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1 Corinthians 12
6 of 31
Now concerning spiritual gifts, brethren, I would not have you ignorant.
7 of 31
Ye know that ye were Gentiles, carried away unto these dumb idols, even as ye were led.
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Wherefore I give you to understand, that no man speaking by the Spirit of God calleth Jesus accursed: and that no man can say that Jesus is the Lord, but by the Holy Ghost.
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Now there are diversities of gifts, but the same Spirit.
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And there are differences of administrations, but the same Lord.
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And there are diversities of operations, but it is the same God which worketh all in all.
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But the manifestation of the Spirit is given to every man to profit withal.
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For to one is given by the Spirit the word of wisdom; to another the word of knowledge by the same Spirit;
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To another faith by the same Spirit; to another the gifts of healing by the same Spirit;
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To another the working of miracles; to another prophecy; to another discerning of spirits; to another divers kinds of tongues; to another the interpretation of tongues:
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But all these worketh that one and the selfsame Spirit, dividing to every man severally as he will.
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For as the body is one, and hath many members, and all the members of that one body, being many, are one body: so also is Christ.
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For by one Spirit are we all baptized into one body, whether we be Jews or Gentiles, whether we be bond or free; and have been all made to drink into one Spirit.
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For the body is not one member, but many.
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If the foot shall say, Because I am not the hand, I am not of the body; is it therefore not of the body?
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And if the ear shall say, Because I am not the eye, I am not of the body; is it therefore not of the body?
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If the whole body were an eye, where were the hearing? If the whole were hearing, where were the smelling?
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But now hath God set the members every one of them in the body, as it hath pleased him.
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And if they were all one member, where were the body?
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But now are they many members, yet but one body.
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And the eye cannot say unto the hand, I have no need of thee: nor again the head to the feet, I have no need of you.
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Nay, much more those members of the body, which seem to be more feeble, are necessary:
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And those members of the body, which we think to be less honourable, upon these we bestow more abundant honour; and our uncomely parts have more abundant comeliness.
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For our comely parts have no need: but God hath tempered the body together, having given more abundant honour to that part which lacked:
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That there should be no schism in the body; but that the members should have the same care one for another.
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And whether one member suffer, all the members suffer with it; or one member be honoured, all the members rejoice with it.
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Now ye are the body of Christ, and members in particular.
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And God hath set some in the church, first apostles, secondarily prophets, thirdly teachers, after that miracles, then gifts of healings, helps, governments, diversities of tongues.
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Are all apostles? are all prophets? are all teachers? are all workers of miracles?
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Have all the gifts of healing? do all speak with tongues? do all interpret?
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But covet earnestly the best gifts: and yet shew I unto you a more excellent way.


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1 Corinthians 12
  CHURCH FATHERS: 17
1. Clement of Rome | CHURCH FATHER 97 AD
1 Corinthians was FULLY ACCEPTED (100%) by Clement of Rome
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
2. Ignatius of Antioch | CHURCH FATHER 110 AD
1 Corinthians was REJECTED (0%) by Ignatius of Antioch
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
3. Barnabas | CHURCH FATHER 130 AD
1 Corinthians was REJECTED (0%) by Barnabas
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
4. Hermas | CHURCH FATHER 140 AD
1 Corinthians was APPROVED (75%) by Hermas
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
5. Papias of Hierapolis | CHURCH FATHER 140 AD
1 Corinthians was REJECTED (0%) by Papias of Hierapolis
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
6. Polycarp | CHURCH FATHER 150 AD
1 Corinthians was APPROVED (75%) by Polycarp
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
7. Didache | CHURCH FATHER 150 AD
1 Corinthians was APPROVED (75%) by Didache
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
8. Diognetus | CHURCH FATHER 150 AD
1 Corinthians was REJECTED (0%) by Diognetus
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
9. Justin Martyr | CHURCH FATHER 155 AD
1 Corinthians was APPROVED (75%) by Justin Martyr
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
10. Irenaeous | CHURCH FATHER 202 AD
1 Corinthians was FULLY ACCEPTED (100%) by Irenaeous
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
11. Clement of Alexandria | CHURCH FATHER 215 AD
1 Corinthians was FULLY ACCEPTED (100%) by Clement of Alexandria
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
12. Tertullian | CHURCH FATHER 220 AD
1 Corinthians was APPROVED (75%) by Tertullian
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
13. Origen | CHURCH FATHER 254 AD
1 Corinthians was APPROVED (75%) by Origen
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
14. Eusebius of Caesarea | CHURCH FATHER 340 AD
1 Corinthians was FULLY ACCEPTED (100%) by Eusebius of Caesarea
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
15. Athanasius of Alexandria | CHURCH FATHER 367 AD
1 Corinthians was FULLY ACCEPTED (100%) by Athanasius of Alexandria
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
16. Cyril of Jerusalem | CHURCH FATHER 386 AD
1 Corinthians was FULLY ACCEPTED (100%) by Cyril of Jerusalem
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
17. Augustine of Hippo | CHURCH FATHER 400 AD
1 Corinthians was FULLY ACCEPTED (100%) by Augustine of Hippo
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
1 Corinthians 12
  BIBLE CANON: 5
A biblical canon is a set of texts (or "books") which a particular religious community regards as authoritative scripture. Christians were the first to use the term in reference to scripture.

