Mark 4  

Mark's gospel appears to be targeted at the Roman believers, particularly Gentiles.

He wished for the Romans to have a biographical story of Jesus Christ as Servant of the Lord and Savior of the world in order to strengthen their faith in the face of severe persecution and to teach them what it meant to be His disciples.
W Gospel_of_Mark
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Authorship: (Assumed)
Arrius Calpurnius Piso (circa 73 AD)

The True Authorship of the New Testament, by Abelard Reuchlin 1986
[source]


The gospel of Mark was written in a prototype form before it was later crafted into the form that we are familiar with. The earlier version was called ‘Ur Marcus’ and is also known/called ‘Q’ (for ‘Quelle’, which is German for the ‘source’).

Our latest findings regarding the early version of Mark show that this was written at about the time of Claudius Caesar, by the grandfather of Arrius Piso. That version was apparently only a bare sketch and most likely did not give a name to the ‘messiah’. That appears to have been done later by the person who actually played ‘Jesus’ in the Gospels - Arrius Piso

The version that we are familiar with was written about the year 73 CE by Arrius Calpurnius Piso. Arrius Piso was a Roman on his father’s side, but a descendant of King Herod on his mother’s side and therefore he knew well about the Jewish religion. He was also a close relative to the Flavians and even though secretly he could inherit and use the Flavian name by his mother’s descent from them, he gave a story about receiving it from the emperor Vespasian (in his other identity as Flavius Josephus).
Year Written: (Assumed)
65-75 AD
Manuscript: (Earliest Available)
250 AD - Large fragment - Papyrus(45)
Scripture Type:
New Testament
The New Testament is the second major part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible. The New Testament discusses the teachings and person of Jesus, as well as events in first-century Christianity. Christians regard both the Old and New Testaments together as sacred scripture.

The New Testament consists of 27 books which serve as a source for Christian theology and morality. It is an anthology, a collection of Christian works written in the Greek language within the first 100-years of Jesus, at different times by various writers, who were early Jewish followers of Jesus.
Further Reading:
earlychristianwritings.com/text/mark.html
earlychristianwritings.com/mark.html
www.openbible.info/geo/preview/mark
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   VIDEO (100 ) | MARK
BIBLE CANONS (5) | MARK
BIBLE CANON
A list of Texts a particular religious community regard as authoritative scripture
1. Marcion Canon (140 AD)
Marcionism was a religious movement based on the teachings of the 2nd-century Marcion of Sinope. Marcions Canon lists 14 books out of the 27 books in the New Testament. More specifically, these were Luke and Paul's 13 writings. Marcion even rejected the entire Old Testament of 39 books.

bible.ca/marcion
W Marcion_of_Sinope

Mark was Rejected (0%) by Marcion Canon
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
2. Muratorian Canon (170 AD)
The Muratorian Canon is an ancient list of New Testament books - the oldest such list we have found and lists 22 of the 27 books that were later included in the New Testament of the Christian Bible.

It is noteworthy that the Muratorian Canon omits several epistles that later did win acceptance in the Christian New Testament such as the books of James and 2 Peter.

gotquestions.org/muratorian
W Muratorian_fragment

Mark was Fully Accepted (100%) by Muratorian Canon
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
3. Apostolic Canon (300 AD)
Apostolic Canons or Ecclesiastical Canons
W Canons_of_the_Apostles

Mark was Fully Accepted (100%) by Apostolic Canon
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
4. Cheltenham/ Mommsen List (360 AD)
The Cheltenham or Mommsen List is a Latin manuscript discovered by the German classical scholar Theodor Mommsen (published 1886) which probably originated in North Africa in the 4th century.

It has 24-book Old Testament and 24-book New Testament which omits Jude and James, and perhaps Hebrews, and questions the epistles of John and Peter.

bible-researcher.com/cheltenham
W Theodor_Mommsen

Mark was Fully Accepted (100%) by Cheltenham/ Mommsen List
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
5. Council of Rome (382 AD)
The Council of Rome was a meeting of Catholic Church officials and theologians which took place in 382 under the authority of Pope Damasus I, bishop of Rome.

