Abu Dawud 12  

Imam Abu Dawud was born in Sistan, Iran in 817 CE and died in Basra, Iraq in 889 CE.



During his life, Imam Abu Dawud widely travelled to Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Hijaz, Tihamah, Khurasan, Nishapur and Marv to collect hadith. He was primarily interested in jurisprudence, and so his 4,800 Abu Dawud hadith collection focused on legal rulings.
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Authorship: (Assumed)
Imam Abu Dawud
Year Written: (Assumed)
888 AD
Scripture Type:
Hadith
A hadith is one of various reports describing the words, actions, or habits of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. The term comes from Arabic meaning a "report", "account" or "narrative". Hadith are second only to the Quran in developing Islamic jurisprudence, and regarded as important tools for understanding the Quran and commentaries (tafsir) written on it.
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SCRIPTURE TEXT (138) | ABU DAWUD
Abu Dawud   |   Chapter: 12   |   Verses: 138
Chapter:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42
1 Abu Hurairah reported the Apostle of Allaah(Peach be upon him) as saying "A woman should not ask for the divorce of her sister to make her bowl vacant for her and to marry him. She will have what is decreed for her."
Abu Dawud | 3:2171
2 Narrated Muharib:

The Prophet (Peach be upon him) said: Allah did not make anything lawful more abominable to Him than divorce.
Abu Dawud | 3:2172
3 Narrated Abdullah ibn Umar:

The Prophet (Peach be upon him) said: Of all the lawful acts the most detestable to Allah is divorce.
Abu Dawud | 3:2173
4 'Abd Allah bin Umar said that he divorced his wife while she was menstruating during the time of the Apostle of Allaah(Peach be upon him). So 'Umar bin Al Khattab asked the Apostle of Allaah(Peach be upon him) about this matter. The Apostle of Allaah(Peach be upon him) said "Order him, he must take her back and keep her back till she is purified, then has another menstrual period and is purified. Thereafter if he desires he may divorce her before having intercourse with her, for that is the period of waiting which Allaah the Glorified has commanded for the divorce of women."
Abu Dawud | 3:2174
5 The aforesaid tradition has also been transmitted by Nafi' through a different chain of narrators. This version says Ibn 'Umar divorced a wife of his while she was menstruating pronouncing one divorce. He then narrated the rest of the tradition similar to the one narrated by Malik.
Abu Dawud | 3:2175
6 Ibn 'Umar said that he divorced his wife while she was menstruating. 'Umar mentioned the matter to the Prophet(Peach be upon him). He (the Prophet) said "Order him, he must take her back and divorce her when she is purified (from menstrual discharge) or she is pregnant."
Abu Dawud | 3:2176
7 'Abd Allah (bin Umar) said that he divorced his wife while she was menstruating. 'Umar mentioned the matter to the Messenger of Allah(Peach be upon him). The Messenger of Allah(Peach be upon him) became angry and said "Command him, he must take her back and keep her back till she is purified, then has another menstrual period and is purified. Then if he desires he may divorce her during the period of purity before he has intercourse with her. This is the divorce for waiting period as commanded by Allaah, the Exalted.
Abu Dawud | 3:2177
8 Yunus bin Jubair said that he asked Ibn 'Umar "How many times did you pronounce divorce to your wife? He replied, once."
Abu Dawud | 3:2178
9 Yunus bin Jubair said "I asked 'Abd Allah bin 'Umar "A man divorced his wife while she was menstruating? He said do you know 'Abd Allah bin 'Umar? He said, yes. 'Abd Allah bin 'Umar divorced his wife while she was menstruating. So, 'Umar came to the Prophet (Peach be upon him) and asked him (about this matter). He said Command him to take her back in marriage he may the divorce her in the beginning of the waiting period. I (Ibn Jubair) asked him "Will this divorce be counted? He said "Why not?" If he was helpless and showed his foolishness (that would have been counted).
Abu Dawud | 3:2179
10 Abdur Rahman ibn Ayman, the client of Urwah, asked Ibn Umar and Abu al-Zubayr was was listening:

What do you think if a man divorces his wife while she is menstruating? He said: Abdullah ibn Umar divorced his wife while she was menstruating during the time of the Messenger of Allah (Peach be upon him).So Umar asked the Messenger of Allah (Peach be upon him) saying: Abdullah ibn Umar divorced his wife while she was menstruating. Abdullah said: He returned her to me and did not count it (the pronouncement) anything. He said: When she is purified, he may divorce her or keep her with him. Ibn Umar said: The Prophet (Peach be upon him) recited the Qur'anic verse: O Prophet, when you divorce women, divorce them in the beginning of their waiting period."

Abu Dawud said: This tradition has been narrated by Yunus b. Jubair, Anas b. Sirin b. Jubair, Zaid b. Aslam, Abu al-Zubair and Mansur from Abu Wa'il on the authority of Ibn 'Umar. They all agreed on the theme that the Prophet (Peach be upon him) commanded him to take her back (and keep her) till she was purified. Then if he desired, he might divorce her or keep her with him if he wanted to do so. The version narrated by al-Zuhri from Salim from Nafi' on the authority of Ibn 'Umar has: The Prophet (Peach be upon him) commanded him to take her back (and keep her) till she is purified, and then has menstrual discharge, and then she is purified. Then if he desires, he may divorce her and if he desires he may keep her.

Abu Dawud said: A version like that of Nafi' and al-Zuhri has also been transmitted by 'Ata al-Khurasani from al-Hasan on the authority of Ibn 'Umar. All the versions of this tradition contradict the one narrated by Abu al-Zubair.
Abu Dawud | 3:2180
11 Narrated Mutarrif ibn Abdullah:

Imran ibn Husayn was asked about a person who divorces his wife, and then has intercourse with her, but he does not call any witness to her divorce nor to her restoration. He said: You divorced against the sunnah and took her back against the sunnah. Call someone to bear witness to her divorce, and to her return in marriage, and do not repeat it.
Abu Dawud | 3:2181
12 Narrated Umar ibn Mu'tab:

Abu Hasan, a client of Banu Nawfal asked Ibn Abbas: A slave had a wife who was a slave-girl. He divorced her by two pronouncements. Afterwards both of them were freed. Is it permissible for him to ask her in marriage again? He said: Yes. This is a decision given by the Messenger of Allah (Peach be upon him).
Abu Dawud | 3:2182
13 The aforesaid tradition (No. 2182) has also been transmitted by Ali (ibn al-Mubarak) through a different chain of narrators to the same effect.

This version adds:

Ibn Abbas said: There remained one more pronouncement of divorce for you. The Messenger of Allah (Peach be upon him) took the same decision.


Abu Dawud said: I heard Ahmad b. Hanbal say: 'Abd al-Razzaq said that Ibn al-Mubarak said to Ma'mar: Who is this Abu al-Hasan ? He bore a big rock.

Abu Dawud said: Al-Zuhri has narrated (traditions) on the authority of this Abu al-Hasan. Al-Zuhri said: He was lawyer, and al-Zuhri narrated many traditions from Abu al-Hasan.

Abu Dawud said: Abu al-Hasan is well known narrator. This tradition is not practiced.
Abu Dawud | 3:2183
14 Narrated Aisha, Ummul Mu'minin:

The Prophet (Peach be upon him) said: The divorce of a slave-woman consists in saying it twice and her waiting period is two menstrual courses (qur') AbuAsim said: A similar tradition has been narrated to me by Muzahir and al-Qasim on the authority of Aisha from the Prophet (Peach be upon him), except that he said: And her waiting period ('iddah) is two courses.

Abu Dawud said: This tradition is obscure.
Abu Dawud | 3:2184
15
'Amr b. Shu'aib on his father's authority said that his grandfather (Abdullah ibn Amr ibn al-'As):

The Prophet (Peach be upon him) said: There is no divorce except in what you possess; there is no possession, there is no sale transaction till you possess. The narrator Ibn as-Sabbah added: There is no fulfilling a vow till you possess.
Abu Dawud | 3:2185
16 The above tradition has also been transmitted by 'Amr bin Shu'aib through a different chain of narrators to the same effect. This version adds "If anyone swears an oath to do an act of disobedience to GOD, his oath is not valid, and if anyone swears an oath to sever relationship, his oath is not valid(i.e., he must not fulfill it)
Abu Dawud | 3:2186
17 The above tradition has also been transmitted by 'Amr bin Shu'aib through a different chain of narrators. This version adds The Prophet (Peach be upon him) said "There is no vow except in an act which seeks the pleasure of Allah, the Exalted.
Abu Dawud | 3:2187
18 Muhammad ibn Ubayd ibn Abu Salih who lived in Ayliya said:

I went out with Adi ibn Adi al-Kindi till we came to Mecca. He sent me to Safiyyah daughter of Shaybah who remembered a tradition (that she had heard) from Aisha. She said: I heard Aisha say: I heard the Messenger of Allah (Peach be upon him) say: There is no divorce or emancipation in case of constraint or duress (ghalaq).

