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BIBLE CANONS (5) | ROMANS
BIBLE CANON
A list of Texts a particular religious community regard as authoritative scripture
1. Marcion Canon (140 AD)
Marcionism was a religious movement based on the teachings of the 2nd-century Marcion of Sinope. Marcions Canon lists 14 books out of the 27 books in the New Testament. More specifically, these were Luke and Paul's 13 writings. Marcion even rejected the entire Old Testament of 39 books.

bible.ca/marcion
W Marcion_of_Sinope

Romans was Fully Accepted (100%) by Marcion Canon
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
2. Muratorian Canon (170 AD)
The Muratorian Canon is an ancient list of New Testament books - the oldest such list we have found and lists 22 of the 27 books that were later included in the New Testament of the Christian Bible.

It is noteworthy that the Muratorian Canon omits several epistles that later did win acceptance in the Christian New Testament such as the books of James and 2 Peter.

gotquestions.org/muratorian
W Muratorian_fragment

Romans was Fully Accepted (100%) by Muratorian Canon
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
3. Apostolic Canon (300 AD)
Apostolic Canons or Ecclesiastical Canons
W Canons_of_the_Apostles

Romans was Fully Accepted (100%) by Apostolic Canon
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
4. Cheltenham/ Mommsen List (360 AD)
The Cheltenham or Mommsen List is a Latin manuscript discovered by the German classical scholar Theodor Mommsen (published 1886) which probably originated in North Africa in the 4th century.

It has 24-book Old Testament and 24-book New Testament which omits Jude and James, and perhaps Hebrews, and questions the epistles of John and Peter.

bible-researcher.com/cheltenham
W Theodor_Mommsen

Romans was Fully Accepted (100%) by Cheltenham/ Mommsen List
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
5. Council of Rome (382 AD)
The Council of Rome was a meeting of Catholic Church officials and theologians which took place in 382 under the authority of Pope Damasus I, bishop of Rome.

According to a document appended to some manuscripts, the Council of Rome affirmed the authority of the Old and New Testament canon in a decretal or damasine list.
W Council_of_Rome

Romans was Fully Accepted (100%) by Council of Rome
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
Bible Canon (367 AD)
In 367 AD, Bishop Athanasius of Alexandria, first gave a list of the 27-books to become the New Testament 'Bible Canon'
W Development_of_the_New_Testament_canon

CHURCH FATHERS (17) | ROMANS
Bible Canon (367 AD)
In 367 AD, Bishop Athanasius of Alexandria, first gave a list of the 27-books to become the New Testament 'Bible Canon'
W Development_of_the_New_Testament_canon

TEXTUAL CRITICISM | ROMANS
CHURCH FATHER
Ancient and generally influential Christian theologians, eminent teachers and great bishops
1. Clement of Rome (97 AD)

Romans was Approved (75%) by Clement of Rome
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
2. Ignatius of Antioch (110 AD)

Romans was Rejected (0%) by Ignatius of Antioch
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
3. Barnabas (130 AD)

Romans was Rejected (0%) by Barnabas
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
4. Hermas (140 AD)

Romans was Rejected (0%) by Hermas
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
5. Papias of Hierapolis (140 AD)

Romans was Rejected (0%) by Papias of Hierapolis
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
6. Polycarp (150 AD)

Romans was Approved (75%) by Polycarp
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
7. Didache (150 AD)

Romans was Approved (75%) by Didache
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
8. Diognetus (150 AD)

Romans was Rejected (0%) by Diognetus
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
9. Justin Martyr (155 AD)

Romans was Approved (75%) by Justin Martyr
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
10. Irenaeous (202 AD)

Romans was Fully Accepted (100%) by Irenaeous
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
11. Clement of Alexandria (215 AD)

Romans was Fully Accepted (100%) by Clement of Alexandria
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
12. Tertullian (220 AD)

Romans was Approved (75%) by Tertullian
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
13. Origen (254 AD)

Romans was Approved (75%) by Origen
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
14. Eusebius of Caesarea (340 AD)

Romans was Fully Accepted (100%) by Eusebius of Caesarea
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
15. Athanasius of Alexandria (367 AD)

Romans was Fully Accepted (100%) by Athanasius of Alexandria
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
16. Cyril of Jerusalem (386 AD)

