Mark's gospel appears to be targeted at the Roman believers, particularly Gentiles.

He wished for the Romans to have a biographical story of Jesus Christ as Servant of the Lord and Savior of the world in order to strengthen their faith in the face of severe persecution and to teach them what it meant to be His disciples.
W Gospel_of_Mark
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Authorship: (Assumed)
Arrius Calpurnius Piso (circa 73 AD)

The True Authorship of the New Testament, by Abelard Reuchlin 1986
[source]


The gospel of Mark was written in a prototype form before it was later crafted into the form that we are familiar with. The earlier version was called ‘Ur Marcus’ and is also known/called ‘Q’ (for ‘Quelle’, which is German for the ‘source’).

Our latest findings regarding the early version of Mark show that this was written at about the time of Claudius Caesar, by the grandfather of Arrius Piso. That version was apparently only a bare sketch and most likely did not give a name to the ‘messiah’. That appears to have been done later by the person who actually played ‘Jesus’ in the Gospels - Arrius Piso

The version that we are familiar with was written about the year 73 CE by Arrius Calpurnius Piso. Arrius Piso was a Roman on his father’s side, but a descendant of King Herod on his mother’s side and therefore he knew well about the Jewish religion. He was also a close relative to the Flavians and even though secretly he could inherit and use the Flavian name by his mother’s descent from them, he gave a story about receiving it from the emperor Vespasian (in his other identity as Flavius Josephus).
Year Written: (Assumed)
65-75 AD
Manuscript: (Earliest Available)
250 AD - Large fragment - Papyrus(45)
Scripture Type:
New Testament
The New Testament is the second major part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible. The New Testament discusses the teachings and person of Jesus, as well as events in first-century Christianity. Christians regard both the Old and New Testaments together as sacred scripture.

The New Testament consists of 27 books which serve as a source for Christian theology and morality. It is an anthology, a collection of Christian works written in the Greek language within the first 100-years of Jesus, at different times by various writers, who were early Jewish followers of Jesus.
Further Reading:
earlychristianwritings.com/text/mark.html
earlychristianwritings.com/mark.html
www.openbible.info/geo/preview/mark
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   VIDEO (100 ) | MARK
BIBLE CANONS (5) | MARK
BIBLE CANON
A list of Texts a particular religious community regard as authoritative scripture
1. Marcion Canon (140 AD)
Marcionism was a religious movement based on the teachings of the 2nd-century Marcion of Sinope. Marcions Canon lists 14 books out of the 27 books in the New Testament. More specifically, these were Luke and Paul's 13 writings. Marcion even rejected the entire Old Testament of 39 books.

bible.ca/marcion
W Marcion_of_Sinope

Mark was Rejected (0%) by Marcion Canon
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
2. Muratorian Canon (170 AD)
The Muratorian Canon is an ancient list of New Testament books - the oldest such list we have found and lists 22 of the 27 books that were later included in the New Testament of the Christian Bible.

It is noteworthy that the Muratorian Canon omits several epistles that later did win acceptance in the Christian New Testament such as the books of James and 2 Peter.

gotquestions.org/muratorian
W Muratorian_fragment

Mark was Fully Accepted (100%) by Muratorian Canon
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
3. Apostolic Canon (300 AD)
Apostolic Canons or Ecclesiastical Canons
W Canons_of_the_Apostles

Mark was Fully Accepted (100%) by Apostolic Canon
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
4. Cheltenham/ Mommsen List (360 AD)
The Cheltenham or Mommsen List is a Latin manuscript discovered by the German classical scholar Theodor Mommsen (published 1886) which probably originated in North Africa in the 4th century.

It has 24-book Old Testament and 24-book New Testament which omits Jude and James, and perhaps Hebrews, and questions the epistles of John and Peter.

bible-researcher.com/cheltenham
W Theodor_Mommsen

Mark was Fully Accepted (100%) by Cheltenham/ Mommsen List
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
5. Council of Rome (382 AD)
The Council of Rome was a meeting of Catholic Church officials and theologians which took place in 382 under the authority of Pope Damasus I, bishop of Rome.