According to a document appended to some manuscripts, the Council of Rome affirmed the authority of the Old and New Testament canon in a decretal or damasine list.
W Council_of_Rome

Mark was Fully Accepted (100%) by Council of Rome
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
Bible Canon (367 AD)
In 367 AD, Bishop Athanasius of Alexandria, first gave a list of the 27-books to become the New Testament 'Bible Canon'
W Development_of_the_New_Testament_canon

CHURCH FATHERS (17) | MARK
Bible Canon (367 AD)
In 367 AD, Bishop Athanasius of Alexandria, first gave a list of the 27-books to become the New Testament 'Bible Canon'
W Development_of_the_New_Testament_canon

TEXTUAL CRITICISM | MARK
CHURCH FATHER
Ancient and generally influential Christian theologians, eminent teachers and great bishops
1. Clement of Rome (97 AD)

Mark was Rejected (0%) by Clement of Rome
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
2. Ignatius of Antioch (110 AD)

Mark was Rejected (0%) by Ignatius of Antioch
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
3. Barnabas (130 AD)

Mark was Approved (75%) by Barnabas
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
4. Hermas (140 AD)

Mark was Approved (75%) by Hermas
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
5. Papias of Hierapolis (140 AD)

Mark was Rejected (0%) by Papias of Hierapolis
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
6. Polycarp (150 AD)

Mark was Approved (75%) by Polycarp
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
7. Didache (150 AD)

Mark was Rejected (0%) by Didache
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
8. Diognetus (150 AD)

Mark was Rejected (0%) by Diognetus
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
9. Justin Martyr (155 AD)

Mark was Approved (75%) by Justin Martyr
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
10. Irenaeous (202 AD)

Mark was Fully Accepted (100%) by Irenaeous
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
11. Clement of Alexandria (215 AD)

Mark was Approved (75%) by Clement of Alexandria
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
12. Tertullian (220 AD)

Mark was Approved (75%) by Tertullian
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
13. Origen (254 AD)

Mark was Approved (75%) by Origen
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
14. Eusebius of Caesarea (340 AD)

Mark was Fully Accepted (100%) by Eusebius of Caesarea
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
15. Athanasius of Alexandria (367 AD)

Mark was Fully Accepted (100%) by Athanasius of Alexandria
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
16. Cyril of Jerusalem (386 AD)

Mark was Fully Accepted (100%) by Cyril of Jerusalem
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
17. Augustine of Hippo (400 AD)

Mark was Fully Accepted (100%) by Augustine of Hippo
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
And these signs will accompany those who believe: In My name they will drive out demons; they will speak in new tongues; they will pick up snakes with their hands, and if they drink any deadly poison, it will not harm them; they will lay their hands on the sick, and they will be made well

Mark 16:17 exists only in the "longer version" of Mark and was not part of the original gospel of Mark; it was added much later. This verse does not appear in the manuscript evidence in the first 300-years of the common era. The first Bible to include this verse was Codex Washingtonianus dated to the 5th century.

Therefore, 400-years after Jesus and the Bible was finalised, Christian scholars were 'inventing' entire verses and inserting them into the canon Bible.
If any man have ears to hear, let him hear

Displayed as above Missing Verse Missing Verse
But if ye do not forgive, neither will your Father which is in heaven forgive your trespasses

Displayed as above Missing Verse Missing Verse
And the scripture was fulfilled, which saith, And he was numbered with the transgressors

Displayed as above Missing Verse Missing Verse
Now when Jesus was risen early the first day of the week, he appeared first to Mary Magdalene, out of whom he had cast seven devils...

