and perhaps Hebrews, and questions the epistles of John and Peter.

bible-researcher.com/cheltenham
W Theodor_Mommsen

Ephesians was Fully Accepted (100%) by Cheltenham/ Mommsen List
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
5. Council of Rome (382 AD)
The Council of Rome was a meeting of Catholic Church officials and theologians which took place in 382 under the authority of Pope Damasus I, bishop of Rome.

According to a document appended to some manuscripts, the Council of Rome affirmed the authority of the Old and New Testament canon in a decretal or damasine list.
W Council_of_Rome

Ephesians was Fully Accepted (100%) by Council of Rome
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
Bible Canon (367 AD)
In 367 AD, Bishop Athanasius of Alexandria, first gave a list of the 27-books to become the New Testament 'Bible Canon'
W Development_of_the_New_Testament_canon

CHURCH FATHERS (17) | EPHESIANS
Bible Canon (367 AD)
In 367 AD, Bishop Athanasius of Alexandria, first gave a list of the 27-books to become the New Testament 'Bible Canon'
W Development_of_the_New_Testament_canon

TEXTUAL CRITICISM | EPHESIANS
CHURCH FATHER
Ancient and generally influential Christian theologians, eminent teachers and great bishops
1. Clement of Rome (97 AD)

Ephesians was Approved (75%) by Clement of Rome
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
2. Ignatius of Antioch (110 AD)

Ephesians was Approved (75%) by Ignatius of Antioch
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
3. Barnabas (130 AD)

Ephesians was Approved (75%) by Barnabas
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
4. Hermas (140 AD)

Ephesians was Rejected (0%) by Hermas
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
5. Papias of Hierapolis (140 AD)

Ephesians was Rejected (0%) by Papias of Hierapolis
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
6. Polycarp (150 AD)

Ephesians was Approved (75%) by Polycarp
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
7. Didache (150 AD)

Ephesians was Rejected (0%) by Didache
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
8. Diognetus (150 AD)

Ephesians was Rejected (0%) by Diognetus
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
9. Justin Martyr (155 AD)

Ephesians was Approved (75%) by Justin Martyr
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
10. Irenaeous (202 AD)

Ephesians was Fully Accepted (100%) by Irenaeous
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
11. Clement of Alexandria (215 AD)

Ephesians was Approved (75%) by Clement of Alexandria
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
12. Tertullian (220 AD)

Ephesians was Approved (75%) by Tertullian
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
13. Origen (254 AD)

Ephesians was Approved (75%) by Origen
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
14. Eusebius of Caesarea (340 AD)

Ephesians was Fully Accepted (100%) by Eusebius of Caesarea
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
15. Athanasius of Alexandria (367 AD)

Ephesians was Fully Accepted (100%) by Athanasius of Alexandria
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
16. Cyril of Jerusalem (386 AD)

Ephesians was Fully Accepted (100%) by Cyril of Jerusalem
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
17. Augustine of Hippo (400 AD)

Ephesians was Fully Accepted (100%) by Augustine of Hippo
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
Textual Criticism
EVIDENCE: Was Paul the Author?
Today, it is assumed Paul is the author. However, it is known that Paul extensively used Scribes ('Amanuensis') to write his letters. Paul dictated his thoughts and the Scribe wrote the letter as they saw fit. Therefore, all, if not the majority of Paul's Epistles (letters) in the New Testament Bible are authored by unknown Scribes.
EVIDENCE: Paul had a troubling 'Thorn'
In his Corinthians letter, Paul speaks of a 'Thorn In My Flesh' troubling him. Bible scholars have 4 theories on the 'thorn':

    1 Physical Sickness - The 'thorn' is a physical sickness (i.e. malaria, malta fever, epilepsy, convulsive attacks, chronic ophthalmia etc.). Many of these illnesses affect the eye-sight and would explain why Paul suffered from poor vision.
    2 Mental Illness - The 'thorn' is a mental illness (i.e. brain disorder, hallucination, schizophrenia, depression etc.)
    3 Spiritual Problem - The 'thorn' is a spiritual or moral problem (i.e. demon, evil-spirit, devil possession etc.)
    4 Ministerial Opposition - The 'thorn' is the Jewish persecution, opposition and resistance to Paul's ministry. This is considered a weak theory because if Paul was referring to a opposing person or movement, he would have referred to such individuals by name.

EVIDENCE: Paul had Eye-Sight Problems
It is known that Paul used Scribes ('Amanuensis') to write his letters as he suffered from poor eye-sight and was unable to write. According to early sources, Paul was 'a short, bony, little Jew with constant running eyes from his eye problems, squinting with a very large angular nose'.

    See what large letters I use as I write to you with my own hand [Paul's eyesight was defective and he needed help to write]

    As you know, it was because of an illness that I first preached the gospel to you, and even though my illness was a trial to you, you did not treat me with contempt or scorn. Instead, you welcomed me as if I were an angel of God, as if I were Christ Jesus himself. Where, then, is your blessing of me now? I can testify that, if you could have done so, you would have torn out your eyes and given them to me.

    Paul replied, Brothers, I did not know [due to bad eye-sight] that he was the high priest; for it is written: 'Do not speak evil about the ruler of your people.'

EVIDENCE: Church was aware of Paul's Eye-Sight problem
In Galatians, Paul confirms the Galatian Church was aware of his eye-sight problem. So much so, they would have 'plucked out their own eyes and given them to him' were it possible.

    Where, then, is your blessing of me now? I can testify that, if you could have done so, you would have torn out your eyes and given them to me.