Abu Dawud said: I think ghalaq means anger.
Abu Dawud | 3:2188
19 Narrated AbuHurayrah:

The Prophet (Peach be upon him) said: There are three things which, whether undertaken seriously or in jest, are treated as serious: Marriage, divorce and taking back a wife (after a divorce which is not final)
Abu Dawud | 3:2189
20 Narrated Abdullah ibn Abbas:

Divorced women shall wait concerning themselves for three monthly periods. Nor is it lawful for them to hide what Allah hath created in their wombs. This means that if a man divorced his wife he had the right to take her back in marriage though he had divorced her by three pronouncements. This was then repealed (by a Qur'anic verse). Divorce is only permissible twice.
Abu Dawud | 3:2190
21 Narrated Abdullah ibn Abbas:

Abd Yazid, the father of Rukanah and his brothers, divorced Umm Rukanah and married a woman of the tribe of Muzaynah. She went to the Prophet (Peach be upon him) and said: He is of no use to me except that he is as useful to me as a hair; and she took a hair from her head. So separate me from him. The Prophet (Peach be upon him) became furious. He called on Rukanah and his brothers. He then said to those who were sitting beside him. Do you see so-and-so who resembles Abdu Yazid in respect of so-and-so; and so-and-so who resembles him in respect of so-and-so? They replied: Yes. The Prophet (Peach be upon him) said to Abdu Yazid: Divorce her. Then he did so. He said: Take your wife, the mother of Rukanah and his brothers, back in marriage. He said: I have divorced her by three pronouncements, Messenger of Allah. He said: I know: take her back. He then recited the verse: "O Prophet, when you divorce women, divorce them at their appointed periods."

Abu Dawud said: The tradition narrated by Nafi' b. 'Ujair and 'Abd Allah b. Yazid b. Rukanah from his father on the authority of his grandfather reads: Rukanah divorced his wife absolutely (i.e. irrevocable divorce). The Prophet (Peach be upon him) restored her to him. This version is sounder (than other versions), for they (i.e. these narrators) are the children of his man, and the members of the family are more aware of his case. Rukanah divorced his wife absolutely (i.e. three divorces in one pronouncement) and the Prophet (Peach be upon him) made it a single divorce.
Abu Dawud | 3:2191
22 Mujahid said "I was with Ibn 'Abbas". A man came to him and said that he divorced his wife by three pronouncements. I kept silence and thought that he was going to restore het to him. He then said "A man goes and commits a foolish act and then says "O, Ibn 'Abbas! Alaah has said "And for those who fear Allaah, He (ever) prepares a way out." Since you did not keep duty to Allaah I do not find a way out for you. You disobeyed your Lord and your wife was separated from you. Allaah has said "O Prophet! When you divorce women divorce them in the beginning of their waiting period."

Abu Dawud said "This tradition has been transmitted by Humaid Al A'raj and by others from Mujahid on the authority of Ibn 'Abbas. Shu'bjh narrated it from 'Amr bin Murrah from Sa'id bin Jubair on the authority of Ibn 'Abbas. Ayyub and Ibn 'Jubair both narrated it from "'Ikrimah bin Khalid from Sa'id bin Jubair on the authority of Ibn 'Abbas. Ibn Juraij narrated it from 'Abd Al Hamid bin Rafi' from 'Ata from Ibn 'Abbas. Al A'mash narrated it from Malik bin Al Harith on the authority of Ibn 'Abbas. They all said about the divorce by three pronouncements. He allowed it and said" (Your wife) has been separated from you similar to the tradition narrated by Isma'il from Ayub from 'Abd Allaah bin Kathir."

Abu Dawud said "Hammad bin Zaid narrated it from Ayyub from 'Ikrimah on the authority of Ibn 'Abbas. This version adds If he said "You are divorced three times saying in one pronouncement, it constitutes a single (divorce). Isma'il bin Ibrahim narrated it from Ayyub from 'Ikrimah. This is his ('Ikrimah's) statement. He did not mention the name of Ibn 'Abbas. He narrated it as a statement of 'Ikrimah."
Abu Dawud | 3:2192
23 Abu Dawud said "The opinion of Ibn 'Abbas has been mentioned in the following tradition. "Ahmad bin Salih and Muhammad bin Yahya narrated this is the version of Ahmad (bin Salih)" from 'Abd Ar Razzaq from Ma'mar from Al Zuhri from Abu Salamah din Abd Al Rahman bin 'Awf and Muhammad bin 'Abd Al Rahman bin Thawban from Muhammad bin Iyas that Ibn 'Abbas, Abu Hurairah and 'Abd Alah bin 'Amr bin Al 'As were asked about a virgin who is divorced three times by her husband. They all said "She is not lawful for him until she marries a man other than her former husband."
Abu Dawud said "Malik narrated from Yahya bin Sa'id from Bukair bin Al Ashajj from Mu'awiyah bin Abi 'Ayyash who was present on this occasion when Muhammad bin Iyas bin Al Bukair came to Ibn Al Zubair and Asim in 'Umar. He asked them about this matter. They replied "Go to Ibn 'Abbas and Abu Hurairah, I have left them with A'ishah (may Allaah be pleased with her). He then narrated the rest of the tradition."

Abu Dawud said "The statement of Ibn 'Abbas goes "The divorce by three pronouncements separates the wife from husband whether the marriage has been consummated or not, the previous husband is not lawful for her until she marries a man other than her husband". This statement is like the tradition which deals with the exchange of money. In this tradition the narrator said "Ibn 'Abbas withdrew his opinion.""
Abu Dawud | 3:2192b
24 Tawus said A man called Abu Al Sahba used to ask Ibn 'Abbas questions frequently. He asked "Do you know that when a man divorced his wife by three pronouncement before sexual intercourse with her, they (the people) made it a single divorce during the time of the Apostle of Allaah(Peach be upon him), of Abu Bakr and in the early phase of the caliphate of 'Umar?" Ibn "Abbas said "Yes, when a man divorced his wife by three pronouncement before sexual intercourse they made it a single divorce during the time of the Apostle of Allaah(Peach be upon him), of Abu Bakr and in the early phase of the caliphate of 'Umar. When he saw that the people frequently divorced (by three pronouncements) he said "Make them operative on them (i.e., on women)".
Abu Dawud | 3:2193
25 Tawus said:

Abu al-Sahba' said to Ibn Abbas: Do you know that a divorce by three pronouncements was made a single one during the time of the Prophet (Peach be upon him), and of AbuBakr and in the early days of the caliphate of Umar? He replied: Yes.
Abu Dawud | 3:2194
26 'Umar bin Al Khattab reported the Apostle of Allaah(Peach be upon him) as saying "Actions are to be judged only by intentions and a man will have only what he intended. When one's emigration is to Allaah and His Apostle, his emigration is to Allaah and His Apostle but his emigration is to a worldly end at which he aims or to a woman whom he marries , his emigration is to that for which he emigrated.
Abu Dawud | 3:2195
27 'Abd Allah bin Ka'b reported "I heard Ka'ab bin Malik. He then narrated his story about the battle of Tabuk.(Narrating the story) he added "When forty out of fifty days passed", the messenger of the Apostle of Allaah(Peach be upon him) came and said "The Apostle of Allaah(Peach be upon him) has commanded you to keep away from your wife. He said "So, I (Ka'b bin Malik)" said "Should I divorce her or what should I do? He said "No, but only keep away from her and do not go near her". So, I said to my wife "Go to your people and live with them until Allaah, the exalted makes a decision in this matter."
Abu Dawud | 3:2196
28 A'ishah said The Apostle of Allaah(Peach be upon him) gave us our choice and we chose him so that was not reckoned anything (i.e., divorce)
Abu Dawud | 3:2197
29 Hammad ibn Zayd said:

I asked Ayyub: Do you know anyone who narrates the tradition narrated by Al-Hasan about uttering the words (addressing wife). "Your matter is in your hand"? He replied: No, except something similar transmitted by Qatadah from Kathir, the client of Samurah, from AbuSalamah on the authority of AbuHurayrah from the Prophet (Peach be upon him). Ayyub said: Kathir then came to us; so I asked him (about this matter). He replied: I never narrated it. I mentioned it to Qatadah who said: Yes (he narrated it) but he forgot.
Abu Dawud | 3:2198
30 Qatadah reported on the authority of Al Hasan the uttering of the words "Your matter is in your hand" amounts to three pronouncements of divorce.
Abu Dawud | 3:2199
31 Nafi' bun Ujair bin Abd Yazid bin Ruknah reported Ruknah bin 'Abd Yazid divorced his wife Suhaimah absolutely. The Prophet (Peach be upon him) was informed about this matter. He said to him (the Prophet) I swear by Allaah that I meant it to be only a single utterance of divorce. The Apostle of Allaah(Peach be upon him) said "I swear by Allaah that I meant it to be only a single divorce. The Apostle of Allaah(Peach be upon him) restored her to him, Then he divorced her the second time in the time of 'Umar and the third time of 'Uthman.

Abu Dawud said "This tradition contains the words of Ibrahim in its beginning and the words of Ibn Al Sarh in the end.
Abu Dawud | 3:2200
32 The tradition mentioned above has also been transmitted by Rukanah bin Yazid from the Prophet (Peach be upon him) through a different chain of narrators.
Abu Dawud | 3:2201
33
'Ali b. Yazid b. Rukanah reported on the authority of his father from his grandfather that he (Rukanah) divorced his wife absolutely; so he came to the Messenger of Allah (Peach be upon him). He asked (him):

What did you intend? He said: A single utterance of divorce. He said: Do you swear by Allah? He replied: I swear by Allah. He said: It stands as you intended.

