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Romans 13
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Let every soul be subject unto the higher powers. For there is no power but of God: the powers that be are ordained of God.
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Whosoever therefore resisteth the power, resisteth the ordinance of God: and they that resist shall receive to themselves damnation.
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For rulers are not a terror to good works, but to the evil. Wilt thou then not be afraid of the power? do that which is good, and thou shalt have praise of the same:
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For he is the minister of God to thee for good. But if thou do that which is evil, be afraid; for he beareth not the sword in vain: for he is the minister of God, a revenger to execute wrath upon him that doeth evil.
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Wherefore ye must needs be subject, not only for wrath, but also for conscience sake.
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For for this cause pay ye tribute also: for they are God's ministers, attending continually upon this very thing.
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Render therefore to all their dues: tribute to whom tribute is due; custom to whom custom; fear to whom fear; honour to whom honour.
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Owe no man any thing, but to love one another: for he that loveth another hath fulfilled the law.
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For this, Thou shalt not commit adultery, Thou shalt not kill, Thou shalt not steal, Thou shalt not bear false witness, Thou shalt not covet; and if there be any other commandment, it is briefly comprehended in this saying, namely, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.
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Love worketh no ill to his neighbour: therefore love is the fulfilling of the law.
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And that, knowing the time, that now it is high time to awake out of sleep: for now is our salvation nearer than when we believed.
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The night is far spent, the day is at hand: let us therefore cast off the works of darkness, and let us put on the armour of light.
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Let us walk honestly, as in the day; not in rioting and drunkenness, not in chambering and wantonness, not in strife and envying.
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But put ye on the Lord Jesus Christ, and make not provision for the flesh, to fulfil the lusts thereof.


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Romans 13
  CHURCH FATHERS: 17
1. Clement of Rome | CHURCH FATHER 97 AD
Romans was APPROVED (75%) by Clement of Rome
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
2. Ignatius of Antioch | CHURCH FATHER 110 AD
Romans was REJECTED (0%) by Ignatius of Antioch
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
3. Barnabas | CHURCH FATHER 130 AD
Romans was REJECTED (0%) by Barnabas
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
4. Hermas | CHURCH FATHER 140 AD
Romans was REJECTED (0%) by Hermas
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
5. Papias of Hierapolis | CHURCH FATHER 140 AD
Romans was REJECTED (0%) by Papias of Hierapolis
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
6. Polycarp | CHURCH FATHER 150 AD
Romans was APPROVED (75%) by Polycarp
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
7. Didache | CHURCH FATHER 150 AD
Romans was APPROVED (75%) by Didache
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
8. Diognetus | CHURCH FATHER 150 AD
Romans was REJECTED (0%) by Diognetus
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
9. Justin Martyr | CHURCH FATHER 155 AD
Romans was APPROVED (75%) by Justin Martyr
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
10. Irenaeous | CHURCH FATHER 202 AD
Romans was FULLY ACCEPTED (100%) by Irenaeous
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
11. Clement of Alexandria | CHURCH FATHER 215 AD
Romans was FULLY ACCEPTED (100%) by Clement of Alexandria
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
12. Tertullian | CHURCH FATHER 220 AD
Romans was APPROVED (75%) by Tertullian
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
13. Origen | CHURCH FATHER 254 AD
Romans was APPROVED (75%) by Origen
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
14. Eusebius of Caesarea | CHURCH FATHER 340 AD
Romans was FULLY ACCEPTED (100%) by Eusebius of Caesarea
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
15. Athanasius of Alexandria | CHURCH FATHER 367 AD
Romans was FULLY ACCEPTED (100%) by Athanasius of Alexandria
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
16. Cyril of Jerusalem | CHURCH FATHER 386 AD
Romans was FULLY ACCEPTED (100%) by Cyril of Jerusalem
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
17. Augustine of Hippo | CHURCH FATHER 400 AD
Romans was FULLY ACCEPTED (100%) by Augustine of Hippo
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
Romans 13
  BIBLE CANON: 5
A biblical canon is a set of texts (or "books") which a particular religious community regards as authoritative scripture. Christians were the first to use the term in reference to scripture.

These bible canons have developed through debate and agreement by the religious authorities.
W Biblical_canon
1. Marcion Canon | BIBLE CANON 140 AD
Marcionism was a religious movement based on the teachings of the 2nd-century Marcion of Sinope. Marcions Canon lists 14 books out of the 27 books in the New Testament. More specifically, these were Luke and Paul's 13 writings. Marcion even rejected the entire Old Testament of 39 books.

bible.ca/marcion
Romans was FULLY ACCEPTED (100%) by Marcion Canon
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
2. Muratorian Canon | BIBLE CANON 170 AD
The Muratorian Canon is an ancient list of New Testament books - the oldest such list we have found and lists 22 of the 27 books that were later included in the New Testament of the Christian Bible.

