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BIBLE CANONS (5) | 1 CORINTHIANS
BIBLE CANON
A list of Texts a particular religious community regard as authoritative scripture
1. Marcion Canon (140 AD)
Marcionism was a religious movement based on the teachings of the 2nd-century Marcion of Sinope. Marcions Canon lists 14 books out of the 27 books in the New Testament. More specifically, these were Luke and Paul's 13 writings. Marcion even rejected the entire Old Testament of 39 books.

bible.ca/marcion
W Marcion_of_Sinope

1 Corinthians was Fully Accepted (100%) by Marcion Canon
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
2. Muratorian Canon (170 AD)
The Muratorian Canon is an ancient list of New Testament books - the oldest such list we have found and lists 22 of the 27 books that were later included in the New Testament of the Christian Bible.

It is noteworthy that the Muratorian Canon omits several epistles that later did win acceptance in the Christian New Testament such as the books of James and 2 Peter.

gotquestions.org/muratorian
W Muratorian_fragment

1 Corinthians was Fully Accepted (100%) by Muratorian Canon
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
3. Apostolic Canon (300 AD)
Apostolic Canons or Ecclesiastical Canons
W Canons_of_the_Apostles

1 Corinthians was Fully Accepted (100%) by Apostolic Canon
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
4. Cheltenham/ Mommsen List (360 AD)
The Cheltenham or Mommsen List is a Latin manuscript discovered by the German classical scholar Theodor Mommsen (published 1886) which probably originated in North Africa in the 4th century.

It has 24-book Old Testament and 24-book New Testament which omits Jude and James, and perhaps Hebrews, and questions the epistles of John and Peter.

bible-researcher.com/cheltenham
W Theodor_Mommsen

1 Corinthians was Fully Accepted (100%) by Cheltenham/ Mommsen List
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
5. Council of Rome (382 AD)
The Council of Rome was a meeting of Catholic Church officials and theologians which took place in 382 under the authority of Pope Damasus I, bishop of Rome.

According to a document appended to some manuscripts, the Council of Rome affirmed the authority of the Old and New Testament canon in a decretal or damasine list.
W Council_of_Rome

1 Corinthians was Fully Accepted (100%) by Council of Rome
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
Bible Canon (367 AD)
In 367 AD, Bishop Athanasius of Alexandria, first gave a list of the 27-books to become the New Testament 'Bible Canon'
W Development_of_the_New_Testament_canon

CHURCH FATHERS (17) | 1 CORINTHIANS
Bible Canon (367 AD)
In 367 AD, Bishop Athanasius of Alexandria, first gave a list of the 27-books to become the New Testament 'Bible Canon'
W Development_of_the_New_Testament_canon

TEXTUAL CRITICISM | 1 CORINTHIANS
CHURCH FATHER
Ancient and generally influential Christian theologians, eminent teachers and great bishops
1. Clement of Rome (97 AD)

1 Corinthians was Fully Accepted (100%) by Clement of Rome
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
2. Ignatius of Antioch (110 AD)

1 Corinthians was Rejected (0%) by Ignatius of Antioch
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
3. Barnabas (130 AD)

1 Corinthians was Rejected (0%) by Barnabas
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
4. Hermas (140 AD)

1 Corinthians was Approved (75%) by Hermas
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
5. Papias of Hierapolis (140 AD)

1 Corinthians was Rejected (0%) by Papias of Hierapolis
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
6. Polycarp (150 AD)

1 Corinthians was Approved (75%) by Polycarp
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
7. Didache (150 AD)

1 Corinthians was Approved (75%) by Didache
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
8. Diognetus (150 AD)

1 Corinthians was Rejected (0%) by Diognetus
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
9. Justin Martyr (155 AD)

1 Corinthians was Approved (75%) by Justin Martyr
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
10. Irenaeous (202 AD)

1 Corinthians was Fully Accepted (100%) by Irenaeous
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
11. Clement of Alexandria (215 AD)

1 Corinthians was Fully Accepted (100%) by Clement of Alexandria
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
12. Tertullian (220 AD)

