Scripture Timeline  

1400
BC
Moses Born

1201
BC
Moses Died

70
BC
Septuagint (LXX)

Septuagint (LXX)
The translation of the Old Testament books from Hebrew to Greek known as Septuagint (LXX) by the 70 Jewish scholars for the Jews in Diaspora in Alexandria. This is the Old Testament version used by the apostles and early Christians.

4
BC
Jesus Born

33
AD
Jesus Departed

96
AD
Clement I

Clement I
Some letters of Paul were known to Clement I, bishop of Rome, together with some form of the 'words of Jesus'; but while Clement valued these highly, he did not regard them as Scripture ('graphe'), a term he reserved for the Septuagint

100
AD
Council of Jamnia

Council of Jamnia
The Council of Jamnia, held in Yavneh, was a Jewish council at which the canon of the Hebrew Bible had been finalized. It excluded the seven books of the Old Testament which are part of its Greek version, the Septuagint. These books are regarded by the Church as inspired and are known as the deuterocanonical.

140
AD
Marcion of Sinope

Marcion of Sinope
Marcion of Sinope, a bishop of Asia Minor who went to Rome and was later excommunicated for his views, was the first of record to propose a definitive, exclusive, unique canon of Christian scriptures. He taught that there were two Gods: Yahweh, the cruel God of the Old Testament, and Abba, the kind father of the New Testament. Marcion eliminated the Old Testament as scriptures and, since he was anti-Semitic, kept from the New Testament only 10 letters of Paul and 2/3 of Luke’s gospel (he deleted references to Jesus’ Jewishness). His gospel is called the Gospel of the Lord.

150
AD
New Testament Bible

New Testament Bible
Final writings of the New Testament books and the circulation of other apocryphal documents

160
AD
Tatian the Assyrian

Tatian the Assyrian
Tatian the Assyrian, an early Christian theologian, composed a single harmonized Gospel by weaving the contents of the gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John together along with events present in none of these texts. The narrative mainly follows the chronology of John. This is called the Diatessaron [(Harmony) Through Four] and it became the official Gospel text of the Syriac church, centered in Edessa. He rejected Pauls Letters and Acts of the Apostles.

163
AD
Justin Martyr

Justin Martyr
Justin Martyr, an early Christian apologist, mentioned the 'memoirs of the apostles', which Christians called gospels and which were regarded as on par with the Old Testament. In his works, distinct references are found to Romans, 1 Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Colossians, and 2 Thessalonians, and possible ones to Philippians, Titus and 1 Timothy.

185
AD
Irenaeus, bishop of Lugdunum

Irenaeus, bishop of Lugdunum
Irenaeus, bishop of Lugdunum in Gaul, in his Adversus Haereses, denounced various early Christian groups that used only one gospel, such as Marcionism which used only Marcion’s version of Luke, or the Ebionites which seem to have used an Aramaic version of Matthew, as well as groups that used more than four gospels, such as the Valentinians (A.H. 1.11). Irenaeus declared that there can’t be either more or fewer than four, presenting as logic the analogy of the four corners of the earth and the four winds (3.11.8).

200
AD
Origen Adamantius

Origen Adamantius
Origen Adamantius, early Christian theologian, accepted 22 canonical books of the Hebrews plus Maccabees plus the four Gospels but Paul did not so much as write to all the churches that he taught; and even to those to which he wrote he sent but a few lines.

200
AD
Muratorian Canon

Muratorian Canon
The periphery of the canon was not yet determined as of this time. According to one list, the Muratorian Canon (named after Fr. Ludovico Antonio Muratori who discovered it at the Ambrosian Library in Milan in the 18th century), which was compiled at Rome, the New Testament was comprised of the 4 gospels; Acts; 13 letters of Paul (Hebrews is not included); 3 of the 7 General Epistles (1-2 John and Jude); and also the Apocalypse of Peter. Each “city-church” (region) still has its own Canon, which is a list of books approved for reading at Mass (Liturgy).

