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1 Corinthians 15
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Moreover, brethren, I declare unto you the gospel which I preached unto you, which also ye have received, and wherein ye stand;
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By which also ye are saved, if ye keep in memory what I preached unto you, unless ye have believed in vain.
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For I delivered unto you first of all that which I also received, how that Christ died for our sins according to the scriptures;
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And that he was buried, and that he rose again the third day according to the scriptures:
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And that he was seen of Cephas, then of the twelve:
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After that, he was seen of above five hundred brethren at once; of whom the greater part remain unto this present, but some are fallen asleep.
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After that, he was seen of James; then of all the apostles.
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And last of all he was seen of me also, as of one born out of due time.
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For I am the least of the apostles, that am not meet to be called an apostle, because I persecuted the church of God.
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But by the grace of God I am what I am: and his grace which was bestowed upon me was not in vain; but I laboured more abundantly than they all: yet not I, but the grace of God which was with me.
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Therefore whether it were I or they, so we preach, and so ye believed.
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Now if Christ be preached that he rose from the dead, how say some among you that there is no resurrection of the dead?
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But if there be no resurrection of the dead, then is Christ not risen:
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And if Christ be not risen, then is our preaching vain, and your faith is also vain.
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Yea, and we are found false witnesses of God; because we have testified of God that he raised up Christ: whom he raised not up, if so be that the dead rise not.
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For if the dead rise not, then is not Christ raised:
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And if Christ be not raised, your faith is vain; ye are yet in your sins.
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Then they also which are fallen asleep in Christ are perished.
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If in this life only we have hope in Christ, we are of all men most miserable.
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But now is Christ risen from the dead, and become the firstfruits of them that slept.
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For since by man came death, by man came also the resurrection of the dead.
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For as in Adam all die, even so in Christ shall all be made alive.
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But every man in his own order: Christ the firstfruits; afterward they that are Christ's at his coming.
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Then cometh the end, when he shall have delivered up the kingdom to God, even the Father; when he shall have put down all rule and all authority and power.
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For he must reign, till he hath put all enemies under his feet.
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The last enemy that shall be destroyed is death.
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For he hath put all things under his feet. But when he saith all things are put under him, it is manifest that he is excepted, which did put all things under him.
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And when all things shall be subdued unto him, then shall the Son also himself be subject unto him that put all things under him, that God may be all in all.
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Else what shall they do which are baptized for the dead, if the dead rise not at all? why are they then baptized for the dead?
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And why stand we in jeopardy every hour?
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I protest by your rejoicing which I have in Christ Jesus our LORD, I die daily.
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If after the manner of men I have fought with beasts at Ephesus, what advantageth it me, if the dead rise not? let us eat and drink; for to morrow we die.
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Be not deceived: evil communications corrupt good manners.
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Awake to righteousness, and sin not; for some have not the knowledge of God: I speak this to your shame.
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But some man will say, How are the dead raised up? and with what body do they come?
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Thou fool, that which thou sowest is not quickened, except it die:
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And that which thou sowest, thou sowest not that body that shall be, but bare grain, it may chance of wheat, or of some other grain:
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But God giveth it a body as it hath pleased him, and to every seed his own body.
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All flesh is not the same flesh: but there is one kind of flesh of men, another flesh of beasts, another of fishes, and another of birds.
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There are also celestial bodies, and bodies terrestrial: but the glory of the celestial is one, and the glory of the terrestrial is another.
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There is one glory of the sun, and another glory of the moon, and another glory of the stars: for one star differeth from another star in glory.
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So also is the resurrection of the dead. It is sown in corruption; it is raised in incorruption:
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It is sown in dishonour; it is raised in glory: it is sown in weakness; it is raised in power:
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It is sown a natural body; it is raised a spiritual body. There is a natural body, and there is a spiritual body.
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And so it is written, The first man Adam was made a living soul; the last Adam was made a quickening spirit.
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Howbeit that was not first which is spiritual, but that which is natural; and afterward that which is spiritual.
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The first man is of the earth, earthy: the second man is the Lord from heaven.
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As is the earthy, such are they also that are earthy: and as is the heavenly, such are they also that are heavenly.
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And as we have borne the image of the earthy, we shall also bear the image of the heavenly.
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Now this I say, brethren, that flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God; neither doth corruption inherit incorruption.
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Behold, I shew you a mystery; We shall not all sleep, but we shall all be changed,
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In a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trump: for the trumpet shall sound, and the dead shall be raised incorruptible, and we shall be changed.
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For this corruptible must put on incorruption, and this mortal must put on immortality.
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So when this corruptible shall have put on incorruption, and this mortal shall have put on immortality, then shall be brought to pass the saying that is written, Death is swallowed up in victory.
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O death, where is thy sting? O grave, where is thy victory?
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The sting of death is sin; and the strength of sin is the law.
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But thanks be to God, which giveth us the victory through our Lord Jesus Christ.
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Therefore, my beloved brethren, be ye stedfast, unmoveable, always abounding in the work of the Lord, forasmuch as ye know that your labour is not in vain in the Lord.