1 Corinthians was Approved (75%) by Tertullian
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
13. Origen (254 AD)

1 Corinthians was Approved (75%) by Origen
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
14. Eusebius of Caesarea (340 AD)

1 Corinthians was Fully Accepted (100%) by Eusebius of Caesarea
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
15. Athanasius of Alexandria (367 AD)

1 Corinthians was Fully Accepted (100%) by Athanasius of Alexandria
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
16. Cyril of Jerusalem (386 AD)

1 Corinthians was Fully Accepted (100%) by Cyril of Jerusalem
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
17. Augustine of Hippo (400 AD)

1 Corinthians was Fully Accepted (100%) by Augustine of Hippo
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
Textual Criticism

EVIDENCE: Was Paul the Author?
Today, it is assumed Paul is the author. However, it is known that Paul extensively used Scribes ('Amanuensis') to write his letters. Paul dictated his thoughts and the Scribe wrote the letter as they saw fit. Therefore, all, if not the majority of Paul's Epistles (letters) in the New Testament Bible are authored by unknown Scribes.
EVIDENCE: Paul had a troubling 'Thorn'
In his Corinthians letter, Paul speaks of a 'Thorn In My Flesh' troubling him. Bible scholars have 4 theories on the 'thorn':

    1 Physical Sickness - The 'thorn' is a physical sickness (i.e. malaria, malta fever, epilepsy, convulsive attacks, chronic ophthalmia etc.). Many of these illnesses affect the eye-sight and would explain why Paul suffered from poor vision.
    2 Mental Illness - The 'thorn' is a mental illness (i.e. brain disorder, hallucination, schizophrenia, depression etc.)
    3 Spiritual Problem - The 'thorn' is a spiritual or moral problem (i.e. demon, evil-spirit, devil possession etc.)
    4 Ministerial Opposition - The 'thorn' is the Jewish persecution, opposition and resistance to Paul's ministry. This is considered a weak theory because if Paul was referring to a opposing person or movement, he would have referred to such individuals by name.

EVIDENCE: Paul had Eye-Sight Problems
It is known that Paul used Scribes ('Amanuensis') to write his letters as he suffered from poor eye-sight and was unable to write. According to early sources, Paul was 'a short, bony, little Jew with constant running eyes from his eye problems, squinting with a very large angular nose'.

    See what large letters I use as I write to you with my own hand [Paul's eyesight was defective and he needed help to write]

    As you know, it was because of an illness that I first preached the gospel to you, and even though my illness was a trial to you, you did not treat me with contempt or scorn. Instead, you welcomed me as if I were an angel of God, as if I were Christ Jesus himself. Where, then, is your blessing of me now? I can testify that, if you could have done so, you would have torn out your eyes and given them to me.

    Paul replied, Brothers, I did not know [due to bad eye-sight] that he was the high priest; for it is written: 'Do not speak evil about the ruler of your people.'

EVIDENCE: Church was aware of Paul's Eye-Sight problem
In Galatians, Paul confirms the Galatian Church was aware of his eye-sight problem. So much so, they would have 'plucked out their own eyes and given them to him' were it possible.

    Where, then, is your blessing of me now? I can testify that, if you could have done so, you would have torn out your eyes and given them to me.

EVIDENCE: Paul used Scribes to write his Epistles (Letters)
Paul composed his letters in accordance with the writing conventions of his time. Scribes were essential as the skills required for writing with primitive pens and paper made writing legibly a challenge.

Tertius was one Roman Scribe ('Amanuensis') who wrote on behalf of Paul. Tertius wrote Paul's Epistles (letters), either from notes, ideas or direct from Paul's mouth. At the end of the Epistle (letter), Paul would conclude with personal greetings in his own writing. [John Gill's commentary]

Timothy is present as Paul and Tertius write Romans. Did Timothy have any influence over the final text? If so, what was that influence? Was any text in Romans written by Timothy?

    I, Tertius, the one writing this letter for Paul, send my greetings, too, as one of the Lord's followers

    Paul, write this greeting in my own hand. Remember my chains. Grace be with you.