According to a document appended to some manuscripts, the Council of Rome affirmed the authority of the Old and New Testament canon in a decretal or damasine list.
W Council_of_Rome

Mark was Fully Accepted (100%) by Council of Rome
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
Bible Canon (367 AD)
In 367 AD, Bishop Athanasius of Alexandria, first gave a list of the 27-books to become the New Testament 'Bible Canon'
W Development_of_the_New_Testament_canon

CHURCH FATHERS (17) | MARK
Bible Canon (367 AD)
In 367 AD, Bishop Athanasius of Alexandria, first gave a list of the 27-books to become the New Testament 'Bible Canon'
W Development_of_the_New_Testament_canon

TEXTUAL CRITICISM | MARK
CHURCH FATHER
Ancient and generally influential Christian theologians, eminent teachers and great bishops
1. Clement of Rome (97 AD)

Mark was Rejected (0%) by Clement of Rome
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
2. Ignatius of Antioch (110 AD)

Mark was Rejected (0%) by Ignatius of Antioch
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
3. Barnabas (130 AD)

Mark was Approved (75%) by Barnabas
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
4. Hermas (140 AD)

Mark was Approved (75%) by Hermas
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
5. Papias of Hierapolis (140 AD)

Mark was Rejected (0%) by Papias of Hierapolis
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
6. Polycarp (150 AD)

Mark was Approved (75%) by Polycarp
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
7. Didache (150 AD)

Mark was Rejected (0%) by Didache
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
8. Diognetus (150 AD)

Mark was Rejected (0%) by Diognetus
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
9. Justin Martyr (155 AD)

Mark was Approved (75%) by Justin Martyr
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
10. Irenaeous (202 AD)

Mark was Fully Accepted (100%) by Irenaeous
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
11. Clement of Alexandria (215 AD)

Mark was Approved (75%) by Clement of Alexandria
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
12. Tertullian (220 AD)

Mark was Approved (75%) by Tertullian
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
13. Origen (254 AD)

Mark was Approved (75%) by Origen
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
14. Eusebius of Caesarea (340 AD)

Mark was Fully Accepted (100%) by Eusebius of Caesarea
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
15. Athanasius of Alexandria (367 AD)

Mark was Fully Accepted (100%) by Athanasius of Alexandria
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
16. Cyril of Jerusalem (386 AD)

Mark was Fully Accepted (100%) by Cyril of Jerusalem
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
17. Augustine of Hippo (400 AD)

Mark was Fully Accepted (100%) by Augustine of Hippo
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
And these signs will accompany those who believe: In My name they will drive out demons; they will speak in new tongues; they will pick up snakes with their hands, and if they drink any deadly poison, it will not harm them; they will lay their hands on the sick, and they will be made well

Mark 16:17 exists only in the "longer version" of Mark and was not part of the original gospel of Mark; it was added much later. This verse does not appear in the manuscript evidence in the first 300-years of the common era. The first Bible to include this verse was Codex Washingtonianus dated to the 5th century.

Therefore, 400-years after Jesus and the Bible was finalised, Christian scholars were 'inventing' entire verses and inserting them into the canon Bible.
If any man have ears to hear, let him hear

Displayed as above Missing Verse Missing Verse
But if ye do not forgive, neither will your Father which is in heaven forgive your trespasses

Displayed as above Missing Verse Missing Verse
And the scripture was fulfilled, which saith, And he was numbered with the transgressors

Displayed as above Missing Verse Missing Verse
Now when Jesus was risen early the first day of the week, he appeared first to Mary Magdalene, out of whom he had cast seven devils...