Romans was Fully Accepted (100%) by Cyril of Jerusalem
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
17. Augustine of Hippo (400 AD)

Romans was Fully Accepted (100%) by Augustine of Hippo
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
Bible Translations: Missing/Disputed Verse
The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you all. Amen
Displayed as above
Missing Verse
Missing Verse
EVIDENCE: Was Paul the Author?
Today, it is assumed Paul is the author. However, it is known that Paul extensively used Scribes ('Amanuensis') to write his letters. Paul dictated his thoughts and the Scribe wrote the letter as they saw fit. Therefore, all, if not the majority of Paul's Epistles (letters) in the New Testament Bible are authored by unknown Scribes.
EVIDENCE: Paul had a troubling 'Thorn'
In his Corinthians letter, Paul speaks of a 'Thorn In My Flesh' troubling him. Bible scholars have 4 theories on the 'thorn':

    1 Physical Sickness - The 'thorn' is a physical sickness (i.e. malaria, malta fever, epilepsy, convulsive attacks, chronic ophthalmia etc.). Many of these illnesses affect the eye-sight and would explain why Paul suffered from poor vision.
    2 Mental Illness - The 'thorn' is a mental illness (i.e. brain disorder, hallucination, schizophrenia, depression etc.)
    3 Spiritual Problem - The 'thorn' is a spiritual or moral problem (i.e. demon, evil-spirit, devil possession etc.)
    4 Ministerial Opposition - The 'thorn' is the Jewish persecution, opposition and resistance to Paul's ministry. This is considered a weak theory because if Paul was referring to a opposing person or movement, he would have referred to such individuals by name.

EVIDENCE: Paul had Eye-Sight Problems
It is known that Paul used Scribes ('Amanuensis') to write his letters as he suffered from poor eye-sight and was unable to write. According to early sources, Paul was 'a short, bony, little Jew with constant running eyes from his eye problems, squinting with a very large angular nose'.

    See what large letters I use as I write to you with my own hand [Paul's eyesight was defective and he needed help to write]

    As you know, it was because of an illness that I first preached the gospel to you, and even though my illness was a trial to you, you did not treat me with contempt or scorn. Instead, you welcomed me as if I were an angel of God, as if I were Christ Jesus himself. Where, then, is your blessing of me now? I can testify that, if you could have done so, you would have torn out your eyes and given them to me.

    Paul replied, Brothers, I did not know [due to bad eye-sight] that he was the high priest; for it is written: 'Do not speak evil about the ruler of your people.'

EVIDENCE: Church was aware of Paul's Eye-Sight problem
In Galatians, Paul confirms the Galatian Church was aware of his eye-sight problem. So much so, they would have 'plucked out their own eyes and given them to him' were it possible.

    Where, then, is your blessing of me now? I can testify that, if you could have done so, you would have torn out your eyes and given them to me.

EVIDENCE: Paul used Scribes to write his Epistles (Letters)
Paul composed his letters in accordance with the writing conventions of his time. Scribes were essential as the skills required for writing with primitive pens and paper made writing legibly a challenge.

Tertius was one Roman Scribe ('Amanuensis') who wrote on behalf of Paul. Tertius wrote Paul's Epistles (letters), either from notes, ideas or direct from Paul's mouth. At the end of the Epistle (letter), Paul would conclude with personal greetings in his own writing. [John Gill's commentary]

Timothy is present as Paul and Tertius write Romans. Did Timothy have any influence over the final text? If so, what was that influence? Was any text in Romans written by Timothy?

    I, Tertius, the one writing this letter for Paul, send my greetings, too, as one of the Lord's followers

    Paul, write this greeting in my own hand. Remember my chains. Grace be with you.

    I, Paul, write this greeting in my own hand, which is the distinguishing mark in all my letters. This is how I write.

    I, Paul, write this greeting in my own hand.

    Timothy, my co-worker, sends his greetings to you, as do Lucius, Jason and Sosipater, my fellow Jews.