Chapter:
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1 Corinthians 15
  CHURCH FATHERS: 17
1. Clement of Rome | CHURCH FATHER 97 AD
1 Corinthians was FULLY ACCEPTED (100%) by Clement of Rome
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
2. Ignatius of Antioch | CHURCH FATHER 110 AD
1 Corinthians was REJECTED (0%) by Ignatius of Antioch
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
3. Barnabas | CHURCH FATHER 130 AD
1 Corinthians was REJECTED (0%) by Barnabas
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
4. Hermas | CHURCH FATHER 140 AD
1 Corinthians was APPROVED (75%) by Hermas
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
5. Papias of Hierapolis | CHURCH FATHER 140 AD
1 Corinthians was REJECTED (0%) by Papias of Hierapolis
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
6. Polycarp | CHURCH FATHER 150 AD
1 Corinthians was APPROVED (75%) by Polycarp
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
7. Didache | CHURCH FATHER 150 AD
1 Corinthians was APPROVED (75%) by Didache
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
8. Diognetus | CHURCH FATHER 150 AD
1 Corinthians was REJECTED (0%) by Diognetus
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
9. Justin Martyr | CHURCH FATHER 155 AD
1 Corinthians was APPROVED (75%) by Justin Martyr
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
10. Irenaeous | CHURCH FATHER 202 AD
1 Corinthians was FULLY ACCEPTED (100%) by Irenaeous
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
11. Clement of Alexandria | CHURCH FATHER 215 AD
1 Corinthians was FULLY ACCEPTED (100%) by Clement of Alexandria
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
12. Tertullian | CHURCH FATHER 220 AD
1 Corinthians was APPROVED (75%) by Tertullian
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
13. Origen | CHURCH FATHER 254 AD
1 Corinthians was APPROVED (75%) by Origen
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
14. Eusebius of Caesarea | CHURCH FATHER 340 AD
1 Corinthians was FULLY ACCEPTED (100%) by Eusebius of Caesarea
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
15. Athanasius of Alexandria | CHURCH FATHER 367 AD
1 Corinthians was FULLY ACCEPTED (100%) by Athanasius of Alexandria
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
16. Cyril of Jerusalem | CHURCH FATHER 386 AD
1 Corinthians was FULLY ACCEPTED (100%) by Cyril of Jerusalem
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
17. Augustine of Hippo | CHURCH FATHER 400 AD
1 Corinthians was FULLY ACCEPTED (100%) by Augustine of Hippo
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
1 Corinthians 15
  BIBLE CANON: 5
A biblical canon is a set of texts (or "books") which a particular religious community regards as authoritative scripture. Christians were the first to use the term in reference to scripture.

These bible canons have developed through debate and agreement by the religious authorities.
W Biblical_canon
1. Marcion Canon | BIBLE CANON 140 AD
Marcionism was a religious movement based on the teachings of the 2nd-century Marcion of Sinope. Marcions Canon lists 14 books out of the 27 books in the New Testament. More specifically, these were Luke and Paul's 13 writings. Marcion even rejected the entire Old Testament of 39 books.

bible.ca/marcion
1 Corinthians was FULLY ACCEPTED (100%) by Marcion Canon
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
2. Muratorian Canon | BIBLE CANON 170 AD
The Muratorian Canon is an ancient list of New Testament books - the oldest such list we have found and lists 22 of the 27 books that were later included in the New Testament of the Christian Bible.

It is noteworthy that the Muratorian Canon omits several epistles that later did win acceptance in the Christian New Testament such as the books of James and 2 Peter.

gotquestions.org/muratorian
1 Corinthians was FULLY ACCEPTED (100%) by Muratorian Canon
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
3. Apostolic Canon | BIBLE CANON 300 AD
Apostolic Canons or Ecclesiastical Canons
1 Corinthians was FULLY ACCEPTED (100%) by Apostolic Canon
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
4. Cheltenham/ Mommsen List | BIBLE CANON 360 AD
The Cheltenham or Mommsen List is a Latin manuscript discovered by the German classical scholar Theodor Mommsen (published 1886) which probably originated in North Africa in the 4th century.

