Mark's gospel appears to be targeted at the Roman believers, particularly Gentiles.

He wished for the Romans to have a biographical story of Jesus Christ as Servant of the Lord and Savior of the world in order to strengthen their faith in the face of severe persecution and to teach them what it meant to be His disciples.
W Gospel_of_Mark
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Authorship: (Assumed)
Arrius Calpurnius Piso (circa 73 AD)

The True Authorship of the New Testament, by Abelard Reuchlin 1986
[source]


The gospel of Mark was written in a prototype form before it was later crafted into the form that we are familiar with. The earlier version was called ‘Ur Marcus’ and is also known/called ‘Q’ (for ‘Quelle’, which is German for the ‘source’).

Our latest findings regarding the early version of Mark show that this was written at about the time of Claudius Caesar, by the grandfather of Arrius Piso. That version was apparently only a bare sketch and most likely did not give a name to the ‘messiah’. That appears to have been done later by the person who actually played ‘Jesus’ in the Gospels - Arrius Piso

The version that we are familiar with was written about the year 73 CE by Arrius Calpurnius Piso. Arrius Piso was a Roman on his father’s side, but a descendant of King Herod on his mother’s side and therefore he knew well about the Jewish religion. He was also a close relative to the Flavians and even though secretly he could inherit and use the Flavian name by his mother’s descent from them, he gave a story about receiving it from the emperor Vespasian (in his other identity as Flavius Josephus).
Year Written: (Assumed)
65-75 AD
Manuscript: (Earliest Available)
250 AD - Large fragment - Papyrus(45)
Scripture Type:
New Testament
The New Testament is the second major part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible. The New Testament discusses the teachings and person of Jesus, as well as events in first-century Christianity. Christians regard both the Old and New Testaments together as sacred scripture.

The New Testament consists of 27 books which serve as a source for Christian theology and morality. It is an anthology, a collection of Christian works written in the Greek language within the first 100-years of Jesus, at different times by various writers, who were early Jewish followers of Jesus.
Further Reading:
earlychristianwritings.com/text/mark.html
earlychristianwritings.com/mark.html
www.openbible.info/geo/preview/mark
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   VIDEO (100 ) | MARK
BIBLE CANONS (5) | MARK
BIBLE CANON
A list of Texts a particular religious community regard as authoritative scripture
1. Marcion Canon (140 AD)
Marcionism was a religious movement based on the teachings of the 2nd-century Marcion of Sinope. Marcions Canon lists 14 books out of the 27 books in the New Testament. More specifically, these were Luke and Paul's 13 writings. Marcion even rejected the entire Old Testament of 39 books.

bible.ca/marcion
W Marcion_of_Sinope

Mark was Rejected (0%) by Marcion Canon
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
2. Muratorian Canon (170 AD)
The Muratorian Canon is an ancient list of New Testament books - the oldest such list we have found and lists 22 of the 27 books that were later included in the New Testament of the Christian Bible.

It is noteworthy that the Muratorian Canon omits several epistles that later did win acceptance in the Christian New Testament such as the books of James and 2 Peter.

gotquestions.org/muratorian
W Muratorian_fragment

Mark was Fully Accepted (100%) by Muratorian Canon
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
3. Apostolic Canon (300 AD)
Apostolic Canons or Ecclesiastical Canons
W Canons_of_the_Apostles

Mark was Fully Accepted (100%) by Apostolic Canon
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
4. Cheltenham/ Mommsen List (360 AD)
The Cheltenham or Mommsen List is a Latin manuscript discovered by the German classical scholar Theodor Mommsen (published 1886) which probably originated in North Africa in the 4th century.

It has 24-book Old Testament and 24-book New Testament which omits Jude and James, and perhaps Hebrews, and questions the epistles of John and Peter.

bible-researcher.com/cheltenham
W Theodor_Mommsen

Mark was Fully Accepted (100%) by Cheltenham/ Mommsen List
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
5. Council of Rome (382 AD)
The Council of Rome was a meeting of Catholic Church officials and theologians which took place in 382 under the authority of Pope Damasus I, bishop of Rome.