It is noteworthy that the Muratorian Canon omits several epistles that later did win acceptance in the Christian New Testament such as the books of James and 2 Peter.

gotquestions.org/muratorian
Romans was FULLY ACCEPTED (100%) by Muratorian Canon
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
3. Apostolic Canon | BIBLE CANON 300 AD
Apostolic Canons or Ecclesiastical Canons
Romans was FULLY ACCEPTED (100%) by Apostolic Canon
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
4. Cheltenham/ Mommsen List | BIBLE CANON 360 AD
The Cheltenham or Mommsen List is a Latin manuscript discovered by the German classical scholar Theodor Mommsen (published 1886) which probably originated in North Africa in the 4th century.

It has 24-book Old Testament and 24-book New Testament which omits Jude and James, and perhaps Hebrews, and questions the epistles of John and Peter.

bible-researcher.com/cheltenham
Romans was FULLY ACCEPTED (100%) by Cheltenham/ Mommsen List
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
5. Council of Rome | BIBLE CANON 382 AD
The Council of Rome was a meeting of Catholic Church officials and theologians which took place in 382 under the authority of Pope Damasus I, bishop of Rome.

According to a document appended to some manuscripts, the Council of Rome affirmed the authority of the Old and New Testament canon in a decretal or damasine list.
Romans was FULLY ACCEPTED (100%) by Council of Rome
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
Romans 13
  TEXTUAL CRITICISM
Was Paul the Author? Evidence
Today, it is assumed Paul is the author. However, it is known that Paul extensively used Scribes ('Amanuensis') to write his letters. Paul dictated his thoughts and the Scribe wrote the letter as they saw fit. Therefore, most of Paul's Epistles (letters) in the New Testament Bible are authored by unknown Scribes.
Paul had a troubling 'Thorn' Evidence
In his Corinthians letter, Paul speaks of a 'Thorn In My Flesh' troubling him. Bible scholars have 4 theories on the 'thorn':

    1. Physical Sickness - The 'thorn' is a physical sickness (i.e. malaria, malta fever, epilepsy, convulsive attacks, chronic ophthalmia etc.). Many of these illnesses affect the eye-sight and would explain why Paul suffered from poor vision.

    2. Mental Illness - The 'thorn' is a mental illness (i.e. brain disorder, hallucination, schizophrenia, depression etc.)

    3. Spiritual Problem - The 'thorn' is a spiritual or moral problem (i.e. demon, evil-spirit, devil possession etc.)

    4. Ministerial Opposition - The 'thorn' is the Jewish persecution, opposition and resistance to Paul's ministry. This is considered a weak theory because if Paul was referring to a opposing person or movement, he would have referred to such individuals by name.
Paul had poor Eye-Sight Evidence
It is known that Paul used Scribes ('Amanuensis') to write his letters as he suffered from poor eye-sight and was unable to write. According to early sources, Paul was 'a short, bony, little Jew with constant running eyes from his eye problems, squinting with a very large angular nose'.
See what large letters I use as I write to you with my own hand [Paul's eyesight was defective and he needed help to write]
As you know, it was because of an illness that I first preached the gospel to you, and even though my illness was a trial to you, you did not treat me with contempt or scorn. Instead, you welcomed me as if I were an angel of God, as if I were Christ Jesus himself. Where, then, is your blessing of me now? I can testify that, if you could have done so, you would have torn out your eyes and given them to me.
Paul replied, Brothers, I did not know [due to bad eye-sight] that he was the high priest; for it is written: 'Do not speak evil about the ruler of your people.'
Church was aware of Paul's Eye-Sight problem Evidence
In Galatians, Paul confirms the Galatian Church was aware of his eye-sight problem. So much so, they would have 'plucked out their own eyes and given them to him' were it possible.
Where, then, is your blessing of me now? I can testify that, if you could have done so, you would have torn out your eyes and given them to me.
Paul used Scribes to write his Epistles (Letters) Evidence
Paul composed his letters in accordance with the writing conventions of his time. Scribes were essential as the skills required for writing with primitive pens and paper made writing legibly a challenge.

Tertius was one Roman Scribe ('Amanuensis') who wrote on behalf of Paul. Tertius wrote Paul's Epistles (letters), either from notes, ideas or direct from Paul's mouth. At the end of the Epistle (letter), Paul would conclude with personal greetings in his own writing. [John Gill's commentary]

Timothy is present as Paul and Tertius write Romans. Did Timothy have any influence over the final text? If so, what was that influence? Was any text in Romans written by Timothy?
I, Tertius, the one writing this letter for Paul, send my greetings, too, as one of the Lord's followers
Paul, write this greeting in my own hand. Remember my chains. Grace be with you.
I, Paul, write this greeting in my own hand, which is the distinguishing mark in all my letters. This is how I write.
I, Paul, write this greeting in my own hand.
Timothy, my co-worker, sends his greetings to you, as do Lucius, Jason and Sosipater, my fellow Jews.
Paul's Letter, Romans is forged and interpolated Bible Scholars
'Interpolation' is where a Word, Verse, Passage or even entire Chapter was added to Paul's Letter, often many years after Paul had written, disseminated it or died. Bible Scholars who hold the view that Paul's Letter is interpolated include:

  1. 1:3-4 Loisy (1935: 9).
  2. 1:18-32, parts by Michelsen (1876); Couchoud (1926); Harrison (1936:298f.); Carrington (1939); Hawkins (1941); O'Neill (1975: 40-45, continues until Rom. 2:29); Munro (1983: 112f).
  3. 2:1, Bultmann (1947); Schmithals (1975, marginal note).
  4. 2:13, Schmithals (1975, marginal note).
  5. 2:14f., Weiss sees as a gloss.
  6. 2:15b-16, Sahlin (1953).
  7. 2:16, Bultmann (1947); Schmithals (1975, marginal note); Koester.
  8. 3:9-20, Hawkins (1941).
  9. 3:10-18, Weisse (1833); Pierson and Naber (1886); Michelsen (1887); van Manen (1880); Schenke and Fischer (1978: 142f.); O'Neill (1975, vv. 12-18).
  10. 3:23-26, Hawkins (1941).
  11. 3:24/25-26, Talbert (1966).
  12. 4:1 and 4:17b, Schenke and Fischer (1978: 144) make the complicated suggestion that 4:17b really belongs at the end of 4:1. Weisse omits4:1.
  13. 5:1, Schmithals (1975, probably redactional).
  14. 5:5-10, Sahlin (1953) accepts in order 5, 8, 6, 9, 10; Schenke and Fischer (1978: 144) agree.
  15. 5:6-7, Keck (1979: 237-38); Schmithals (1975, marginal note).
  16. 5:7 Semler (1810) thinks added later.
  17. 5:12-21, Barnes (1947: 239); O'Neill (1975: 96-107).
  18. 6:17b, Bultmann (1947); Schmithals (1975, marginal note).
  19. 7:25b, Bultmann; Schmithals (1975, marginal note).
  20. 8:1. Weisse omits; Bultmann (1947); Schmithals (1975, marginal note).
  21. 10:17, Bultmann (1947); Schmithals (1975, marginal note).
  22. 13:1-7, Pallis (1920); Loisy (1922: 104, 128; 1935: 30-31; 1936: 287); Windisch (1931); cf. Barnikol (1931b); Eggenberger (1945); Barnes (1947: 302, possibly); Kallas (1964-65); Munro (1983: 56f., 65-67); Sahlin (1953); Bultmann (1947).
  23. 15 and 16 together, Baur (1836b; 1849; 1845); Schwegler (1846: I, 296); Zeller (1854: 488); Volkmar (1856; 1875: xvff., 129ff.); Lucht (1871); Ryder (1898); Smith (1901); Scholten (1876); Davidson (1882: 125-28; 1894: 126-31).
  24. 15:4b, Schmithals (1975, redactional).
  25. 16 as a whole, Weiss (1872); Hawkins (1941); Knox (1954); Friedrich (1961).
  26. 16:17-20, Volkmar (1875); Pfleiderer (1887: 145).
  27. 16:17-18, Loisy (1935: 29).
  28. 16:24, Cranfield; Mangold (1884).
  29. 16:25-27, Reiche (1833); Krehl (1845); Delitzsch (1849); Davidson (1868:134-37; 1882:118-21; 1894:120-23); Lucht (1871); Hilgenfeld (1872: 469ff.; 1875:326f.); Pfleiderer (1873: 314); Seyerlen (1874); Volkmar (1875); Schultz (1876); Mangold (1884: 44-81); Bruckner; Lipsius; von Weizsacker (1886: 334); Ji.ilicher (1894: 71); Corssen (1909: 1-45); Lake (1914: 359f.); Wendland (1912: 351); Weiss (1917: 534); Burton (1921: 509); Loisy(1922: 106, 134); Harnack (1931); Barnikol (1931a; 1933:116-48); Dodd (1932: 245); Manson (1948); Gaugler (1945); Zuntz (1953); Michel (1955: 19f.); Barrett (1958: 10-13, 286); Friedrich in RGG3 V, 1138; Beare (1962b: 112f.); Marxsen (1964); Fuller (1966: 56); Fitzmyer in Brown, Fitzmyer and Murphy (eds) (1990: 292); Bornkamm (1969); Lohse (1972); Kasemann (1973); Cranfield (1975:6-9); Schmithals (1975); Vielhauer (1975: 187f.); Gamble (1977: 107-10, 123f.); Schenke and Fischer (1978: I, 136f.); Elliot (1981); Dunn (1988: 912f.); Ziesler (1989: 25); Donfried (1970); Kamiah (1956).
Romans 13
  VIDEO: 18
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