These bible canons have developed through debate and agreement by the religious authorities.
W Biblical_canon
1. Marcion Canon | BIBLE CANON 140 AD
Marcionism was a religious movement based on the teachings of the 2nd-century Marcion of Sinope. Marcions Canon lists 14 books out of the 27 books in the New Testament. More specifically, these were Luke and Paul's 13 writings. Marcion even rejected the entire Old Testament of 39 books.

bible.ca/marcion
1 Corinthians was FULLY ACCEPTED (100%) by Marcion Canon
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
2. Muratorian Canon | BIBLE CANON 170 AD
The Muratorian Canon is an ancient list of New Testament books - the oldest such list we have found and lists 22 of the 27 books that were later included in the New Testament of the Christian Bible.

It is noteworthy that the Muratorian Canon omits several epistles that later did win acceptance in the Christian New Testament such as the books of James and 2 Peter.

gotquestions.org/muratorian
1 Corinthians was FULLY ACCEPTED (100%) by Muratorian Canon
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
3. Apostolic Canon | BIBLE CANON 300 AD
Apostolic Canons or Ecclesiastical Canons
1 Corinthians was FULLY ACCEPTED (100%) by Apostolic Canon
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
4. Cheltenham/ Mommsen List | BIBLE CANON 360 AD
The Cheltenham or Mommsen List is a Latin manuscript discovered by the German classical scholar Theodor Mommsen (published 1886) which probably originated in North Africa in the 4th century.

It has 24-book Old Testament and 24-book New Testament which omits Jude and James, and perhaps Hebrews, and questions the epistles of John and Peter.

bible-researcher.com/cheltenham
1 Corinthians was FULLY ACCEPTED (100%) by Cheltenham/ Mommsen List
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
5. Council of Rome | BIBLE CANON 382 AD
The Council of Rome was a meeting of Catholic Church officials and theologians which took place in 382 under the authority of Pope Damasus I, bishop of Rome.

According to a document appended to some manuscripts, the Council of Rome affirmed the authority of the Old and New Testament canon in a decretal or damasine list.
1 Corinthians was FULLY ACCEPTED (100%) by Council of Rome
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
1 Corinthians 12
  TEXTUAL CRITICISM
Was Paul the Author? Evidence
Today, it is assumed Paul is the author. However, it is known that Paul extensively used Scribes ('Amanuensis') to write his letters. Paul dictated his thoughts and the Scribe wrote the letter as they saw fit. Therefore, most of Paul's Epistles (letters) in the New Testament Bible are authored by unknown Scribes.
Paul had a troubling 'Thorn' Evidence
In his Corinthians letter, Paul speaks of a 'Thorn In My Flesh' troubling him. Bible scholars have 4 theories on the 'thorn':

    1. Physical Sickness - The 'thorn' is a physical sickness (i.e. malaria, malta fever, epilepsy, convulsive attacks, chronic ophthalmia etc.). Many of these illnesses affect the eye-sight and would explain why Paul suffered from poor vision.

    2. Mental Illness - The 'thorn' is a mental illness (i.e. brain disorder, hallucination, schizophrenia, depression etc.)

    3. Spiritual Problem - The 'thorn' is a spiritual or moral problem (i.e. demon, evil-spirit, devil possession etc.)

    4. Ministerial Opposition - The 'thorn' is the Jewish persecution, opposition and resistance to Paul's ministry. This is considered a weak theory because if Paul was referring to a opposing person or movement, he would have referred to such individuals by name.
Paul had poor Eye-Sight Evidence
It is known that Paul used Scribes ('Amanuensis') to write his letters as he suffered from poor eye-sight and was unable to write. According to early sources, Paul was 'a short, bony, little Jew with constant running eyes from his eye problems, squinting with a very large angular nose'.
See what large letters I use as I write to you with my own hand [Paul's eyesight was defective and he needed help to write]
As you know, it was because of an illness that I first preached the gospel to you, and even though my illness was a trial to you, you did not treat me with contempt or scorn. Instead, you welcomed me as if I were an angel of God, as if I were Christ Jesus himself. Where, then, is your blessing of me now? I can testify that, if you could have done so, you would have torn out your eyes and given them to me.
Paul replied, Brothers, I did not know [due to bad eye-sight] that he was the high priest; for it is written: 'Do not speak evil about the ruler of your people.'
Church was aware of Paul's Eye-Sight problem Evidence
In Galatians, Paul confirms the Galatian Church was aware of his eye-sight problem. So much so, they would have 'plucked out their own eyes and given them to him' were it possible.
Where, then, is your blessing of me now? I can testify that, if you could have done so, you would have torn out your eyes and given them to me.
Paul used Scribes to write his Epistles (Letters) Evidence
Paul composed his letters in accordance with the writing conventions of his time. Scribes were essential as the skills required for writing with primitive pens and paper made writing legibly a challenge.