Abu Dawud said: This tradition is sounder than that of Ibn Juraij that Rukanah divorced his wife by three pronouncements, for they are the members of his family and they are more aware for him. The tradition of Ibn Juraij has been narrated by some children of Abu Rafi' from 'Ikrimah on the authority of Ibn 'Abbas.
Abu Dawud | 3:2202
34 Abu Hurairah reported the Prophet (Peach be upon him) as saying "Allah has ignored for my community what comes to their mind, so long as they do not act or pronounce words to that effect."
Abu Dawud | 3:2203
35 Narrated Tamimah al-Hujayni:

A man said to his wife: O my younger sister! The Messenger of Allah (Peach be upon him)said: Is she your sister? He (the Prophet disliked it and prohibited saying so.
Abu Dawud | 3:2204
36 Abu Tamimah reported from a man of his tribe "The Prophet (Peach be upon him) heard a man say his wife "O my younger sister! So he prohibited him (addressing his wife in this manner)

Abu Dawud said "This tradition has also been transmitted by 'Abd Al Aziz bin Al Mukhtar from Khalid from Abu 'Uthman from Abu Thamimah from the Prophet (Peach be upon him). This has also been narrated by Shu'bah from Khalid from a man on the authority of Abu Thamimah from the Prophet (Peach be upon him).
Abu Dawud | 3:2205
37 Abu Hurairah reported the Prophet(Peach be upon him) as saying Abraham(peace be upon him) never told a lie except on three occasions twice for the sake of Allaah. Allaah quoted his words (in the Qur'an) "I am indeed sick" and "Nay, this was done by - this is their biggest one". Once he was passing through the land of a tyrant (king). He stayed there in a place. People went to the tyrant and informed him saying "A man has come down here; he has a most beautiful woman with him." So he sent for him (Abraham) and asked about her. He said she is my sister. When he returned to her, he said "he asked me about you and I informed him that you were my sister. Today there is no believer except me and you. You are my sister in the Book of Allaah (i.e., sister in faith). So do not belie me before him. The narrator then narrated the rest of the tradition.

Abu Dawud said "A similar tradition has also been narrated by Shu'aib bin Abi Hamza from Abi Al Zinad from Al A'raj on the authority of Abu Hurairah from the Prophet (Peach be upon him).
Abu Dawud | 3:2206
38 Narrated Salamah ibn Sakhr al-Bayadi:

I was a man who was more given than others to sexual intercourse with women. When the month of Ramadan came, I feared lest I should have intercourse with my wife, and this evil should remain with me till the morning. So I made my wife like my mother's back to me till the end of Ramadan. But one night when she was waiting upon me, something of her was revealed. Suddenly I jumped upon her. When the morning came I went to my people and informed them about this matter.

I said: Go along with me to the Messenger of Allah (Peach be upon him).

They said: No, by Allah. So I went to the Prophet (peace be upon him and informed him of the matter.

He said: Have you really committed it, Salamah? I said: I committed it twice, Messenger of Allah. I am content with the Commandment of Allah, the Exalted; so take a decision about me according to what Allah has shown you.

He said: Free a slave. I said: By Him Who sent you with truth, I do not possess a neck other than this: and I struck the surface of my neck.

He said: Then fast two consecutive months. I said: Whatever I suffered is due to fasting.

He said: Feed sixty poor people with a wasq of dates.

I said: By Him Who sent you with truth, we passed the night hungry; there was no food in our house.

He said: Then go to the collector of sadaqah of Banu Zurayq; he must give it to you. Then feed sixty poor people with a wasq of dates; and you and your family eat the remaining dates. Then I came back to my people, and said (to them): I found with you poverty and bad opinion; and I found with the Prophet (Peach be upon him) prosperity and good opinion. He has commanded me to give alms to you.

Ibn al-Ala' added: Ibn Idris said: Bayadah is a sub-clan of Banu Zurayq.
Abu Dawud | 3:2207
39 Narrated Khuwaylah, daughter of Malik ibn Tha'labah:

My husband, Aws ibn as-Samit, pronounced the words: You are like my mother. So I came to the Messenger of Allah (Peach be upon him), complaining to him about my husband.

The Messenger of Allah (Peach be upon him) disputed with me and said: Remain dutiful to Allah; he is your cousin.

I continued (complaining) until the Qur'anic verse came down: "Certainly has Allah heard the speech of the one who argues with you, [O Muhammad], concerning her husband..." [58:1] till the prescription of expiation.

He then said: He should set free a slave. She said: He cannot afford it. He said: He should fast for two consecutive months. She said: Messenger of Allah, he is an old man; he cannot keep fasts. He said: He should feed sixty poor people. She said: He has nothing which he may give in alms. At that moment an araq (i.e. date-basket holding fifteen or sixteen sa's) was brought to him.

I said: I shall help him with another date-basked ('araq). He said: You have done well. Go and feed sixty poor people on his behalf, and return to your cousin. The narrator said: An araq holds sixty sa's of dates.

Abu Dawud said: She atoned on his behalf without seeking his permission.

Abu Dawud said: This man (Aws b. al-Samit) is the brother of 'Ubadah b. al-Samit.
Abu Dawud | 3:2208
40 A similar tradition has been transmitted by Ibn Ishaq with a different chain of narrators. But in this version he said 'Araq is a date-basket holding thirty sa's.

Abu Dawud said "This version is sounder than that of Yahya bin Adam."
Abu Dawud | 3:2209
41 Another version transmitted by Abu Salamah bin 'Abd Al Rahman has 'Araq is a date-basket holding fifteen sa's.
Abu Dawud | 3:2210
42 The tradition mentioned above has been transmitted by Sulaiman bin Yasar. This version has "Then some dates were brought to the Apostle of Allaah(Peach be upon him) and he gave it him. They measured about fifteen sa's ". He said "Give them in alms". He said "Is there anyone needier than I and my family. Apostle of Allaah(Peach be upon him)?" The Apostle of Allaah(Peach be upon him) said "Eat them, you and your family."
Abu Dawud | 3:2211
43 Abu Dawud said "I recited to Muhammad bin Wazir Al Misri and said to him Bishr bin Bakr narrated it to you and Al Auza'i narrated it to us. And he said "At'a narrated it to us on the authority of Aus brother of 'Ubadah bin Al Samit. The Prophet (Peach be upon him) gave him fifteen sa's of wheat to feed sixty poor people.

Abu Dawud said At'a did not meet Aws (bin Al Samit) who was one of the people of Badr and died in the early days of Islam. This version is therefore, mursal (i.e., a successor narrated it directly from the Prophet (Peach be upon him), the link of the Companions is missing). This has been narrated by Al Auza'i from At'a from Aus.
Abu Dawud | 3:2211b
44 Narrated Hisham b. 'Urwah:

Khawlah was the wife of Aws ibn as-Samit; he was a man immensely given to sexual intercourse. When his desire for intercourse was intensified, he made his wife like his mother's back. So Allah, the Exalted, sent down Qur'anic verses relating to expiation for zihar.
Abu Dawud | 3:2212
45 A similar tradition has been transmitted by A'ishah through a different chain of narrators.
Abu Dawud | 3:2213
46 Narrated Ikrimah:

A man made his wife like the back of his mother. He then had intercourse with her before he atoned for it. He came to the Prophet (Peach be upon him) and informed him of this matter. He asked (him): What moved you to the action you have committed? He replied: I saw the whiteness of her shins in moon light. He said: Keep away from her until you expiate for your deed.
Abu Dawud | 3:2214
47 'Ikrimah said "A man made his wife like the back of his mother. When he saw the illumination of her shin in the moonlight, he had intercourse with her. He came to the Prophet (Peach be upon him). He ordered him to atone for it.
Abu Dawud | 3:2215
48 A similar tradition has been transmitted by Ibn 'Abbas from the Prophet (Peach be upon him) through a different chain of narrators. This version does not mention the word "shin".
Abu Dawud | 3:2216
49 A tradition similar to that of Sufyan has been transmitted by 'Ikrimah from the Prophet(Peach be upon him) through a different chain of narrators.
Abu Dawud | 3:2217
50 Abu Dawud said "I heard Muhammad bin Isa narrating this tradition who said Mu'tamar narrated it to us. And he (Mu'tamar) said " I heard Al Hakam bin Aban narrating this tradition. He did not mention the name of Ibn 'Abbas.

Abu Dawud said "Al Hussain bin Huraith wrote to me saying "Al Fadl bin Musa narrated from Ibn 'Abbas to the same effect from the Prophet(Peach be upon him).
Abu Dawud | 3:2217b
51 Narrated Thawban:

The Prophet (Peach be upon him) said: If any woman asks her husband for divorce without some strong reason, the odour of Paradise will be forbidden to her.
Abu Dawud | 3:2218
52 Amrah, daughter of 'Abd al-Rahman ibn Sa'd ibn Zurarah, reported on the authority of Habibah, daughter of Sahl al-Ansariyyah:

She (Habibah) was the wife of Thabit ibn Qays ibn Shimmas. The Messenger of Allah (Peach be upon him) came out one morning and found Habibah by his door.

The Messenger of Allah (Peach be upon him) said: Who is this? She replied: I am Habibah, daughter of Sahl. He asked: What is your case? She replied: I and Thabit ibn Qays, referring to her husband, cannot live together.

When Thabit ibn Qays came, the Messenger of Allah (Peach be upon him) said to him: This is Habibah, daughter of Sahl, and she has mentioned (about you) what Allah wished to mention.

Habibah said: Messenger of Allah, all that he gave me is with me.