It has 24-book Old Testament and 24-book New Testament which omits Jude and James, and perhaps Hebrews, and questions the epistles of John and Peter.

bible-researcher.com/cheltenham
1 Corinthians was FULLY ACCEPTED (100%) by Cheltenham/ Mommsen List
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
5. Council of Rome | BIBLE CANON 382 AD
The Council of Rome was a meeting of Catholic Church officials and theologians which took place in 382 under the authority of Pope Damasus I, bishop of Rome.

According to a document appended to some manuscripts, the Council of Rome affirmed the authority of the Old and New Testament canon in a decretal or damasine list.
1 Corinthians was FULLY ACCEPTED (100%) by Council of Rome
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
1 Corinthians 15
  TEXTUAL CRITICISM
Was Paul the Author? Evidence
Today, it is assumed Paul is the author. However, it is known that Paul extensively used Scribes ('Amanuensis') to write his letters. Paul dictated his thoughts and the Scribe wrote the letter as they saw fit. Therefore, most of Paul's Epistles (letters) in the New Testament Bible are authored by unknown Scribes.
Paul had a troubling 'Thorn' Evidence
In his Corinthians letter, Paul speaks of a 'Thorn In My Flesh' troubling him. Bible scholars have 4 theories on the 'thorn':

    1. Physical Sickness - The 'thorn' is a physical sickness (i.e. malaria, malta fever, epilepsy, convulsive attacks, chronic ophthalmia etc.). Many of these illnesses affect the eye-sight and would explain why Paul suffered from poor vision.

    2. Mental Illness - The 'thorn' is a mental illness (i.e. brain disorder, hallucination, schizophrenia, depression etc.)

    3. Spiritual Problem - The 'thorn' is a spiritual or moral problem (i.e. demon, evil-spirit, devil possession etc.)

    4. Ministerial Opposition - The 'thorn' is the Jewish persecution, opposition and resistance to Paul's ministry. This is considered a weak theory because if Paul was referring to a opposing person or movement, he would have referred to such individuals by name.
Paul had poor Eye-Sight Evidence
It is known that Paul used Scribes ('Amanuensis') to write his letters as he suffered from poor eye-sight and was unable to write. According to early sources, Paul was 'a short, bony, little Jew with constant running eyes from his eye problems, squinting with a very large angular nose'.
See what large letters I use as I write to you with my own hand [Paul's eyesight was defective and he needed help to write]
As you know, it was because of an illness that I first preached the gospel to you, and even though my illness was a trial to you, you did not treat me with contempt or scorn. Instead, you welcomed me as if I were an angel of God, as if I were Christ Jesus himself. Where, then, is your blessing of me now? I can testify that, if you could have done so, you would have torn out your eyes and given them to me.
Paul replied, Brothers, I did not know [due to bad eye-sight] that he was the high priest; for it is written: 'Do not speak evil about the ruler of your people.'
Church was aware of Paul's Eye-Sight problem Evidence
In Galatians, Paul confirms the Galatian Church was aware of his eye-sight problem. So much so, they would have 'plucked out their own eyes and given them to him' were it possible.
Where, then, is your blessing of me now? I can testify that, if you could have done so, you would have torn out your eyes and given them to me.
Paul used Scribes to write his Epistles (Letters) Evidence
Paul composed his letters in accordance with the writing conventions of his time. Scribes were essential as the skills required for writing with primitive pens and paper made writing legibly a challenge.

Tertius was one Roman Scribe ('Amanuensis') who wrote on behalf of Paul. Tertius wrote Paul's Epistles (letters), either from notes, ideas or direct from Paul's mouth. At the end of the Epistle (letter), Paul would conclude with personal greetings in his own writing. [John Gill's commentary]

Timothy is present as Paul and Tertius write Romans. Did Timothy have any influence over the final text? If so, what was that influence? Was any text in Romans written by Timothy?
I, Tertius, the one writing this letter for Paul, send my greetings, too, as one of the Lord's followers
Paul, write this greeting in my own hand. Remember my chains. Grace be with you.
I, Paul, write this greeting in my own hand, which is the distinguishing mark in all my letters. This is how I write.
I, Paul, write this greeting in my own hand.
Timothy, my co-worker, sends his greetings to you, as do Lucius, Jason and Sosipater, my fellow Jews.
Paul's Letter, 1 Corinthians is forged and interpolated Bible Scholars
'Interpolation' is where a Word, Verse, Passage or even entire Chapter was added to Paul's Letter, often many years after Paul had written, disseminated it or died. Bible Scholars who hold the view that Paul's Letter is interpolated include:

  1. As a whole Bauer; Pierson; Loman
  2. 1:2, Weiss (1917: 534); Gilmour (1962: 688).
  3. 1:2b, Weiss (1910: xli, 3f.); Dinkier in RGG3; Schmithals (1965: 188f; 197 258);Schenke(1978:92f).
  4. 1:12, Weiss; Heinrici (1880); Pearce in Bowyer (1812); Goguel (1926: IV, 2); Michaelis.
  5. 1:16, Holsten (1880: 461 n.9, not asserted absolutely).
  6. 2:6-16, Widmann (1979).
  7. 4:6, Straatman; van de Sande Bakhuyzen (1880).
  8. 4:17, Weiss (1910: xli, 120); Gilmour; Dinkier.
  9. 6:3, Holsten.
  10. 7:8, Holsten.
  11. 7:11ab, Holsten.
  12. 7:14, Holsten.
  13. 7:17, Weiss (1910: xli); Gilmour; Dinkier.
  14. 7:17-24, Munro (1983: 80f.).
  15. 7:36-38, Holsten; Barnes (1947: 229).
  16. 8, as a whole, Munro (1983).
  17. 10, as a whole, Barnes (1947).
  18. 10:4b, Holsten.
  19. 10:13, Clemen; Pierson and Naber (1886: 81f.).
  20. 10:17, Clemen.
  21. 10:23-11:1, Munro 1983: 75-79).
  22. 10:29b-30, Hitzig; Zuntz.
  23. 11:2-16, Loisy (1935: 60f., 73f.,); Walker (1975; 1983; 1989); Cope (1978); Trompf (1980); Munro (1983: 69-75).
  24. 11:5b-6, Holsten.
  25. 11:10, Holsten; Lang; Wassenbergh (1815: 66); Straatman; Baljon; Owen; Lotze; Neander; Baur (1845: 636).
  26. 11:11, Straatman.
  27. 11:11f., Weiss (1910: xli).
  28. 11:13-15, Holsten.
  29. 11:16, Straatman; Prins; Baljon; Weiss (1910: xli, 276f.); Gilmour; Dinkier.
  30. 11:23-28, Straatman; Bruins; Lehman and Fridrichsen (1922); Loisy (1922: 43, 67; 1935: 69-74).
  31. 11:30, Prins.
  32. 13, in entirety, Lehmann and Fridrichsen; Loisy (1922: 43, 67); (1935: 69-74); Barnes (1947: 230); Titus (1959); Schenke (1978).
  33. 14:33-38, Munro (1983: 68f.).
  34. 14:33, Weiss (1910: xli); Gilmour; Dinkier; Loisy (1935: 73).
  35. 14:33b-35, Kiimmel; Straatman; van de Sande Bakhuyzen (1880); Holsten (1880: 495-97); van Manen (1880: 284-85); Genootsch (1880: 259f.); Schmiedel (1891); Weinel; Weiss (1910: 342); Allworthy (1917: 95-97); Dinkier; Loisy (1922: 43; 1933: 20 n.6; 1948: 363; 1961: 287); Leipoldt (1952); Zuntz (1953); Wendland (1954); Conzelmann (1969: 289f.); Ruef (1971: 154f.); Scroggs (1972); Munro (1973; 1983: 15f.); Jewett (1978); Perrin and Duling (1982: 180).
  36. 14:34-35, only Heinrici; Pfleiderer (1887: 169n); Easton (1947); Fascher (1953); Leipoldt (1954); Schweizer (1959: 152); Fitzer (1963); Bittlinger (1967); Barrett (1987: 699-708); Murphy-O'Connor (1979: 81-84). Cf. also Clemen (1894: 49f., as displaced but not therefore ungenuine).
  37. 15, as a whole, Barnes (1947: 228).
  38. 15:3-11, Straatman, van Manen, Teylers.
  39. 15:5b, Holsten.
  40. 15:2lf., 42-49, O'Neill (1975: 96).
  41. 16:22, Schmiedel; Baljon (1884); Holsten (1880: 450f.); Rovers; Bruins.
1 Corinthians 15
  VIDEO: 18
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