215
AD
Clement of Alexandria

Clement of Alexandria
Titus Flavius Clemens (Clement of Alexandria), an early Christian theologian, made use of an open canon. In addition to books that did not make it into the final 27-book New Testament but which had local canonicity (Barnabas, Didache, I Clement, Revelation of Peter, the Shepherd, the Gospel according to the Hebrews), he also used the Gospel of the Egyptians, Preaching of Peter, Traditions of Matthias, Sibylline Oracles, and the Oral Gospel. He did, however, prefer the four church gospels to all others, although he supplemented them freely with apocryphal gospels. He was the first to treat non-Pauline letters of the apostles (other than II Peter) as scripture-he accepted I Peter, I and II John, and Jude as scripture.

300
AD
The Alogi

The Alogi
The Alogi, an early Christian group, rejected the Gospel of John (and possibly also Revelation and the Epistles of John) as either not apostolic or as written by the Gnostic Cerinthus or as not compatible with the Synoptic Gospels.

300
AD
The Old Syriac

The Old Syriac
The Old Syriac was a translation of the New Testament documents from the Greek into Syriac. In the Coptic Versions, Coptic was spoken in four dialects in Egypt and the materials were translated into each of these four dialects.

303
AD
Codex Claromontanus canon

Codex Claromontanus canon
The making of what is currently known Codex Claromontanus canon (named after the town of Clermont-en-Beauvaisis in France from where it was procured by the Calvinist scholar Theodore Bezza in the late 16th century), a page found inserted into a copy of the Epistles of Paul and Hebrews, has the Old Testament, plus Tobit, Judith, Wisdom, Sirach, 1–2,4 Maccabees, and the New Testament, plus 3rd Corinthians, Acts of Paul, Apocalypse of Peter, Barnabas, and Hermas, but missing Philippians, 1–2 Thessalonians, and Hebrews.

330
AD
Eusebius, bishop of Caesarea

Eusebius, bishop of Caesarea
Eusebius, bishop of Caesarea, recorded his own New Testament canon which includes the holy quaternion of the Gospels, the Acts of the Apostles, the epistles of Paul, the epistle of John, the epistle of Peter, the Apocalypse of John, the epistle of James and that of Jude, also the second epistle of Peter, and the second and third epistles of John.

331
AD
Emperor Constantine I

Emperor Constantine I
Roman Emperor Constantine I commissioned Eusebius, bishop of Caesarea, to deliver fifty compiled Scriptures for the Church of Constantinople. Athanasius (Apostolic Constitution 4) recorded Alexandrian scribes around 340 AD preparing the Canon for Constans. Codex Vaticanus and Codex Sinaiticus are among of these ancient compilations together with the Peshitta and Codex Alexandrinus.

350
AD
Cyril, bishop of Jerusalem

Cyril, bishop of Jerusalem
Cyril, bishop of Jerusalem, included in his Catechetical Lectures (4.36) the Gospels (4), Acts, James, 1-2 Peter, 1-3 John, Jude, and Paul’s epistles (14), but listed the Gospel of Thomas as pseudepigrapha.

360
AD
Cheltenham/Mommsen Canon

Cheltenham/Mommsen Canon
The making of the so-called Cheltenham/Mommsen Canon (named after German classical scholar Theodor Mommsen who discovered it in 1886 from a 10th-century manuscript belonging to the library of Thomas Phillips at Cheltenham, England), which contains the 24-book Old Testament and 24-book New Testament that provides syllable and line counts but omits Hebrews, Jude and James, and questions the epistles of John and Peter.

363
AD
Synod of Laodicea

Synod of Laodicea
The Synod of Laodicea was one of the first synods that set out to judge which books were to be read aloud in churches. It canonized 22-book Old Testament and 26-book New Testament (excludes Revelation).

367
AD
Athanasius, bishop of Alexandria

Athanasius, bishop of Alexandria
In his Festal letter, Athanasius, bishop of Alexandria, gave a list of exactly the same books as what would become the 27-book New Testament canon, and he used the word 'canonized' (kanonizomena) in regards to them. He also listed a 22-book Old Testament and 7 books not in the canon but to be read: Wisdom of Solomon, Wisdom of Sirach, Esther, Judith, Tobit, Didache, and the Shepherd of Hermas.

377
AD
Epiphanius, bishop of Salamis

Epiphanius, bishop of Salamis
Epiphanius, bishop of Salamis, listed the following canon in his Panarion 76.5: Gospels (4), Paul’s epistles (13), Acts, James, Peter, 1-3 John, Jude, Revelation, Wisdom, Sirach.