The Messenger of Allah (Peach be upon him) said to Thabit ibn Qays: Take it from her. So he took it from her, and she lived among her people (relatives).
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53 Narrated Aisha, Ummul Mu'minin:

Habibah daughter of Sahl was the wife of Thabit ibn Qays Shimmas He beat her and broke some of her part. So she came to the Prophet (Peach be upon him) after morning, and complained to him against her husband. The Prophet (Peach be upon him) called on Thabit ibn Qays and said (to him): Take a part of her property and separate yourself from her. He asked: Is that right, Messenger of Allah? He said: Yes. He said: I have given her two gardens of mine as a dower, and they are already in her possession. The Prophet (Peach be upon him) said: Take them and separate yourself from her.
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54 Narrated Abdullah ibn Abbas:

The wife of Thabit ibn Qays separated herself from him for a compensation. The Prophet (Peach be upon him) made her waiting period a menstrual course.


Abu Dawud said: This tradition has been transmitted by 'Abd al-Razzaq from Ma'mar from 'Amr b. Muslim from 'Ikrimah from the Prophet (Peach be upon him) in a mursal form (i.e. missing the link of the Companion).
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55 Ibn 'Umar said "The waiting period of a woman who separates herself from her husband for compensation is a menstrual period."
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56 Ibn 'Abbas said "Mughith was a slave." He said "Apostle of Allaah (Peach be upon him) make intercession for me to her (Barirah)". The Apostle of Allaah (Peach be upon him) said "O Barirah fear Allaah. He is your husband and father of your child". She said "Apostle of Allaah (Peach be upon him) do you command me for that? He said No, I am only interceding. Then tears were falling down on his (her husband's) cheeks. The Apostle of Allaah (Peach be upon him) said to 'Abbas "Are you not surprised with the love of Mughith for Barirah and her hatred for him."
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57 Ibn 'Abbas said "The husband of Barirah was a black slave called Mughith. The Prophet (Peach be upon him) gave her choice and commanded her to observe the waiting period."
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58 While relating the tradition about Barirah A'ishah said "her husband was a slave, so the Prophet(Peach be upon him) gave her choice. She chose herself. Had he been a free man, he would not given her choice."
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59 A'ishah said "The Prophet (Peach be upon him) gave her choice. Her husband was a slave."
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60 A'ishah said "Barirah's husband was a free man when she was emancipated. She was given choice. She said "I do not like to remain with him. I have such and such (grievances)"
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61 Narrated Aisha, Ummul Mu'minin:

Barirah was emancipated, and she was the wife of Mughith, a slave of Aal AbuAhmad. The Messenger of Allah (Peach be upon him) gave her choice, and said to her: If he has intercourse with you, then there is no choice for you.
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62 Al-Qasim said:

Aisha intended to set free two slaves of her who were spouses. She, therefore, asked the Prophet (Peach be upon him) about this matter. He commanded to begin with the man before the woman. The narrator Nasr said: Abu 'Ali al-Hanafi reported it to me on the authority of Ubaydullah.
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63 Narrated Abdullah ibn Abbas:

A man came after embracing Islam during the time of the Messenger of Allah (Peach be upon him). Afterwards his wife came after embracing Islam. He said: Messenger of Allah, she embraced Islam along with me; so restore her to me.
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64 Narrated Abdullah ibn Abbas:

A woman embraced Islam during the time of the Messenger of Allah (Peach be upon him); she then married. Her (former) husband then came to the Prophet (Peach be upon him) and said: Messenger of Allah, I have already embraced Islam, and she had the knowledge about my Islam. The Messenger of Allah (Peach be upon him) took her away from her latter husband and restored her to her former husband.
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65 Narrated Abdullah ibn Abbas:

The Messenger of Allah (Peach be upon him) restored his daughter Zaynab to Abul'As on the basis of the previous marriage, and he did not do anything afresh.


Muhammad b. 'Amr said in his version: After six years. Al-Hasan b. 'Ali said: After two years.
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66 Narrated Al-Harith ibn Qays al-Asadi:

I embraced Islam while I had eight wives. So I mentioned it to the Prophet (Peach be upon him). The Prophet (said) said: Select four of them.

Abu Dawud said: This tradition has also been narrated to us by Ahmad b. Ibrahim from Hushaim. He said: Qais b. al-Harith instead of al-Harith b. Qais. Ahmad b. Ibrahim said: This is correct, i.e. Qais b. al-Harith.
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67 The tradition mentioned above has also been transmitted by Qais bin Al Harith through a different chain of narrators to the same effect.
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68
Al-Dahhak b. Firuz reported on the authority of his father:

I said: Messenger of Allah, I have embraced Islam and two sisters are my wives. He said: Divorce any one of them you wish.
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69 'Abd al-Hamid ibn Ja'far reported from his father on the authority of his grandfather Rafi' ibn Sinan that he (Rafi' ibn Sinan) embraced Islam and his wife refused to embrace Islam. She came to the Prophet (Peach be upon him) and said:

My daughter; she is weaned or about to wean. Rafi' said: My daughter. The Prophet (Peach be upon him) said to him: Be seated on a side. And he said to her: Be seated on a side. He then seated the girl between them, and said to them: Call her. The girl inclined to her mother. The Prophet (Peach be upon him) said: O Allah! guide her. The daughter then inclined to her father, and he took her.
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70 Sahl bin Sa'ad Al Sa'idi said that 'Uwaimir bin Ashqar Al Ajilani came to 'Asim bin Adl and said to him "Asim tell me about a man who finds a man along with his wife. Should he kill him and then be killed by you, or how should he act? Ask the Apostle of Allaah(Peach be upon him) 'Asim, for me about it. 'Asim then asked the Apostle of Allaah(Peach be upon him) about it. The Apostle of Allaah(Peach be upon him) disliked the question and denounced it. What 'Asim heard from the Apostle of Allaah(Peach be upon him) fell heavy on him. When 'Asim returned to his family 'Uwaimr came to him and asked 'Asim "What did the Apostle of Allaah(Peach be upon him) say to you"? Asim replied "You did not do good to me". The Apostle of Allaah(Peach be upon him) disliked the question that I asked him. Thereupon 'Uwaimir said "I swear by Allaah, I shall not leave until I ask him about it. So, 'Uwaimir came to the Apostle of Allaah(Peach be upon him) while he was sitting in the midst of the people." He said "Apostle of Allaah(Peach be upon him) tell me about a man who finds a man along with his wife. Should he kill him and then be killed by you, or how should he act?" The Apostle of Allaah(Peach be upon him) said "A revelation has been sent down about you and your wife so go away and bring her. Sahl said "So we cursed one another while I was along with the people who were with the Apostle of Allaah(Peach be upon him). Then when they finished, 'Umamir said "I shall have lied against her, Apostle of Allaah(Peach be upon him) if I keep her. He pronounced her divorce three times before the Apostle of Allaah(Peach be upon him)commanded him (to do so).

Ibn Shihab said "Then this became the method of invoking curses."
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71 'Abbas bin Sahl reported on the authority of his father "The Prophet (Peach be upon him) said to 'Asim bin 'Adl. Keep the woman with you till she begets the child.
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72 Sahl bin Sa'd Al Sa'idi said "I attended the invoking of the curses with the Messenger of Allah (Peach be upon him) when I was fifteen. He then narrated the rest of the tradition. In this version he said "She then came out pregnant and the child was ascribed to its mother.
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73 Sahl bin Sa'ad reported the Apostle of Allaah(Peach be upon him) as saying - in the tradition of spouses who invoked curses to each other "Look if she bears a child which has very black eyes, large buttocks, I cannot but imagine that he (i.e., 'Uwaimir) has spoken the truth. But, if she bears a reddish child like the lizard with red spots (waharah), I cannot imagine that 'Uwaimir has lied against her. She gave birth to a child (like that described the Prophet (Peach be upon him) ) in a detestable manner.
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74 The tradition mentioned above has also been transmitted by Sahl bin Sa'd Al Sa'idi through a different chain of narrators. This version adds the child was attributed to its mother.
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75 The tradition mentioned above has also been transmitted by Sahl bin Sa'd Al Sa'idi through a different chain of narrators. This version has "He divorced her three times before the Messenger of Allah (Peach be upon him). The Messenger of Allah (Peach be upon him) implemented it and what is done before the Prophet (Peach be upon him) is sunnah(model behavior of the Prophet).

Sahl said "I attended this before the Messenger of Allah(Peach be upon him). Afterwards the sunnah about those who invoked curses on each other was established that they (the spouses) were separated from each other and they would never be united."
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76 Sahl bin Sa'ad said "The version of Musaddad has "I witnessed the invoking of curses by the two spouses during the life time of the Apostle of Allaah(Peach be upon him) when I was fifteen years old. When they finished invoking curses, the Apostle of Allaah(Peach be upon him) separated them from each other. Here ends the version of Musaddad. Others said "He was present when the Prophet (Peach be upon him) separated the spouses who invoked curses on each other. The man (Sahl) said "I shall have lied against her, Apostle of Allaah(Peach be upon him) if I keep her.

Abu Dawud said "Some narrators did not mention the word 'alaiha(against her)."