According to a document appended to some manuscripts, the Council of Rome affirmed the authority of the Old and New Testament canon in a decretal or damasine list.
W Council_of_Rome

Mark was Fully Accepted (100%) by Council of Rome
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
Bible Canon (367 AD)
In 367 AD, Bishop Athanasius of Alexandria, first gave a list of the 27-books to become the New Testament 'Bible Canon'
W Development_of_the_New_Testament_canon

CHURCH FATHERS (17) | MARK
Bible Canon (367 AD)
In 367 AD, Bishop Athanasius of Alexandria, first gave a list of the 27-books to become the New Testament 'Bible Canon'
W Development_of_the_New_Testament_canon

TEXTUAL CRITICISM | MARK
CHURCH FATHER
Ancient and generally influential Christian theologians, eminent teachers and great bishops
1. Clement of Rome (97 AD)

Mark was Rejected (0%) by Clement of Rome
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
2. Ignatius of Antioch (110 AD)

Mark was Rejected (0%) by Ignatius of Antioch
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
3. Barnabas (130 AD)

Mark was Approved (75%) by Barnabas
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
4. Hermas (140 AD)

Mark was Approved (75%) by Hermas
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
5. Papias of Hierapolis (140 AD)

Mark was Rejected (0%) by Papias of Hierapolis
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
6. Polycarp (150 AD)

Mark was Approved (75%) by Polycarp
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
7. Didache (150 AD)

Mark was Rejected (0%) by Didache
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
8. Diognetus (150 AD)

Mark was Rejected (0%) by Diognetus
(No mention; no quotes; opinion unknown)
9. Justin Martyr (155 AD)

Mark was Approved (75%) by Justin Martyr
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
10. Irenaeous (202 AD)

Mark was Fully Accepted (100%) by Irenaeous
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
11. Clement of Alexandria (215 AD)

Mark was Approved (75%) by Clement of Alexandria
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
12. Tertullian (220 AD)

Mark was Approved (75%) by Tertullian
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
13. Origen (254 AD)

Mark was Approved (75%) by Origen
(Citation; approving quotation; alluded to; acceptable with changes)
14. Eusebius of Caesarea (340 AD)

Mark was Fully Accepted (100%) by Eusebius of Caesarea
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
15. Athanasius of Alexandria (367 AD)

Mark was Fully Accepted (100%) by Athanasius of Alexandria
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
16. Cyril of Jerusalem (386 AD)

Mark was Fully Accepted (100%) by Cyril of Jerusalem
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
17. Augustine of Hippo (400 AD)

Mark was Fully Accepted (100%) by Augustine of Hippo
(Fully accepted; true scripture; quoted approvingly)
And these signs will accompany those who believe: In My name they will drive out demons; they will speak in new tongues; they will pick up snakes with their hands, and if they drink any deadly poison, it will not harm them; they will lay their hands on the sick, and they will be made well

Mark 16:17 exists only in the "longer version" of Mark and was not part of the original gospel of Mark; it was added much later. This verse does not appear in the manuscript evidence in the first 300-years of the common era. The first Bible to include this verse was Codex Washingtonianus dated to the 5th century.

Therefore, 400-years after Jesus and the Bible was finalised, Christian scholars were 'inventing' entire verses and inserting them into the canon Bible.
If any man have ears to hear, let him hear

Displayed as above Missing Verse Missing Verse
But if ye do not forgive, neither will your Father which is in heaven forgive your trespasses

Displayed as above Missing Verse Missing Verse
And the scripture was fulfilled, which saith, And he was numbered with the transgressors

Displayed as above Missing Verse Missing Verse
Now when Jesus was risen early the first day of the week, he appeared first to Mary Magdalene, out of whom he had cast seven devils...