Tertius was one Roman Scribe ('Amanuensis') who wrote on behalf of Paul. Tertius wrote Paul's Epistles (letters), either from notes, ideas or direct from Paul's mouth. At the end of the Epistle (letter), Paul would conclude with personal greetings in his own writing. [John Gill's commentary]

Timothy is present as Paul and Tertius write Romans. Did Timothy have any influence over the final text? If so, what was that influence? Was any text in Romans written by Timothy?
I, Tertius, the one writing this letter for Paul, send my greetings, too, as one of the Lord's followers
Paul, write this greeting in my own hand. Remember my chains. Grace be with you.
I, Paul, write this greeting in my own hand, which is the distinguishing mark in all my letters. This is how I write.
I, Paul, write this greeting in my own hand.
Timothy, my co-worker, sends his greetings to you, as do Lucius, Jason and Sosipater, my fellow Jews.
Paul's Letter, 1 Corinthians is forged and interpolated Bible Scholars
'Interpolation' is where a Word, Verse, Passage or even entire Chapter was added to Paul's Letter, often many years after Paul had written, disseminated it or died. Bible Scholars who hold the view that Paul's Letter is interpolated include:

  1. As a whole Bauer; Pierson; Loman
  2. 1:2, Weiss (1917: 534); Gilmour (1962: 688).
  3. 1:2b, Weiss (1910: xli, 3f.); Dinkier in RGG3; Schmithals (1965: 188f; 197 258);Schenke(1978:92f).
  4. 1:12, Weiss; Heinrici (1880); Pearce in Bowyer (1812); Goguel (1926: IV, 2); Michaelis.
  5. 1:16, Holsten (1880: 461 n.9, not asserted absolutely).
  6. 2:6-16, Widmann (1979).
  7. 4:6, Straatman; van de Sande Bakhuyzen (1880).
  8. 4:17, Weiss (1910: xli, 120); Gilmour; Dinkier.
  9. 6:3, Holsten.
  10. 7:8, Holsten.
  11. 7:11ab, Holsten.
  12. 7:14, Holsten.
  13. 7:17, Weiss (1910: xli); Gilmour; Dinkier.
  14. 7:17-24, Munro (1983: 80f.).
  15. 7:36-38, Holsten; Barnes (1947: 229).
  16. 8, as a whole, Munro (1983).
  17. 10, as a whole, Barnes (1947).
  18. 10:4b, Holsten.
  19. 10:13, Clemen; Pierson and Naber (1886: 81f.).
  20. 10:17, Clemen.
  21. 10:23-11:1, Munro 1983: 75-79).
  22. 10:29b-30, Hitzig; Zuntz.
  23. 11:2-16, Loisy (1935: 60f., 73f.,); Walker (1975; 1983; 1989); Cope (1978); Trompf (1980); Munro (1983: 69-75).
  24. 11:5b-6, Holsten.
  25. 11:10, Holsten; Lang; Wassenbergh (1815: 66); Straatman; Baljon; Owen; Lotze; Neander; Baur (1845: 636).
  26. 11:11, Straatman.
  27. 11:11f., Weiss (1910: xli).
  28. 11:13-15, Holsten.
  29. 11:16, Straatman; Prins; Baljon; Weiss (1910: xli, 276f.); Gilmour; Dinkier.
  30. 11:23-28, Straatman; Bruins; Lehman and Fridrichsen (1922); Loisy (1922: 43, 67; 1935: 69-74).
  31. 11:30, Prins.
  32. 13, in entirety, Lehmann and Fridrichsen; Loisy (1922: 43, 67); (1935: 69-74); Barnes (1947: 230); Titus (1959); Schenke (1978).
  33. 14:33-38, Munro (1983: 68f.).
  34. 14:33, Weiss (1910: xli); Gilmour; Dinkier; Loisy (1935: 73).
  35. 14:33b-35, Kiimmel; Straatman; van de Sande Bakhuyzen (1880); Holsten (1880: 495-97); van Manen (1880: 284-85); Genootsch (1880: 259f.); Schmiedel (1891); Weinel; Weiss (1910: 342); Allworthy (1917: 95-97); Dinkier; Loisy (1922: 43; 1933: 20 n.6; 1948: 363; 1961: 287); Leipoldt (1952); Zuntz (1953); Wendland (1954); Conzelmann (1969: 289f.); Ruef (1971: 154f.); Scroggs (1972); Munro (1973; 1983: 15f.); Jewett (1978); Perrin and Duling (1982: 180).
  36. 14:34-35, only Heinrici; Pfleiderer (1887: 169n); Easton (1947); Fascher (1953); Leipoldt (1954); Schweizer (1959: 152); Fitzer (1963); Bittlinger (1967); Barrett (1987: 699-708); Murphy-O'Connor (1979: 81-84). Cf. also Clemen (1894: 49f., as displaced but not therefore ungenuine).
  37. 15, as a whole, Barnes (1947: 228).
  38. 15:3-11, Straatman, van Manen, Teylers.
  39. 15:5b, Holsten.
  40. 15:2lf., 42-49, O'Neill (1975: 96).
  41. 16:22, Schmiedel; Baljon (1884); Holsten (1880: 450f.); Rovers; Bruins.
1 Corinthians 12
  VIDEO: 18
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