Abu Dawud said "No one supported Ibn 'Uyainah that he separated the spouses who invoked curses."
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77 The tradition mentioned above has also been transmitted by Sahl bin Sa'd through a different chain of narrators. This version has "She was pregnant, he denied pregnancy from him. So her son was attributed to her. In the law of succession the practice (sunnah) was established that the son gets a share in the inheritance of his mother and the mother gets the share in the inheritance of her son according to the shares prescribed by Allaah the Exalted.
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78 'Abd Allah (bin Mas'ud) said "We were in the mosque on the night of a Friday, suddenly a man from the Ansar entered the mosque". And said "If a man finds a man along with wife and declares (about her adultery) you will flog him. Or if he kills you, you will kill him or if keeps silence he will keep silence in anger. I swear by Allaah, I shall ask the Apostle of Allaah(Peach be upon him) about it". On the next day he came to the Apostle of Allaah(Peach be upon him) and said "If a man finds a man along with wife and declares (about her adultery) you will flog him. Or if he kills you, you will kill him or if keeps silence he will keep silence in anger." He said "O Allaah, disclose". He kept on praying until the verses regarding invoking curses (li'an) came down "As for those who accuse their wives but have no witnesses except themselves." So, the man was first involved in this trial among the people. He and his wife came to the Apostle of Allaah(Peach be upon him). They invoked curses on each other. The man bore witness before Allaah four times that the thing he said was indeed true. He then invoked curse of Allaah on him for the fifth time if he was a liar. She then wanted to invoke curses of Allaah on him. The Prophet (Peach be upon him) said "Do not do that. Bust she refused and did so (i.e., invoked curses). When they returned he said "Perhaps she will give birth to a black child with curly hair.
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79 Ibn 'Abbas said "Hilal bin Umayyah accused his wife in the presence of Prophet (Peach be upon him) of having committed adultery with Sharik bin Sahma'". The Prophet (Peach be upon him) said "Produce evidence or you must receive punishment on your back." He said "Apostle of Allaah(Peach be upon him) when one of us sees a man having intercourse with his wife should he go and seek evidence?" But the Prophet (Peach be upon him) merely said "You must produce evidence or you must receive punishment on your back." Hilal then said "By Him Who sent you with the Truth, I am speaking Truly. May Allaah send down something which will free my back from punishment. Then the following Qur'anic verses were revealed "And those who make charges against their spouses but have no witnesses except themselves" reciting till he reached "one of those who speak the truth". The Prophet (Peach be upon him) then returned and sent for them and they came (to him). Hilal bin Umayyah stood up and testified and the Prophet (Peach be upon him) was saying "Allaah knows that one of you is lying. Will one of you repent?" Then the woman got up and testified, but when she was about to do it a fifth time saying that Allaah's anger be upon her if he was one of those who spoke the truth, they said to her "this is the deciding one". Ibn 'Abbas said "She then hesitated and drew back so that we thought the she would withdraw(what she said) "Look and see whether she gives birth to a child with eyes looking as if they have antimony in them, wide buttocks and fat legs, if she did. Sharik bin Sahma' will be its father. She then gave birth to a child of a similar description. The Prophet (Peach be upon him) thereupon said "If it were not for what has already been stated in Allaah's book I would have dealt severely with her."

Abu Dawud said "This tradition has been transmitted by the people of Medina alone. They narrated the tradition of Hilal on the authority of Ibn Bashshar."
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80 Narrated Abdullah ibn Abbas:

When the Prophet (Peach be upon him) ordered a man and his wife to invoke curses on each other, he ordered a man to put his hand on his mouth when he came to the fifth utterance, saying that it would be the deciding one.
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81 Ibn 'Abbas said "Hilal bin Umayyah was one of the three persons whose repentance was accepted by Allaah. One night he returned from his land and found a man along with his wife. He witnessed with his eyes and heard with his ears. He did not threaten him till the morning." Next day he went to the Apostle of Allaah(Peach be upon him) in the morning and said Apostle of Allaah(Peach be upon him) "I came to my wife in the night and found a man along with her. I saw with my own eyes and heard with my own ears. The Apostle of Allaah(Peach be upon him) disliked what he described and he took it seriously. There upon the following Qur'anic verse came down "And those who make charges against their spouses but have no witnesses except themselves, let the testimony of one of them ...." When the Apostle of Allaah(Peach be upon him) came to himself (after the revelation ended) he said "Glad tidings to you Hilal, Allaah the exalted has made ease and a way out for you." Hilal said "I expected that from my Lord. The Apostle of Allaah(Peach be upon him) said "Send for her. She then came." The Apostle of Allaah(Peach be upon him) recited the verses to them and he reminded them and told them that the punishment in the next world was more severe than that in n this world. Hilal said "I swear by Allah I spoke the truth against her." She said "He told a lie." The Apostle of Allaah(Peach be upon him) said "Apply the method of invoking curses on one another. Hilal was told "Bear witness. So he bore witness before Allaah four times that he spoke the truth." When he was about to utter the fifth time he was told "Hilal fear Allah, for the punishment in this world is easier than that in the next world and this is the deciding one, that will surely cause punishment to you." He said "I swear by Allaah. Allah will not punish me for this (act), as He did not cause me to be flogged for this (act)." So he bore witness a fifth time invoking the curse of Allah on him if he was of those who tell a lie. Then the people said to her, Testify. So she gave testimony before Allaah that he was a liar. When she was going to testify the fifth time she was told "Fear Allah, for the punishment in this world is easier than that in the next world. This is the deciding one that will surely cause punishment to you." She hesitated for a moment. And then said "By Allah, I will not disgrace my people." So she testified a fifth time invoking the curse of Allah on her if he spoke the truth. Apostle of Allaah(Peach be upon him) separated them from each other and decided that the child will not be attributed to its father. Neither she nor her child will be accused of adultery. He who accuses her or her child will be liable to punishment. He also decided that there will be no dwelling and maintenance for her (from the husband) as they were separated without divorce and death. He then said "If she gives birth to a child with reddish hair, light buttocks, wide belly and light shins he will be the child of Hilal. If she bears a dusky child with curly hair, fat limbs, fat shins and fat buttocks he will be the child of the one who was accused of adultery. She gave birth to a child with curly hair, fat limbs, fat shins and fat buttocks. The Apostle of Allaah(Peach be upon him) said "Had there been no oaths, I would have dealt with her severely."

'Ikrimah said "Later on he became the chief of the tribe of Mudar. He was not attributed to his father."
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82 Ibn 'Umar said "The Apostle of Allaah(Peach be upon him) said to the spouses who invoked curses on each other. Your reckoning is in Allaah's hands for one of you is liar there is no way for you to (remarry) her. He then asked Apostle of Allaah(Peach be upon him) what about my property? He replied "There is no property for you. If you have spoken the truth, it is the price for your having had the right to intercourse with her and if you have lied against her it is still more remote for you.
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83 Sa'd bin Jubair said I asked Ibn 'Umar A man accused his wife of adultery? He said "The Apostle of Allaah(Peach be upon him) separated the brother and the sister of Banu Al 'Ajilan (i.e., husband and wife). He said Allaah knows that one of you is a liar, will one of you repent? He repeated these words three times, but they refused. So he separated them from each other.
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84
Ibn 'Umar said A man invoked curses on his wife (charging her of adultery) during the time of Apostle of Allaah(Peach be upon him) and disowned the child. The Apostle of Allaah(Peach be upon him) therefore separated them and attributed the child to the woman.
Abu Dawud said "The words narrated by Malik alone are "and he attributed the child to the woman.""

Abu Dawud said:

The words narrated by Malik alone are: "and he attributed the child to the woman."

Yunus narrated from Al Zuhri on the authority of Sahl bin Sa'd in the tradition regarding li'an(invoking curses). He disowned her conception hence her child was attributed to her.
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85 Abu Hurairah said A man from Banu Fazarah came to the Prophet (Peach be upon him) and said "My wife has given birth to a black son". He said "Have you any camels?" He said "They are red". He asked "Is there a dusky one among them?" He replied "Some of them are dusky". He asked "How do you think they have come about?" He replied "This may be a strain to which they reverted". He said "And this is perhaps a strain to which the child has reverted."
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86 The tradition mentioned above has also been narrated by Al Zuhri through a different chain of narrators to the same effect. This version adds "At that time he was hinting at disowning the child."
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87 Narrated AbuHurayrah:

A bedouin came to the Prophet (Peach be upon him), and said: My wife has given birth to a black son, and I disown him. He then narrated the rest of the tradition to the same effect.
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88 Narrated AbuHurayrah:

AbuHurayrah heard the Messenger of Allah (Peach be upon him) say when the verse about invoking curses came down: Any woman who brings to her family one who does not belong to it has nothing to do with Allah (i.e. expects no mercy from Allah), and Allah will not bring her into His Paradise.

Allah, the Exalted, will veil Himself from any man who disowns his child when he looks at him, and disgrace him in the presence of all creatures, first and last.
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89 Narrated Abdullah ibn Abbas:

The Prophet (Peach be upon him) said: There is no prostitution in Islam. If anyone practised prostitution in pre-Islamic times, the child will be attributed to the master (of the slave-woman). He who claims his child without a valid marriage or ownership will neither inherit nor be inherited.
Abu Dawud | 3:2257
90
'Amr b. Shu'aib on his father's authority said that his grandfather reported:

The Prophet (Peach be upon him) decided regarding one who was treated as a member of a family after the death of his father, to whom he was attributed when the heirs said he was one of them, that if he was the child of a slave-woman whom the father owned when he had intercourse with her, he was included among those who sought his inclusion, but received none of the inheritance which was previously divided; he, however, received his portion of the inheritance which had not already been divided; but if the father to whom he was attributed had disowned him, he was not joined to the heirs.