Displayed as above Disputed Verse Disputed Verse

Textual Criticism

The Triumphal Entry: Did Jesus request a donkey, take the donkey himself or return the donkey to its owner later? - Comparing the differing accounts in the Gospels
SCRIPTURE TEXT (35) | MARK
Mark   |   Chapter: 3   |   Verses: 35
Chapter:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
And they watched him, whether he would heal him on the sabbath day; that they might accuse him.
1 of 35
And he saith unto the man which had the withered hand, Stand forth.
2 of 35
And he saith unto them, Is it lawful to do good on the sabbath days, or to do evil? to save life, or to kill? But they held their peace.
3 of 35
And when he had looked round about on them with anger, being grieved for the hardness of their hearts, he saith unto the man, Stretch forth thine hand. And he stretched it out: and his hand was restored whole as the other.
4 of 35
And the Pharisees went forth, and straightway took counsel with the Herodians against him, how they might destroy him.
5 of 35
But Jesus withdrew himself with his disciples to the sea: and a great multitude from Galilee followed him, and from Judaea,
6 of 35
And from Jerusalem, and from Idumaea, and from beyond Jordan; and they about Tyre and Sidon, a great multitude, when they had heard what great things he did, came unto him.
7 of 35
And he spake to his disciples, that a small ship should wait on him because of the multitude, lest they should throng him.
8 of 35
For he had healed many; insomuch that they pressed upon him for to touch him, as many as had plagues.
9 of 35
And unclean spirits, when they saw him, fell down before him, and cried, saying, Thou art the Son of God.
10 of 35
And he straitly charged them that they should not make him known.
11 of 35
And he goeth up into a mountain, and calleth unto him whom he would: and they came unto him.
12 of 35
And he ordained twelve, that they should be with him, and that he might send them forth to preach,
13 of 35
And to have power to heal sicknesses, and to cast out devils:
14 of 35
And Simon he surnamed Peter;
15 of 35
And James the son of Zebedee, and John the brother of James; and he surnamed them Boanerges, which is, The sons of thunder:
16 of 35
And Andrew, and Philip, and Bartholomew, and Matthew, and Thomas, and James the son of Alphaeus, and Thaddaeus, and Simon the Canaanite,
17 of 35
And Judas Iscariot, which also betrayed him: and they went into an house.
18 of 35
And the multitude cometh together again, so that they could not so much as eat bread.
19 of 35
And when his friends heard of it, they went out to lay hold on him: for they said, He is beside himself.
20 of 35
And the scribes which came down from Jerusalem said, He hath Beelzebub, and by the prince of the devils casteth he out devils.
21 of 35
And he called them unto him, and said unto them in parables, How can Satan cast out Satan?
22 of 35
And if a kingdom be divided against itself, that kingdom cannot stand.
23 of 35
And if a house be divided against itself, that house cannot stand.
24 of 35
And if Satan rise up against himself, and be divided, he cannot stand, but hath an end.
25 of 35
No man can enter into a strong man's house, and spoil his goods, except he will first bind the strong man; and then he will spoil his house.
26 of 35
Verily I say unto you, All sins shall be forgiven unto the sons of men, and blasphemies wherewith soever they shall blaspheme:
27 of 35
But he that shall blaspheme against the Holy Ghost hath never forgiveness, but is in danger of eternal damnation:
28 of 35
Because they said, He hath an unclean spirit.
29 of 35
There came then his brethren and his mother, and, standing without, sent unto him, calling him.
30 of 35
And the multitude sat about him, and they said unto him, Behold, thy mother and thy brethren without seek for thee.
31 of 35
And he answered them, saying, Who is my mother, or my brethren?
32 of 35
And he looked round about on them which sat about him, and said, Behold my mother and my brethren!
33 of 35
For whosoever shall do the will of God, the same is my brother, and my sister, and mother.
34 of 35
Mark   |   Chapter: 3   |   Verses: 35
Chapter:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16


WARNING: Before You Read The Torah, Bible, Quran etc.
All SCRIPTURE TEXT has Context and Background. Text should never be read literally or in isolation. Always seek clarification from religious scholars and teachers. In general, to study Text requires four principles:

1. Literal Meaning - What the Text says
2. Historical Setting - The story events; how the Text was understood in its time
3. Grammar - The surrounding sentence and paragraph; textual context
4. Synthesis - A comparison with similar Texts to give a better contextual understanding

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