Displayed as above Disputed Verse Disputed Verse

Textual Criticism

The Triumphal Entry: Did Jesus request a donkey, take the donkey himself or return the donkey to its owner later? - Comparing the differing accounts in the Gospels
SCRIPTURE TEXT (41) | MARK
Mark   |   Chapter: 4   |   Verses: 41
Chapter:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
And he taught them many things by parables, and said unto them in his doctrine,
1 of 41
Hearken; Behold, there went out a sower to sow:
2 of 41
And it came to pass, as he sowed, some fell by the way side, and the fowls of the air came and devoured it up.
3 of 41
And some fell on stony ground, where it had not much earth; and immediately it sprang up, because it had no depth of earth:
4 of 41
But when the sun was up, it was scorched; and because it had no root, it withered away.
5 of 41
And some fell among thorns, and the thorns grew up, and choked it, and it yielded no fruit.
6 of 41
And other fell on good ground, and did yield fruit that sprang up and increased; and brought forth, some thirty, and some sixty, and some an hundred.
7 of 41
And he said unto them, He that hath ears to hear, let him hear.
8 of 41
And when he was alone, they that were about him with the twelve asked of him the parable.
9 of 41
And he said unto them, Unto you it is given to know the mystery of the kingdom of God: but unto them that are without, all these things are done in parables:
10 of 41
That seeing they may see, and not perceive; and hearing they may hear, and not understand; lest at any time they should be converted, and their sins should be forgiven them.
11 of 41
And he said unto them, Know ye not this parable? and how then will ye know all parables?
12 of 41
The sower soweth the word.
13 of 41
And these are they by the way side, where the word is sown; but when they have heard, Satan cometh immediately, and taketh away the word that was sown in their hearts.
14 of 41
And these are they likewise which are sown on stony ground; who, when they have heard the word, immediately receive it with gladness;
15 of 41
And have no root in themselves, and so endure but for a time: afterward, when affliction or persecution ariseth for the word's sake, immediately they are offended.
16 of 41
And these are they which are sown among thorns; such as hear the word,
17 of 41
And the cares of this world, and the deceitfulness of riches, and the lusts of other things entering in, choke the word, and it becometh unfruitful.
18 of 41
And these are they which are sown on good ground; such as hear the word, and receive it, and bring forth fruit, some thirtyfold, some sixty, and some an hundred.
19 of 41
And he said unto them, Is a candle brought to be put under a bushel, or under a bed? and not to be set on a candlestick?
20 of 41
For there is nothing hid, which shall not be manifested; neither was any thing kept secret, but that it should come abroad.
21 of 41
If any man have ears to hear, let him hear.
22 of 41
And he said unto them, Take heed what ye hear: with what measure ye mete, it shall be measured to you: and unto you that hear shall more be given.
23 of 41
For he that hath, to him shall be given: and he that hath not, from him shall be taken even that which he hath.
24 of 41
And he said, So is the kingdom of God, as if a man should cast seed into the ground;
25 of 41
And should sleep, and rise night and day, and the seed should spring and grow up, he knoweth not how.
26 of 41
For the earth bringeth forth fruit of herself; first the blade, then the ear, after that the full corn in the ear.
27 of 41
But when the fruit is brought forth, immediately he putteth in the sickle, because the harvest is come.
28 of 41
And he said, Whereunto shall we liken the kingdom of God? or with what comparison shall we compare it?
29 of 41
It is like a grain of mustard seed, which, when it is sown in the earth, is less than all the seeds that be in the earth:
30 of 41
But when it is sown, it groweth up, and becometh greater than all herbs, and shooteth out great branches; so that the fowls of the air may lodge under the shadow of it.
31 of 41
And with many such parables spake he the word unto them, as they were able to hear it.
32 of 41
But without a parable spake he not unto them: and when they were alone, he expounded all things to his disciples.
33 of 41
And the same day, when the even was come, he saith unto them, Let us pass over unto the other side.
34 of 41
And when they had sent away the multitude, they took him even as he was in the ship. And there were also with him other little ships.
35 of 41
And there arose a great storm of wind, and the waves beat into the ship, so that it was now full.
36 of 41
And he was in the hinder part of the ship, asleep on a pillow: and they awake him, and say unto him, Master, carest thou not that we perish?
37 of 41
And he arose, and rebuked the wind, and said unto the sea, Peace, be still. And the wind ceased, and there was a great calm.
38 of 41
And he said unto them, Why are ye so fearful? how is it that ye have no faith?
39 of 41
And they feared exceedingly, and said one to another, What manner of man is this, that even the wind and the sea obey him?
40 of 41
Mark   |   Chapter: 4   |   Verses: 41
Chapter:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16


WARNING: Before You Read The Torah, Bible, Quran etc.
All SCRIPTURE TEXT has Context and Background. Text should never be read literally or in isolation. Always seek clarification from religious scholars and teachers. In general, to study Text requires four principles:

1. Literal Meaning - What the Text says
2. Historical Setting - The story events; how the Text was understood in its time
3. Grammar - The surrounding sentence and paragraph; textual context
4. Synthesis - A comparison with similar Texts to give a better contextual understanding

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