If he was a child of a slave-woman whom the father did not possess or of a free woman with whom he had illicit intercourse, he was not joined to the heirs and did not inherit even if the one to whom he was attributed is the one who claimed paternity, since he was a child of fornication whether his mother was free or a slave.
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91 The tradition mentioned above has also been transmitted by Muhammad bin Rashid through a different chain of narrators to the same effect. This version adds "he is the child of fornication for the people of his mother whether she was free or a slave. This attribution of a child to the parents was practiced in the beginning of Islam. The property divided before Islam will not be taken into account.
Abu Dawud | 3:2259
92 Narrated Aisha, Ummul Mu'minin:

The Messenger of Allah (Peach be upon him) entered upon me. The version of Musaddad and Ibn as-Sarh has: one day looking pleased". The version of Uthman has: "The lines of his forehead were realised." He said: O Aisha, are you not surprised to hear that Mujazziz al-Mudlaji saw that Zayd and Usamah had a rug over them concerning their heads and letting their feet appear. He said: These feet are related.


Abu Dawud: Usamah was black and Zaid was white.
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93 The tradition mentioned above has also been transmitted by ibn Shihab through a different chain of narrators to the same effect. This version adds "She said "he entered upon me looking pleased with the lines of his face brightened.

Abu Dawud said "Ibn 'Uyainah did not remember the words "the lines of his face"."

Abu Dawud said "The words "the lines of his face" have been narrated by Ibn 'Uyainah himself. He did not hear Al Zuhri say (these words). He heard some person other than Al Zuhri say these words. The words "the lines of his face" occur in the tradition narrated by Al Laith and others.

Abu Dawud said " I heard Ahmad bin Salih say "Usamah was very black like tar and Zaid was white like cotton."
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94 Narrated Zayd ibn Arqam:

I was sitting with the Prophet (Peach be upon him). A man came from the Yemen, and said: Three men from the people of the Yemen came to Ali, quarrelling about a child, asking him to give a decision. They had had sexual intercourse with a woman during a single state of purity.

He said to two of them: Give this child to this man (the third person) with pleasure. But they (refused and) cried loudly. Again he said to two of them: Give the child to the man (the third person) willingly. But they (refused and) cried loudly. He then said: You are quarrelsome partners. I shall cast lots among you; he who receives the lot, will acquire the child, and he shall pay two-thirds of the blood-money to both his companions. He then cast lots among them, and gave the child to the one who received the lot. The Messenger of Allah (Peach be upon him) laughed so much that his canine or molar teeth appeared.
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95 Narrated Zayd ibn Arqam:

Three persons were brought to Ali (Allah be pleased with him) when he was in the Yemen. They and sexual intercourse with a woman during a single state of purity. He asked two of them: Do you acknowledge this child for this (man)? They replied: No. He then put this (question) to all of them. Whenever he asked two of them, they replied in the negative. He, therefore, cast a lot among them, and attributed the child to the one who received the lot. He imposed two-third of the blood-money (i.e. the price of the mother) on him. This was then mentioned to the Prophet (Peach be upon him) and he laughed so much that his molar teeth appeared.
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96 Khalil or Ibn Khalil said "A woman was brought to Ali bin Abi Talib(may Allaah be pleased with him). She bore a child from intercourse of three persons. The narrator transmitted the rest of the tradition similar to the previous one. But in this version he did not mention "Yemen" and the Prophet (Peach be upon him) and his words "give the child willingly."
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97 A'ishah wife of the Prophet (Peach be upon him) said "Marriage in pre Islamic times was of four kinds." One of them was the marriage contracted by the people today. A man asked another man to marry his relative (sister or daughter) to him. He fixed the dower and married her to him. Another kind of marriage was that a man asked his wife when she became pure from menstruation to send fro so and so and have sexual intercourse with him. Her husband kept himself aloof and did not have intercourse with her till It became apparent that she was pregnant from the man who had intercourse with her. When it was manifest that she was pregnant, her husband approached her if he liked. This marriage was called istibda'(to utilize man for intercourse for a noble birth). A third kind of marriage was that a group of people less than ten in number entered upon a woman and had intercourse with her. When she conceived gave birth to a child and a number of days passed after her delivery, she sent for them. No one of them could refuse to attend and they gathered before her. She said to them "You have realized your affair. I have now given birth to a child. And this is your son. O so and so. She called the name of anyone of them she liked and the child was attributed to him. A fourth kind of marriage was that many people gathered together and entered upon a woman who did not prevent anyone who came to her. They were prostitutes. They hoisted flags at their doors which served as a sign for the one who intended to enter upon them. When she became pregnant and delivered the child , they got together before her and called for the experts of tracing relationship from physical features. They attributed the child to whom they considered and it was given to him. The child was called his son and he could not deny. When Allah sent Muhammad (Peach be upon him) as a Prophet, he abolished all kinds of marriages prevalent among the people of the pre Islamic times except of the Muslims practiced today.
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98 A'ishah said "Sa'd bin Abi Waqqas and 'Abd bin Zamah disputed amongst themselves about the (relationship of the) son of the slave girl of Zam'ah and brought the case to the Apostle of Allaah(Peach be upon him). Sa'd said "My brother 'Utbah enjoined me that when I came to Makkah I should see the son of the slave girl of Zam'ah and take his possession for that is his son". 'Abd bin Zam'ah said "He is my brother, the son of my father's slave girl having been born on my father's bed". The Apostle of Allaah(Peach be upon him) saw his clear resemblance to 'Utbah. So he said "The child is attributed to the one on whose bed it is born and the fornicator is deprived of any right (lit. the fornicator will have the stone). Veil yourself from him, Saudah. Musaddad added in his version "he is your brother 'Abd".
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99
'Amr b. Shu'aib on his father's authority said that his grandfather reported:

A man got up and said: Messenger of Allah, so-and-so is my son; I had illicit intercourse with his mother in the pre-Islamic period. The Messenger of Allah (Peach be upon him) said: There is no unlawful claiming of paternity in Islam. What was done in pre-Islamic times has been annulled. The child is attributed to the one on whose bed it is born, and the fornicator is deprived of any right.
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100 Rabah said:

My people married me to a Roman slave-girl of theirs. I had intercourse with her, and she gave birth to a black (male) child like me. I named it Abdullah. I again had intercourse with her, and she gave birth to a black (male) child like me. I named it Ubaydullah. Then a Roman slave of my people, called Yuhannah, incited her, and spoke to her in his own unintelligible language. She gave birth to a son like a chameleon (red).

I asked her: What is this? She replied: This belongs to Yuhannah. We then brought the case to Uthman (for a decision). I think Mahdi said these words. He inquired from both of them, and they acknowledged (the facts).

He then said to them: Do you agree that I take the decision about you, which the Messenger of Allah (Peach be upon him) had taken? The Messenger of Allah (Peach be upon him) decided that the child was to attributed to the one on whose bed it was born. And I think he said: He flogged her and flogged him, for they were slaves.
Abu Dawud | 3:2268
101
'Amr b. Shu'aib on his father's authority said that his grandfather (Abdullah ibn Amr ibn al-'As) reported:

A woman said: Messenger of Allah, my womb is a vessel to this son of mine, my breasts, a water-skin for him, and my lap a guard for him, yet his father has divorced me, and wants to take him away from me. The Messenger of Allah (Peach be upon him) said: You have more right to him as long as you do not marry.
Abu Dawud | 3:2269
102 Hilal ibn Usamah quoted Abu Maimunah Salma, client of the people of Medina, as saying:

While I was sitting with AbuHurayrah, a Persian woman came to him along with a son of hers. She had been divorced by her husband and they both claimed him.

She said: AbuHurayrah, speaking to him in Persian, my husband wishes to take my son away.

AbuHurayrah said: Cast lots for him, saying it to her in a foreign language.

Then her husband came and asked: Who is disputing with me about my son?

AbuHurayrah said: O Allah, I do not say this, except that I heard a woman who came to the Messenger of Allah (Peach be upon him) while I was sitting with him, and she said: My husband wishes to take away my son, Messenger of Allah, and he draws water for me from the well of AbuInabah, and he has been good to me.

The Messenger of Allah (Peach be upon him) said: Cast lots for him. Her husband said: Who is disputing with me about my son? The Prophet (Peach be upon him) said: This is your father and this your mother, so take whichever of them you wish by the hand. So he took his mother's hand and she went away with him.
Abu Dawud | 3:2270
103 Narrated Ali ibn AbuTalib:

Zayd ibn Harithah went out to Mecca and brought the daughter of Hamzah with him. Then Ja'far said: I shall take her; I have more right to her; she is my uncle's daughter and her maternal aunt is my wife; the maternal aunt is like mother. Ali said: I am more entitled to take her. She is my uncle's daughter. The daughter of the Messenger of Allah (Peach be upon him) is my wife, and she has more right to her. Zayd said: I have more right to her. I went out and journeyed to her, and brought her with me. The Prophet (Peach be upon him) came out.