    I, Paul, write this greeting in my own hand, which is the distinguishing mark in all my letters. This is how I write.

    I, Paul, write this greeting in my own hand.

    Timothy, my co-worker, sends his greetings to you, as do Lucius, Jason and Sosipater, my fellow Jews.

EVIDENCE: Bible Scholars who consider Paul's Letter 1CORINTHIANS forged and interpolated
'Interpolation' is where a Word, Verse, Passage or even entire Chapter was added to Paul's Letter, often many years after Paul had written, disseminated it or died. Bible Scholars who hold the view that Paul's Letter is interpolated include:

  • As a whole Bauer; Pierson; Loman
  • 1:2, Weiss (1917: 534); Gilmour (1962: 688).
  • 1:2b, Weiss (1910: xli, 3f.); Dinkier in RGG3; Schmithals (1965: 188f; 197 258);Schenke(1978:92f).
  • 1:12, Weiss; Heinrici (1880); Pearce in Bowyer (1812); Goguel (1926: IV, 2); Michaelis.
  • 1:16, Holsten (1880: 461 n.9, not asserted absolutely).
  • 2:6-16, Widmann (1979).
  • 4:6, Straatman; van de Sande Bakhuyzen (1880).
  • 4:17, Weiss (1910: xli, 120); Gilmour; Dinkier.
  • 6:3, Holsten.
  • 7:8, Holsten.
  • 7:11ab, Holsten.
  • 7:14, Holsten.
  • 7:17, Weiss (1910: xli); Gilmour; Dinkier.
  • 7:17-24, Munro (1983: 80f.).
  • 7:36-38, Holsten; Barnes (1947: 229).
  • 8, as a whole, Munro (1983).
  • 10, as a whole, Barnes (1947).
  • 10:4b, Holsten.
  • 10:13, Clemen; Pierson and Naber (1886: 81f.).
  • 10:17, Clemen.
  • 10:23-11:1, Munro 1983: 75-79).
  • 10:29b-30, Hitzig; Zuntz.
  • 11:2-16, Loisy (1935: 60f., 73f.,); Walker (1975; 1983; 1989); Cope (1978); Trompf (1980); Munro (1983: 69-75).
  • 11:5b-6, Holsten.
  • 11:10, Holsten; Lang; Wassenbergh (1815: 66); Straatman; Baljon; Owen; Lotze; Neander; Baur (1845: 636).
  • 11:11, Straatman.
  • 11:11f., Weiss (1910: xli).
  • 11:13-15, Holsten.
  • 11:16, Straatman; Prins; Baljon; Weiss (1910: xli, 276f.); Gilmour; Dinkier.
  • 11:23-28, Straatman; Bruins; Lehman and Fridrichsen (1922); Loisy (1922: 43, 67; 1935: 69-74).
  • 11:30, Prins.
  • 13, in entirety, Lehmann and Fridrichsen; Loisy (1922: 43, 67); (1935: 69-74); Barnes (1947: 230); Titus (1959); Schenke (1978).
  • 14:33-38, Munro (1983: 68f.).
  • 14:33, Weiss (1910: xli); Gilmour; Dinkier; Loisy (1935: 73).
  • 14:33b-35, Kiimmel; Straatman; van de Sande Bakhuyzen (1880); Holsten (1880: 495-97); van Manen (1880: 284-85); Genootsch (1880: 259f.); Schmiedel (1891); Weinel; Weiss (1910: 342); Allworthy (1917: 95-97); Dinkier; Loisy (1922: 43; 1933: 20 n.6; 1948: 363; 1961: 287); Leipoldt (1952); Zuntz (1953); Wendland (1954); Conzelmann (1969: 289f.); Ruef (1971: 154f.); Scroggs (1972); Munro (1973; 1983: 15f.); Jewett (1978); Perrin and Duling (1982: 180).
  • 14:34-35, only Heinrici; Pfleiderer (1887: 169n); Easton (1947); Fascher (1953); Leipoldt (1954); Schweizer (1959: 152); Fitzer (1963); Bittlinger (1967); Barrett (1987: 699-708); Murphy-O'Connor (1979: 81-84). Cf. also Clemen (1894: 49f., as displaced but not therefore ungenuine).
  • 15, as a whole, Barnes (1947: 228).
  • 15:3-11, Straatman, van Manen, Teylers.
  • 15:5b, Holsten.
  • 15:2lf., 42-49, O'Neill (1975: 96).
  • 16:22, Schmiedel; Baljon (1884); Holsten (1880: 450f.); Rovers; Bruins.