380
AD
Apostolic Constitutions

Apostolic Constitutions
The redactor of the Apostolic Constitutions attributed a canon to the Twelve Apostles themselves as the 85th of his list of such apostolic decrees: Matthew, Mark, Luke, John; the fourteen Epistles of Paul; two Epistles of Peter; three of John; one of James; one of Jude; two Epistles of Clement; and the Acts of the Apostles.

382
AD
Synod of Rome

Synod of Rome
The Synod of Rome (presided by Pope Damasus) started the ball rolling for the definition of a universal canon for all city-churches. It listed the New Testament books in their present number and order.

382
AD
Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus (Jerome)

Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus (Jerome)
Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus (Jerome), a Roman presbyter, was commissioned by Damasus I, bishop of Rome, to revise the Vetus Latina (Old Latin) collection of Biblical texts in Latin then in use by the Church. Once published, it was widely adopted and eventually eclipsed the Vetus Latina and, by the 13th century, was known as the 'versio vulgata' (the version commonly-used) or, more simply, in Latin as vulgata or in Greek as ???????? ('Vulgate').

385
AD
Gregory of Nazianzus, bishop of Constantinople

Gregory of Nazianzus, bishop of Constantinople
Gregory of Nazianzus, bishop of Constantinople, produced a canon in verse which agreed with that of his contemporary Athanasius, other than placing the 'Catholic Epistles' after the Pauline Epistles and omitting Revelation. This list was ratified by the Synod of Trullo of 692 AD.

388
AD
John Chrysostom, bishop of Constantinople

John Chrysostom, bishop of Constantinople
John Chrysostom, bishop of Constantinople, was the first (in his Homilies on Matthew) to use the Greek phrase 'ta biblia' (the books) to describe both the Old and New Testaments together.

393
AD
Synod of Hippo Regius

Synod of Hippo Regius
The Synod of Hippo Regius in North Africa accepted the present canon of the New Testament.

394
AD
Amphilochius, bishop of Iconium

Amphilochius, bishop of Iconium
Amphilochius, bishop of Iconium, in his poem Iambics for Seleucus, nephew of St. Olympias, discussed debate over the canonical inclusion of a number of books, and almost certainly rejects the later Epistles of Peter and John, Jude, and Revelation.

397
AD
Third Synod of Carthage

Third Synod of Carthage
The third Synod of Carthage, which refined the canon for the Western Church, sent it to Innocent I, bishop of Rome, for ratification. Its list is similar to the present canon of scriptures. In the East, the canonical process was hampered by a number of schisms.

405
AD
Innocent I, bishop of Rome

Innocent I, bishop of Rome
Innocent I, bishop of Rome, in ratification of the canon defined by the Synod of Carthage, sent the list of the sacred books to Exsuperius, Gallic bishop of Toulouse, which was identical with that of the Ecumenical Council of Trent.

419
AD
Fourth Synod of Carthage

Fourth Synod of Carthage
The fourth Synod of Carthage reaffirmed the canon defined by the previous synod in its present number and order (similar to the Ecumenical Council of Trent).

562
AD
Flavius Magnus Aurelius Cassiodorus Senator

Flavius Magnus Aurelius Cassiodorus Senator
Flavius Magnus Aurelius Cassiodorus Senator, Roman statesman and writer, in his Institutiones Divinarum et Saecularium Litterarum, omitted 2 Peter, 2-3 John, Jude and Hebrews.

570
AD
Muhammad Born

609
AD
Quran Revelation Starts

Quran Revelation Starts
Revelation of the Quran to the Prophet Muhammed starts

609
AD
Revelation - First

Revelation - First
Muhammad recites a chapter of the Quran for the first time after angel Gabriel reveals surah Al-Alaq in the cave of Hira.