The narrator mentioned the rest of the tradition. He (i.e. the Prophet) said: As for the girl, I decided in favour of Ja'far. She will live with her maternal aunt. The maternal aunt is like mother.
Abu Dawud | 3:2271
104 This tradition has been narrated by 'Abd Al Rahman bin Abi Laila through a different chain of narrators. This version has "He decided that she would be given to Ja'far and said "Her maternal aunt is with him(i.e., his wife).
Abu Dawud | 3:2272
105 Narrated Ali ibn AbuTalib:

When we came out from Mecca, Hamzah's daughter pursued us crying: My uncle. Ali lifted her and took her by the hand. (Addressing Fatimah he said:) Take your uncle's daughter. She then lifted her. The narrator then transmitted the rest of the tradition. Ja'far said: She is my uncle's daughter. Her maternal aunt is my wife. The Prophet (Peach be upon him) decided in favour of her maternal aunt, and said: The maternal aunt is like mother.
Abu Dawud | 3:2273
106 Amr ibn Muhajir reported on the authority of his father:

Asma', daughter of Yazid ibn as-Sakan al-Ansariyyah, was divorced in the time of the Messenger of Allah (Peach be upon him). No waiting period was prescribed for a divorced woman (at that time). When Asma' was divorced, Allah, the Exalted, sent down the injunction of waiting period for divorce. She is the first of the divorced women about whom the verse relating to waiting period was sent down.
Abu Dawud | 3:2274
107 Narrated Abdullah ibn Abbas:

Women who are divorced shall wait, keeping themselves apart, three monthly courses; and then said: And for such of your women as despair of menstruation, if ye doubt, their period (of waiting) shall be three months. This was abrogated from the former verse. Again he said: (O ye who believe, if ye wed believing women) and divorce them before ye have touched them, then there is no period that ye should reckon."
Abu Dawud | 3:2275
108 Narrated Umar ibn al-Khattab:

The Prophet (Peach be upon him) divorced Hafsah, but he took her back in marriage.
Abu Dawud | 3:2276
109 Abu Salamah bin 'Abd Al Rahman reported on the authority of Fatimah daughter of Qais Abu 'Amr bin Hafs divorced her (Fathima daughter of Qais) absolutely when he was away from home and his agent sent her home barely. She was displeased with it. He said "I swear by Allaah, you have no claim on us. She then came to Apostle of Allaah(Peach be upon him) and mentioned that to him. He said to her "No maintenance is due to you for from him. He ordered her to spend the waiting period in the house of Umm Sharik but he said afterwards "that is a woman whom my Companions visits spend the waiting period in the house of Ibn Umm Maktum for he is blind and you can undress. Then when you are in a position of being remarried, tell me." She said "When I was in a position to remarry, I mentioned to him that Mu'awiyah bin Abi Sufyan and Abu Jahm had asked me in marriage. The Apostle of Allaah(Peach be upon him)said "As for Abu Jahm, he does not put down his stick from his shoulder, and as for Mu'awiyah he is a poor man who has no property; marry Usamah bin Zaid. I disliked him but he said "Maary Usamah bin Zaid. So, I married him. And Allaah prospered him very much and I was envied."
Abu Dawud | 3:2277
110 Abu Salamah bin 'Abd Al Rahman said that Fatimah daughter of Qais told him that Abu Hafs Al Mughirah divorced her three times. He then narrated the rest of the tradition. The version has Khalid bin Walid and some people of Banu Makhzum came to the Prophet (Peach be upon him) and said Prophet of Allaah (Peach be upon him) Abu Hafs Al Mughirah divorced his wife three times and he has left a little for her. He said "No maintenance is necessary for her. He then transmitted the rest of the tradition. The tradition narrated by Malik is more perfect.
Abu Dawud | 3:2278
111 Abu Salamah reported on the authority of Fatimah daughter of Qais that Abu 'Amr bin Hafs Al Makhzumi divorced her three times. He then narrated the rest of the tradition. He then mentioned about Khalid bin Walid and said that the Prophet (Peach be upon him) said "There are no maintenance and dwelling for her." This version has "The Apostle of Allaah(Peach be upon him) sent a message to her "Do not give her consent for marriage without my permission.""
Abu Dawud | 3:2279
112 Fatimah daughter of Qais said "I was married to a man of Banu Makhzum. He divorced me absolutely. The narrator then transmitted the rest of the tradition like that of Malik. This version has "Do not marry yourself without my permission."

Abu Dawud said Al Sha'bi, Al Bahiyy and ata from abd Al Rahman bin asim and Abu Bakr bin Abi Al Jahm all narrated on the authority of Fatimah daughter of Qais that her husband had divorced her three times.
Abu Dawud | 3:2280
113 The tradition mentioned above has also been transmitted by Al Sha'bi through a different chain of narrators. This version has "The husband of Fathima daughter of Qais pronounced her triple divorce. The Prophet (Peach be upon him) did not allow her to have maintenance and dwelling."
Abu Dawud | 3:2281
114 Abu Salamah reported on the authority of Fatimah daughter of Qays who said to him that she was the wife of AbuHafs ibn al-Mughirah who divorced her by three pronouncements. She said that she came to the Messenger of Allah (Peach be upon him) and sought his opinion about her going out from her house. He commanded her to shift to (the house of )Ibn Umm Maktum who was blind. Marwan denied to confirm the tradition of Fatimah about the going out of a divorced woman from her house. Urwah said:

Aisha objected to Fatimah daughter of Qays.


Abu Dawud said: Salih b. Kaisan, Ibn Juraij, and Shu'aib b. Abi Hamzah -- all of them narrated on the authority of al-Zuhru in a similar way.


Abu Dawud said: Shu'aibn b. Abi Hamzah the name of Abu Hamzah is Dinar. He is a client of Ziyad.
Abu Dawud | 3:2282
115 'Ubaid Allah said "Marwan sent someone (Qabisah) to Fatimah and asked her (about the case). She said that she was the wife of Abu Hafs. The Prophet (Peach be upon him) appointed 'Ali as governor in a certain part of Yemen. Her husband also proceeded with him. From there he sent a message to her pronouncing one divorce that had yet remained. He commanded 'Ayyash bin Abi Rabi'ah and Al Harith bin Hisham to provide maintenance to her. They said "By Allah there is no sustenance for her except in case she is pregnant." She came to the Prophet(Peach be upon him) who said "There is no sustenance for you except in case you are pregnant. She then asked permission to shift (from her house) and he gave her permission." She asked "Where should I shift. Apostle of Allaah(Peach be upon him)? The Apostle of Allaah(Peach be upon him) said to Ibn Umm Maktum . He was blind. She would undress herself and he could not see her. She lived there till her waiting period passed. The Prophet (Peach be upon him) married her to Usamah. Qabisah then returned to Marwan and narrated that to him. Marwan said "We did not hear this tradition except from a woman, so we shall follow the reliable practice on which we found the people". When this reached Fatimah she said "between me and you is the Book of Allah". Allaah the exalted said "Divorce them for their waiting period..." Thou knowest not it may be that Allaah will afterward bring some new thing to pass. She said "What a new thing will emerge after triple divorce."

Abu Dawud said "A similar tradition has been narrated by Yunus on the authority of Al Zuhri. As for Al Zubaidi he narrated both traditions, the tradition of 'Ubaid Allah in the version of Ma'mar and the tradition of Abu
Salamah in the version of 'Aqil."

Abu Dawud said "Muhammad bin Ishaq narrated on the authority of Al Zuhri that Qabisah bin Dhuwaib transmitted to him the version which was narrated by 'Ubaid Allah bin 'Abd Allaah which has Qabisah then returned to Marwan and informed him about that."
Abu Dawud | 3:2283
116 Abu Ishaq said "I was with Al Aswad in the congregational mosque. He said "Fathimah daughter of Qais came to 'Umar bin Al Khattab(may Allaah be pleased with him). (When she narrated the tradition about her divorce) he said "We are not to leave the Book of our Lord and the Sunnah of our Prophet (Peach be upon him) for the statement of a woman, we do not know whether she remembered it or not."
Abu Dawud | 3:2284
117 Urwah said:

Aisha (Allah be pleased with her) severely objected to the tradition of Fatimah daughter of Qays. She said: Fatimah lived in a desolate house and she feared for her loneliness there. Hence the Messenger of Allah (Peach be upon him) accorded permission to her (to leave the place).
Abu Dawud | 3:2285
118 Urwah ibn az-Zubayr said:

Aisha was asked: Did you not see (i.e. known) the statement of Fatimah? She replied: It is not good for her to mention it (to others).
Abu Dawud | 3:2286
119 Sulaimah bin Yasar said about leaving the house by Fathimah "That was due to her bad manners."
Abu Dawud | 3:2287
120 Al-Qasim ibn Muhammad and Sulayman ibn Yasar reported:

Yahya ibn Sa'id ibn al-'As divorced the daughter of 'Abd al-Rahman ibn al-Hakam absolutely. 'Abd al-Rahman shifted her (from there). Aisha sent a message to Marwan ibn al-Hakam who was the governor of Medina, and said to him: Fear Allah, and return the woman to her home. Marwan said (according to Sulayman's version): 'Abd al-Rahman forced me. Marwan said (according to the version of al-Qasim): Did not the case of Fatimah daughter of Qays reach you? Aisha replied: There would be no harm to you if you did not make mention of the tradition of Fatimah. Marwan said: If you think that it was due to some evil (i.e. reason), then it is sufficient for you to see that there is also an evil between the two.
Abu Dawud | 3:2288
121 Maimun bin Mihram said "I came to Median and went to Sa'id bin Al Musayyab". I said (to him) Fathimah daughter of Qais was divorced and she shifted from her house. Sa'id said "This woman has perverted people. She was arrogant so she was placed with Ibn Umm Makhtum, the blind."
Abu Dawud | 3:2289
122 Jabir said "My maternal aunt was divorced by three pronouncements and she went out to cut down fruit from her palm trees. A man met her and forbade her (to go out). So she went to the Prophet (Peach be upon him) and mentioned it to him. He said "Go out, and cut down fruit from your palm trees for perhaps you may give alms (sadaqah) or do an act of kindness.
Abu Dawud | 3:2290
123 The Qur'anic verse "Those of you who die and leave widows should bequeath for their widows a year's maintenance and residence was abrogated by the verse containing the laws of succession, as one-fourth or one-eighth share was prescribed for them (i.e., the widows). The waiting period for one year was also repealed as a period of four months ten days was prescribed for them.
Abu Dawud | 3:2291
124 Humaid ibn Nafi' reported the following three traditions on the authority of Zaynab, daughter of Abu Salamah:



Zainab said: I visited Umm Habibah when her father AbuSufyan, died. She asked for some yellow perfume containing saffron (khaluq) or something else. Then she applied it to a girl and touched her cheeks.