1 CORINTHIANS
CHAPTER: 11 | VERSES: 34

Now I praise you, brethren, that ye remember me in all things, and keep the ordinances, as I delivered them to you.
1 of 34
But I would have you know, that the head of every man is Christ; and the head of the woman is the man; and the head of Christ is God.
2 of 34
Every man praying or prophesying, having his head covered, dishonoureth his head.
3 of 34
But every woman that prayeth or prophesieth with her head uncovered dishonoureth her head: for that is even all one as if she were shaven.
4 of 34
For if the woman be not covered, let her also be shorn: but if it be a shame for a woman to be shorn or shaven, let her be covered.
5 of 34
For a man indeed ought not to cover his head, forasmuch as he is the image and glory of God: but the woman is the glory of the man.
6 of 34
For the man is not of the woman; but the woman of the man.
7 of 34
Neither was the man created for the woman; but the woman for the man.
8 of 34
For this cause ought the woman to have power on her head because of the angels.
9 of 34
Nevertheless neither is the man without the woman, neither the woman without the man, in the Lord.
10 of 34
For as the woman is of the man, even so is the man also by the woman; but all things of God.
11 of 34
Judge in yourselves: is it comely that a woman pray unto God uncovered?
12 of 34
Doth not even nature itself teach you, that, if a man have long hair, it is a shame unto him?
13 of 34
But if a woman have long hair, it is a glory to her: for her hair is given her for a covering.
14 of 34
But if any man seem to be contentious, we have no such custom, neither the churches of God.
15 of 34
Now in this that I declare unto you I praise you not, that ye come together not for the better, but for the worse.
16 of 34
For first of all, when ye come together in the church, I hear that there be divisions among you; and I partly believe it.
17 of 34
For there must be also heresies among you, that they which are approved may be made manifest among you.
18 of 34
When ye come together therefore into one place, this is not to eat the Lord's supper.
19 of 34
For in eating every one taketh before other his own supper: and one is hungry, and another is drunken.
20 of 34
What? have ye not houses to eat and to drink in? or despise ye the church of God, and shame them that have not? What shall I say to you? shall I praise you in this? I praise you not.
21 of 34
For I have received of the Lord that which also I delivered unto you, That the Lord Jesus the same night in which he was betrayed took bread:
22 of 34
And when he had given thanks, he brake it, and said, Take, eat: this is my body, which is broken for you: this do in remembrance of me.
23 of 34
After the same manner also he took the cup, when he had supped, saying, This cup is the new testament in my blood: this do ye, as oft as ye drink it, in remembrance of me.
24 of 34
For as often as ye eat this bread, and drink this cup, ye do shew the Lord's death till he come.
25 of 34
Wherefore whosoever shall eat this bread, and drink this cup of the Lord, unworthily, shall be guilty of the body and blood of the Lord.
26 of 34
But let a man examine himself, and so let him eat of that bread, and drink of that cup.
27 of 34
For he that eateth and drinketh unworthily, eateth and drinketh damnation to himself, not discerning the Lord's body.
28 of 34
For this cause many are weak and sickly among you, and many sleep.
29 of 34
For if we would judge ourselves, we should not be judged.
30 of 34
But when we are judged, we are chastened of the Lord, that we should not be condemned with the world.
31 of 34
Wherefore, my brethren, when ye come together to eat, tarry one for another.
32 of 34
And if any man hunger, let him eat at home; that ye come not together unto condemnation. And the rest will I set in order when I come.
33 of 34
Chapter:
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