EVIDENCE: Bible Scholars who consider Paul's Letter ROMANS forged and interpolated
'Interpolation' is where a Word, Verse, Passage or even entire Chapter was added to Paul's Letter, often many years after Paul had written, disseminated it or died. Bible Scholars who hold the view that Paul's Letter is interpolated include:

  • 1:3-4 Loisy (1935: 9).
  • 1:18-32, parts by Michelsen (1876); Couchoud (1926); Harrison (1936:298f.); Carrington (1939); Hawkins (1941); O'Neill (1975: 40-45, continues until Rom. 2:29); Munro (1983: 112f).
  • 2:1, Bultmann (1947); Schmithals (1975, marginal note).
  • 2:13, Schmithals (1975, marginal note).
  • 2:14f., Weiss sees as a gloss.
  • 2:15b-16, Sahlin (1953).
  • 2:16, Bultmann (1947); Schmithals (1975, marginal note); Koester.
  • 3:9-20, Hawkins (1941).
  • 3:10-18, Weisse (1833); Pierson and Naber (1886); Michelsen (1887); van Manen (1880); Schenke and Fischer (1978: 142f.); O'Neill (1975, vv. 12-18).
  • 3:23-26, Hawkins (1941).
  • 3:24/25-26, Talbert (1966).
  • 4:1 and 4:17b, Schenke and Fischer (1978: 144) make the complicated suggestion that 4:17b really belongs at the end of 4:1. Weisse omits4:1.
  • 5:1, Schmithals (1975, probably redactional).
  • 5:5-10, Sahlin (1953) accepts in order 5, 8, 6, 9, 10; Schenke and Fischer (1978: 144) agree.
  • 5:6-7, Keck (1979: 237-38); Schmithals (1975, marginal note).
  • 5:7 Semler (1810) thinks added later.
  • 5:12-21, Barnes (1947: 239); O'Neill (1975: 96-107).
  • 6:17b, Bultmann (1947); Schmithals (1975, marginal note).
  • 7:25b, Bultmann; Schmithals (1975, marginal note).
  • 8:1. Weisse omits; Bultmann (1947); Schmithals (1975, marginal note).
  • 10:17, Bultmann (1947); Schmithals (1975, marginal note).
  • 13:1-7, Pallis (1920); Loisy (1922: 104, 128; 1935: 30-31; 1936: 287); Windisch (1931); cf. Barnikol (1931b); Eggenberger (1945); Barnes (1947: 302, possibly); Kallas (1964-65); Munro (1983: 56f., 65-67); Sahlin (1953); Bultmann (1947).
  • 15 and 16 together, Baur (1836b; 1849; 1845); Schwegler (1846: I, 296); Zeller (1854: 488); Volkmar (1856; 1875: xvff., 129ff.); Lucht (1871); Ryder (1898); Smith (1901); Scholten (1876); Davidson (1882: 125-28; 1894: 126-31).
  • 15:4b, Schmithals (1975, redactional).
  • 16 as a whole, Weiss (1872); Hawkins (1941); Knox (1954); Friedrich (1961).
  • 16:17-20, Volkmar (1875); Pfleiderer (1887: 145).
  • 16:17-18, Loisy (1935: 29).
  • 16:24, Cranfield; Mangold (1884).
  • 16:25-27, Reiche (1833); Krehl (1845); Delitzsch (1849); Davidson (1868:134-37; 1882:118-21; 1894:120-23); Lucht (1871); Hilgenfeld (1872: 469ff.; 1875:326f.); Pfleiderer (1873: 314); Seyerlen (1874); Volkmar (1875); Schultz (1876); Mangold (1884: 44-81); Bruckner; Lipsius; von Weizsacker (1886: 334); Ji.ilicher (1894: 71); Corssen (1909: 1-45); Lake (1914: 359f.); Wendland (1912: 351); Weiss (1917: 534); Burton (1921: 509); Loisy(1922: 106, 134); Harnack (1931); Barnikol (1931a; 1933:116-48); Dodd (1932: 245); Manson (1948); Gaugler (1945); Zuntz (1953); Michel (1955: 19f.); Barrett (1958: 10-13, 286); Friedrich in RGG3 V, 1138; Beare (1962b: 112f.); Marxsen (1964); Fuller (1966: 56); Fitzmyer in Brown, Fitzmyer and Murphy (eds) (1990: 292); Bornkamm (1969); Lohse (1972); Kasemann (1973); Cranfield (1975:6-9); Schmithals (1975); Vielhauer (1975: 187f.); Gamble (1977: 107-10, 123f.); Schenke and Fischer (1978: I, 136f.); Elliot (1981); Dunn (1988: 912f.); Ziesler (1989: 25); Donfried (1970); Kamiah (1956).