Displayed as above Disputed Verse Disputed Verse

Textual Criticism

The Triumphal Entry: Did Jesus request a donkey, take the donkey himself or return the donkey to its owner later? - Comparing the differing accounts in the Gospels
SCRIPTURE TEXT (47) | MARK
Mark   |   Chapter: 15   |   Verses: 47
Chapter:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
And Pilate asked him, Art thou the King of the Jews? And he answering said unto him, Thou sayest it.
1 of 47
And the chief priests accused him of many things: but he answered nothing.
2 of 47
And Pilate asked him again, saying, Answerest thou nothing? behold how many things they witness against thee.
3 of 47
But Jesus yet answered nothing; so that Pilate marvelled.
4 of 47
Now at that feast he released unto them one prisoner, whomsoever they desired.
5 of 47
And there was one named Barabbas, which lay bound with them that had made insurrection with him, who had committed murder in the insurrection.
6 of 47
And the multitude crying aloud began to desire him to do as he had ever done unto them.
7 of 47
But Pilate answered them, saying, Will ye that I release unto you the King of the Jews?
8 of 47
For he knew that the chief priests had delivered him for envy.
9 of 47
But the chief priests moved the people, that he should rather release Barabbas unto them.
10 of 47
And Pilate answered and said again unto them, What will ye then that I shall do unto him whom ye call the King of the Jews?
11 of 47
And they cried out again, Crucify him.
12 of 47
Then Pilate said unto them, Why, what evil hath he done? And they cried out the more exceedingly, Crucify him.
13 of 47
And so Pilate, willing to content the people, released Barabbas unto them, and delivered Jesus, when he had scourged him, to be crucified.
14 of 47
And the soldiers led him away into the hall, called Praetorium; and they call together the whole band.
15 of 47
And they clothed him with purple, and platted a crown of thorns, and put it about his head,
16 of 47
And began to salute him, Hail, King of the Jews!
17 of 47
And they smote him on the head with a reed, and did spit upon him, and bowing their knees worshipped him.
18 of 47
And when they had mocked him, they took off the purple from him, and put his own clothes on him, and led him out to crucify him.
19 of 47
And they compel one Simon a Cyrenian, who passed by, coming out of the country, the father of Alexander and Rufus, to bear his cross.
20 of 47
And they bring him unto the place Golgotha, which is, being interpreted, The place of a skull.
21 of 47
And they gave him to drink wine mingled with myrrh: but he received it not.
22 of 47
And when they had crucified him, they parted his garments, casting lots upon them, what every man should take.
23 of 47
And it was the third hour, and they crucified him.
24 of 47
And the superscription of his accusation was written over, THE KING OF THE JEWS.
25 of 47
And with him they crucify two thieves; the one on his right hand, and the other on his left.
26 of 47
And the scripture was fulfilled, which saith, And he was numbered with the transgressors.
27 of 47
And they that passed by railed on him, wagging their heads, and saying, Ah, thou that destroyest the temple, and buildest it in three days,
28 of 47
Save thyself, and come down from the cross.
29 of 47
Likewise also the chief priests mocking said among themselves with the scribes, He saved others; himself he cannot save.
30 of 47
Let Christ the King of Israel descend now from the cross, that we may see and believe. And they that were crucified with him reviled him.
31 of 47
And when the sixth hour was come, there was darkness over the whole land until the ninth hour.
32 of 47
And at the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud voice, saying, Eloi, Eloi, lama sabachthani? which is, being interpreted, My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?
33 of 47
And some of them that stood by, when they heard it, said, Behold, he calleth Elias.
34 of 47
And one ran and filled a spunge full of vinegar, and put it on a reed, and gave him to drink, saying, Let alone; let us see whether Elias will come to take him down.
35 of 47
And Jesus cried with a loud voice, and gave up the ghost.
36 of 47
And the veil of the temple was rent in twain from the top to the bottom.
37 of 47
And when the centurion, which stood over against him, saw that he so cried out, and gave up the ghost, he said, Truly this man was the Son of God.
38 of 47
There were also women looking on afar off: among whom was Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James the less and of Joses, and Salome;
39 of 47
(Who also, when he was in Galilee, followed him, and ministered unto him;) and many other women which came up with him unto Jerusalem.
40 of 47
And now when the even was come, because it was the preparation, that is, the day before the sabbath,
41 of 47
Joseph of Arimathaea, an honourable counsellor, which also waited for the kingdom of God, came, and went in boldly unto Pilate, and craved the body of Jesus.
42 of 47
And Pilate marvelled if he were already dead: and calling unto him the centurion, he asked him whether he had been any while dead.
43 of 47
And when he knew it of the centurion, he gave the body to Joseph.
44 of 47
And he bought fine linen, and took him down, and wrapped him in the linen, and laid him in a sepulchre which was hewn out of a rock, and rolled a stone unto the door of the sepulchre.
45 of 47
And Mary Magdalene and Mary the mother of Joses beheld where he was laid.
46 of 47
Mark   |   Chapter: 15   |   Verses: 47
Chapter:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16


WARNING: Before You Read The Torah, Bible, Quran etc.
All SCRIPTURE TEXT has Context and Background. Text should never be read literally or in isolation. Always seek clarification from religious scholars and teachers. In general, to study Text requires four principles:

1. Literal Meaning - What the Text says
2. Historical Setting - The story events; how the Text was understood in its time
3. Grammar - The surrounding sentence and paragraph; textual context
4. Synthesis - A comparison with similar Texts to give a better contextual understanding

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