She said: I have no need of perfume, but I heard the Messenger of Allah (Peach be upon him) say: It is not lawful for a woman who believes in Allah and the Last Day to observe mourning for one who has died, more than three nights, except for four months and ten days in the case of a husband.

Zaynab said: I also visited Zaynab, daughter of Jahsh, when her brother died. She asked for some perfume and used it upon herself.

She then said: I have no need of perfume, but I heard the Messenger of Allah (Peach be upon him) say when he was on the pulpit: It is not lawful for a woman who believes in Allah and the Last Day to observe mourning for one who has died, more than three nights, except for four months and ten days in the case of a husband.

Zaynab said: I heard my mother, Umm Salamah, say: A woman came to the Messenger of Allah (Peach be upon him) and said: Messenger of Allah, the husband of my daughter has died, and she is suffering from sore eyes; may we put antimony in her eyes?

The Messenger of Allah (Peach be upon him) said: No. He said this twice or thrice. Each time he said: No. The Messenger of Allah (Peach be upon him) said: The waiting period is now four months and ten days. In pre-Islamic days one of you used to throw away a piece of dung at the end of a year.

Humayd said: I asked Zaynab: What do you mean by throwing away a piece of dung at the end of a year.

Zaynab replied: When the husband of a woman died, she entered a small cell and put on shabby clothes, not touching perfume or any other thing until a year passed. Then an animal such as donkey or sheep or bird was provided for her. She rubbed herself with it. The animal with which she rubbed herself rarely survived. She then came out and was given a piece of dung which she threw away. She then used perfume or something else which she desired.


Abu Dawud said: The Arabic word "hafsh" means a small cell.
Abu Dawud | 3:2292
125 Zaynab, daughter of Ka'b ibn Ujrah narrated that Furay'ah daughter of Malik ibn Sinan, told her that she came to the Messenger of Allah (Peach be upon him) and asked him whether she could return to her people, Banu Khidrah, for her husband went out seeking his slaves who ran away. When they met him at al-Qudum, they murdered him.

So I asked the Messenger of Allah (Peach be upon him):

"Should I return to my people, for he did not leave any dwelling house of his own and maintenance for me?

She said: The Messenger of Allah (Peach be upon him) replied: Yes. She said: I came out, and when I was in the apartment or in the mosque, he called for me, or he commanded (someone to call me) and, therefore, I was called.

He said: what did you say? So I repeated my story which I had already mentioned about my husband. Thereupon he said: Stay in your house till the term lapses. She said:

So I passed my waiting period in it (her house) for four months and ten days. When Uthman ibn Affan became caliph, he sent for me and asked me about that; so I informed him, and he followed it and decided cases accordingly.
Abu Dawud | 3:2293
126 Ibn 'Abbas said "The following verse abrogated the rule of passing her waiting period with her people. A year's maintenance and residence. She may pass her waiting period now anywhere she wishes. 'Ata said "If she wishes she can pass her waiting period with the people of her husband and live in the house left by her husband by will. Or she may shift if she wishes according to the pronouncement of Allah the Exalted. But if they leave (the residence) there is no blame on you for what they do. Ata' said "Then the verses regarding inheritance were revealed. The commandment for living in a house (for one year) was repealed. She may pass her waiting period wherever she wishes.
Abu Dawud | 3:2294
127 'Umm Athiyah reported the Prophet(Peach be upon him) as saying "A woman must not observe mourning for more than three (days) except for four months and ten days in the case of a husband and she must not wear a dyed garment except one of the types made of dyed yarn or apply collyrium or touch perfume except for a little costus or azfar when she has been purified after her menstrual courses.

The narrator Ya'qub mentioned the words "except washed clothes" instead of the words "one of the types made of dyed yarn". Ya'qub also added "She must not apply Henna"
Abu Dawud | 3:2295
128 The tradition mentioned above has also been narrated by Al 'Umm Athiyah from the Prophet (Peach be upon him) through a different chain of narrators. The tradition narrated by Yazid bin Harun from Hisham does perfectly correspond to the tradition transmitted by Ibrahim bin Tahman and 'Abd Allah Al Shami from Hisham. The narrator Al Misma'I reported Yazid as saying "I do not know but that he said "she should not dye herself." To this the narrator Harun added "She should not wear colored clothes except one of the types made of dyed yarn."
Abu Dawud | 3:2296
129 Narrated Umm Salamah, Ummul Mu'minin:

The Prophet (Peach be upon him) said: A woman whose husband has died must not wear clothes dyed with safflower (usfur) or with red ochre (mishq) and ornaments. She must not apply henna and collyrium.
Abu Dawud | 3:2297
130 Umm Hakim, daughter of Usayd, reported on the authority of her mother that her husband died and she was suffering from sore eyes. She therefore applied collyrium (jala'). Ahmad said:

The correct version is "glittering collyrium (kuhl al-jala'). She sent her slave-girl to Umm Salamah, and she asked her about the use of glittering collyrium (kuhl al-jala').

She said: Do not apply it except in the case of dire need which is troubling you. In that case you can use it at night, but you should remove it in the daytime. Then Umm Salamah said: The Messenger of Allah (Peach be upon him) came to visit me when AbuSalamah died, and I had put the juice of aloes in my eye.

He asked : What is this, Umm Salamah? I replied: It is only the juice of aloes and contains no perfume. He said: It gives the face a glow, so apply it only at night and remove it in daytime, and do not comb yourself with scent or henna, for it is a dye. I asked: What should I use when I comb myself, Messenger of Allah? He said: Use lote-tree leaves and smear your head copiously with them.
Abu Dawud | 3:2298
131 'Ubaid Allah bin 'Abd Allah bin 'Utbah said that his father wrote (a letter) to 'Abd Allaah bin Al Arqam Al Zuhri asking him to visit Subai'ah daughter of Al Harith Al Aslamiyyah and ask her about her story and what the Apostle of Allaah(Peach be upon him) said to her when she asked his opinion (about her). So, 'Umar bin Abd allah wrote in reply to 'Abd Allah bin 'Utbah informing him what she told him. She told that she was under (i.e., the wife of) Sa'd bin Khawlah who belonged to Banu Amir bin Luwayy. He was one of those who participated in the battle of Badr. He died at the Farwell Pilgrimage while she was pregnant. Soon after his death she gave birth to a child. When she was purified from her bleeding after child birth she adorned herself for seekers in marriage. Then Abu Al Sanabil bin Ba'kah a man from Banu Abd Al Dar entered upon her and said to her "What is the matter seeing you adorned, perhaps you are seeking marriage? I swear by Allah you cannot marry until four months and ten days pass away. Saubai'ah said "When she said this to me, I gathered my clothes on me when the evening came and I came to the Apostle of Allaah(Peach be upon him) and asked him about that. He told me that I became lawful when I had delivered a child. He suggested me to marry if I wished. Ibn Shihab said "I do not see any harm if she marries when she gives birth to the child, even though she had the bleeding after the child birth, but her husband should not have sexual intercourse till she is purified.
Abu Dawud | 3:2299
132 Narrated Abdullah ibn Mas'ud:

I can invoke the curse of Allah on anyone who wishes: The smaller surat an-Nisa (i.e. Surat at-Talaq) was revealed after the verse regarding the waiting period of four months and ten days had been revealed.
Abu Dawud | 3:2300
133 Narrated Amr ibn al-'As:

Do not confuse us about his Sunnah. Ibn al-Muthanna said: The Sunnah of our Prophet (Peach be upon him) is that the waiting period of a slave-mother whose husband has died is four months and ten days.
Abu Dawud | 3:2301
134 Narrated Aisha, Ummul Mu'minin:

The Messenger of Allah (Peach be upon him) was asked about a man who divorced his wife three times, and she married another who entered upon her, but divorced her before having intercourse with her, whether she was lawful for the former husband. She said: The Prophet (Peach be upon him) replied: She is not lawful for the first (husband) until she tastes the honey of the other husband and he tastes her honey.
Abu Dawud | 3:2302
135 'Abd Allaah (bin Masud) said "I asked Apostle of Allaah(Peach be upon him) which sin is the gravest?" He replied "That you associate someone with Allaah, while He has created you". I again asked "Which then?" He replied "That you commit adultery with the wife of your neighbor." Allaah then revealed the following Qur'anic verse in support of the statement of the Prophet (Peach be upon him) "Those who invoke not with Allaah any other god nor slay such life as Allaah has made sacred except for just cause nor commit fornication."
Abu Dawud | 3:2303
136 Narrated Jabir ibn Abdullah:

Musaykah, a slave-girl of some Ansari, came and said: My master forces me to commit fornication. Thereupon the following verse was revealed: "But force not your maids to prostitution (when they desire chastity)."
Abu Dawud | 3:2304
137 Mu'tamir reported on the authority of his father Sa'id bin Al Hassan explain the Qur'anic verse "But if anyone compels them, yet after such compulsion is Allaah oft-forgiving most merciful(to them), said Allaah is oft-forgiving to those (slave girls) who were compelled (to prostitution)
Abu Dawud | 3:2305
Abu Dawud   |   Chapter: 12   |   Verses: 138
Chapter:
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