ROMANS
CHAPTER: 8 | VERSES: 39

For the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus hath made me free from the law of sin and death.
1 of 39
For what the law could not do, in that it was weak through the flesh, God sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh, and for sin, condemned sin in the flesh:
2 of 39
That the righteousness of the law might be fulfilled in us, who walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit.
3 of 39
For they that are after the flesh do mind the things of the flesh; but they that are after the Spirit the things of the Spirit.
4 of 39
For to be carnally minded is death; but to be spiritually minded is life and peace.
5 of 39
Because the carnal mind is enmity against God: for it is not subject to the law of God, neither indeed can be.
6 of 39
So then they that are in the flesh cannot please God.
7 of 39
But ye are not in the flesh, but in the Spirit, if so be that the Spirit of God dwell in you. Now if any man have not the Spirit of Christ, he is none of his.
8 of 39
And if Christ be in you, the body is dead because of sin; but the Spirit is life because of righteousness.
9 of 39
But if the Spirit of him that raised up Jesus from the dead dwell in you, he that raised up Christ from the dead shall also quicken your mortal bodies by his Spirit that dwelleth in you.
10 of 39
Therefore, brethren, we are debtors, not to the flesh, to live after the flesh.
11 of 39
For if ye live after the flesh, ye shall die: but if ye through the Spirit do mortify the deeds of the body, ye shall live.
12 of 39
For as many as are led by the Spirit of God, they are the sons of God.
13 of 39
For ye have not received the spirit of bondage again to fear; but ye have received the Spirit of adoption, whereby we cry, Abba, Father.
14 of 39
The Spirit itself beareth witness with our spirit, that we are the children of God:
15 of 39
And if children, then heirs; heirs of God, and joint-heirs with Christ; if so be that we suffer with him, that we may be also glorified together.
16 of 39
For I reckon that the sufferings of this present time are not worthy to be compared with the glory which shall be revealed in us.
17 of 39
For the earnest expectation of the creature waiteth for the manifestation of the sons of God.
18 of 39
For the creature was made subject to vanity, not willingly, but by reason of him who hath subjected the same in hope,
19 of 39
Because the creature itself also shall be delivered from the bondage of corruption into the glorious liberty of the children of God.
20 of 39
For we know that the whole creation groaneth and travaileth in pain together until now.
21 of 39
And not only they, but ourselves also, which have the firstfruits of the Spirit, even we ourselves groan within ourselves, waiting for the adoption, to wit, the redemption of our body.
22 of 39
For we are saved by hope: but hope that is seen is not hope: for what a man seeth, why doth he yet hope for?
23 of 39
But if we hope for that we see not, then do we with patience wait for it.
24 of 39
Likewise the Spirit also helpeth our infirmities: for we know not what we should pray for as we ought: but the Spirit itself maketh intercession for us with groanings which cannot be uttered.
25 of 39
And he that searcheth the hearts knoweth what is the mind of the Spirit, because he maketh intercession for the saints according to the will of God.
26 of 39
And we know that all things work together for good to them that love God, to them who are the called according to his purpose.
27 of 39
For whom he did foreknow, he also did predestinate to be conformed to the image of his Son, that he might be the firstborn among many brethren.
28 of 39
Moreover whom he did predestinate, them he also called: and whom he called, them he also justified: and whom he justified, them he also glorified.
29 of 39
What shall we then say to these things? If God be for us, who can be against us?
30 of 39
He that spared not his own Son, but delivered him up for us all, how shall he not with him also freely give us all things?
31 of 39
Who shall lay any thing to the charge of God's elect? It is God that justifieth.
32 of 39
Who is he that condemneth? It is Christ that died, yea rather, that is risen again, who is even at the right hand of God, who also maketh intercession for us.
33 of 39
Who shall separate us from the love of Christ? shall tribulation, or distress, or persecution, or famine, or nakedness, or peril, or sword?
34 of 39
As it is written, For thy sake we are killed all the day long; we are accounted as sheep for the slaughter.
35 of 39
Nay, in all these things we are more than conquerors through him that loved us.
36 of 39
For I am persuaded, that neither death, nor life, nor angels, nor principalities, nor powers, nor things present, nor things to come,
37 of 39
Nor height, nor depth, nor any other creature, shall be able to separate us from the love of God, which is in Christ Jesus our Lord.
38 of 39
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