EVIDENCE: Paul used Scribes to write his Epistles (Letters)
Paul composed his letters in accordance with the writing conventions of his time. Scribes were essential as the skills required for writing with primitive pens and paper made writing legibly a challenge.

Tertius was one Roman Scribe ('Amanuensis') who wrote on behalf of Paul. Tertius wrote Paul's Epistles (letters), either from notes, ideas or direct from Paul's mouth. At the end of the Epistle (letter), Paul would conclude with personal greetings in his own writing. [John Gill's commentary]

Timothy is present as Paul and Tertius write Romans. Did Timothy have any influence over the final text? If so, what was that influence? Was any text in Romans written by Timothy?

    I, Tertius, the one writing this letter for Paul, send my greetings, too, as one of the Lord's followers

    Paul, write this greeting in my own hand. Remember my chains. Grace be with you.

    I, Paul, write this greeting in my own hand, which is the distinguishing mark in all my letters. This is how I write.

    I, Paul, write this greeting in my own hand.

    Timothy, my co-worker, sends his greetings to you, as do Lucius, Jason and Sosipater, my fellow Jews.


EPHESIANS
CHAPTER: 6 | VERSES: 24

Honour thy father and mother; which is the first commandment with promise;
1 of 24
That it may be well with thee, and thou mayest live long on the earth.
2 of 24
And, ye fathers, provoke not your children to wrath: but bring them up in the nurture and admonition of the Lord.
3 of 24
Servants, be obedient to them that are your masters according to the flesh, with fear and trembling, in singleness of your heart, as unto Christ;
4 of 24
Not with eyeservice, as menpleasers; but as the servants of Christ, doing the will of God from the heart;
5 of 24
With good will doing service, as to the Lord, and not to men:
6 of 24
Knowing that whatsoever good thing any man doeth, the same shall he receive of the Lord, whether he be bond or free.
7 of 24
And, ye masters, do the same things unto them, forbearing threatening: knowing that your Master also is in heaven; neither is there respect of persons with him.
8 of 24
Finally, my brethren, be strong in the Lord, and in the power of his might.
9 of 24
Put on the whole armour of God, that ye may be able to stand against the wiles of the devil.
10 of 24
For we wrestle not against flesh and blood, but against principalities, against powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this world, against spiritual wickedness in high places.
11 of 24
Wherefore take unto you the whole armour of God, that ye may be able to withstand in the evil day, and having done all, to stand.
12 of 24
Stand therefore, having your loins girt about with truth, and having on the breastplate of righteousness;
13 of 24
And your feet shod with the preparation of the gospel of peace;
14 of 24
Above all, taking the shield of faith, wherewith ye shall be able to quench all the fiery darts of the wicked.
15 of 24
And take the helmet of salvation, and the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God:
16 of 24
Praying always with all prayer and supplication in the Spirit, and watching thereunto with all perseverance and supplication for all saints;
17 of 24
And for me, that utterance may be given unto me, that I may open my mouth boldly, to make known the mystery of the gospel,
18 of 24
For which I am an ambassador in bonds: that therein I may speak boldly, as I ought to speak.
19 of 24
But that ye also may know my affairs, and how I do, Tychicus, a beloved brother and faithful minister in the Lord, shall make known to you all things:
20 of 24
Whom I have sent unto you for the same purpose, that ye might know our affairs, and that he might comfort your hearts.
21 of 24
Peace be to the brethren, and love with faith, from God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.
22 of 24
Grace be with all them that love our Lord Jesus Christ in sincerity. Amen.
23 of 24
Chapter:
1 2 3 4 5 6

   VIDEO (3 ) | EPHESIANS
1703 views · 0 secs ago


IMPORTANT: All Scripture text has context and background. Scripture should never be read literally or in isolation. Always seek clarification from religious scholars and teachers. In general, Scripture adheres to four principles: (1) Literal Meaning - What the Scripture says (2) Historical Setting - The story events; how the Scripture was understood in its time (3) Grammar - The surrounding sentence and paragraph; textual context (4) Synthesis - A comparison with similar Scripture to give a better contextual understanding

Be Informed on Social :      Facebook Page  |    Twitter  |    Youtube
About Us  |  Help/FAQ  |  Contact Us    •    Terms  |  Privacy/Disclaimer  |  Sitemap
MuslimProphets.com is an educational website on the lives and teachings of 'Prophets of God': Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus and Muhammad, who established the Abrahamic faiths of Judaism, Christianity and Islam. MuslimProphets.com presents evidence, scripture, photo, video, maps, news headlines, public debate and 'alternative' viewpoints held by Theologians, Apologists, Scholars and Street Preachers. Take a Site Tour

In accordance with Islamic etiquette, all prophet names should be followed with 'Peace Be Upon Him (PBUH)'. This is omitted to minimise text.

DISCLAIMER: All website content is for general information and educational purposes only. Whilst all information comes from sources believed to be reliable, this cannot be guaranteed. External links are provided for convenience purposes. They do not constitute endorsement or approval for any products, services or comments by organizations or individuals. External links text are edited to improve internal site and keyword search options. We bear no responsibility for the accuracy, legality, or content found on the linked external site or its subsequent links. Unless indicated, all images and content is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License distributed by Wikipedia, Wikimedia Commons, Pixabay, Pxhere, Pexels or Flickr. All Torah, Psalms, Old and New Testament Bible quotes are from the King James Version (KJV) Holy Bible in the public domain. All Quran quotes are from Taqi-ud-Din al-Hilali/Muhsin Khan English Quran translation. You are invited to always conduct your own research. If you spot any mistake, error or omission of information, contact us so we can correct it.