610
AD
Revelation - Second

Revelation - Second
Muhammad receives the second revelation with surah Al-Muddathir

622
AD
Surah Al-Baqara

Surah Al-Baqara
Al-Baqara The first surah after the hijra is revealed

623
AD
Makkan Period

Makkan Period
86 Surahs were revealed in Makkah

624
AD
Surah Al-Anfal

Surah Al-Anfal
Al-Anfal is revealed mentioning the battle of Badr

632
AD
Quran Revelation Ends

Quran Revelation Ends
Revelation of the Quran to the Prophet Muhammed ends

632
AD
Madinan Period

Madinan Period
28 surahs were revealed in Madinah

632
AD
Surah Al-Maida

Surah Al-Maida
Surah Al-Maida is revealed, the last chapter of the Quran

632
AD
Muhammad Died

634
AD
Abu Bakr

Abu Bakr
After the death of the Prophet Muhammad, the entire Quran continued to be remembered in the hearts of the early Muslims. Hundreds of the early Companions of the Prophet had memorized the entire revelation, and Muslims daily recited large portions of the text from memory. Many of the early Muslims also had personal written copies of the Quran recorded on various materials.

Ten years after the Hijrah (632 C.E.), many of these scribes and early Muslim devotees were killed in the Battle of Yamama. While the community mourned the loss of their comrades, they also began to worry about the long-term preservation of the Holy Quran. Recognizing that the words of Allah needed to be collected in one place and preserved, the Caliph Abu Bakr ordered all people who had written pages of the Quran to compile them in one place. The project was organized and supervised by one of the Prophet Muhammad’s key scribes, Zayd bin Thabit.

The process of compiling the Quran from these various written pages was done in four steps:

Zayd bin Thabit verified each verse with his own memory. Umar ibn Al-Khattab verified each verse. Both men had memorized the entire Quran.

Two reliable witnesses had to testify that the verses were written in the presence of the Prophet Muhammad. The verified written verses were collated with those from the collections of other Companions.

This method of cross-checking and verifying from more than one source was undertaken with the utmost care. The purpose was to prepare an organized document which the entire community could verify, endorse, and use as a resource when needed.

This complete text of the Quran was kept in the possession of Abu Bakr, and then passed on to the next Caliph, Umar ibn Al-Khattab. After his death, they were given to his daughter Hafsah (who was also a widow of the Prophet Muhammad).

644
AD
Umar ibn Al-Khattab

Umar ibn Al-Khattab
This complete text of the Quran was kept in the possession of Abu Bakr, and then passed on to the next Caliph, Umar ibn Al-Khattab. After his death, they were given to his daughter Hafsah (who was also a widow of the Prophet Muhammad).

653
AD
Uthman ibn Affan

Uthman ibn Affan
The Quran is canonized by Uthman ibn Affan

656
AD
Uthman bin Affan

Uthman bin Affan
As Islam began to spread throughout the Arabian peninsula, more and more people entered the fold of Islam from as far away as Persia and Byzantine. Many of these new Muslims were not native Arabic speakers, or they spoke a slightly different Arabic pronunciation from the tribes in Makkah and Madinah. People began to dispute about which pronunciations were most correct. Caliph Uthman bin Affan took charge of ensuring that the recitation of the Quran is of a standard pronunciation.

The first step was to borrow the original, compiled copy of the Quran from Hafsah. A committee of early Muslim scribes was tasked with making transcripts of the original copy, and ensuring the sequence of the chapters (surahs). When these perfect copies had been completed, Uthman bin Affan ordered all remaining transcripts to be destroyed, so that all copies of the Quran were uniform in script.

All Qurans available in the world today are exactly identical to the Uthmani version, which was completed less than twenty years after the death of Prophet Muhammad.

Later, some minor improvements were made in the Arabic script (adding dots and diacritical marks), to make it easier for non-Arabs to read. However, the text of the Quran has remained the same.

661
AD
Sana'a manuscript

Sana'a manuscript
The estimated radiocarbon dating of the oldest surviving copy of the Quran, the Sana'a manuscript

787
AD
Second Ecumenical Council of Nicaea

Second Ecumenical Council of Nicaea
The Second Ecumenical Council of Nicaea, which adopted the canon of Carthage. At this point, both the Latin West and the Greek/Byzantine East had the same canon. However, the non-Greek, Monophysite and Nestorian Churches of the East (the Copts, the Ethiopians, the Syrians, the Armenians, the Syro-Malankars, the Chaldeans, and the Malabars) were still left out. But these Churches came together in agreement in 1442 AD in Florence.

859
AD
University of al-Karaouine

University of al-Karaouine
The oldest Quranic school (madrasah) in University of al-Karaouine is built

883
AD
Tafsir al-Tabari

Tafsir al-Tabari
The oldest surviving major tafsir collection was completed, namely Tafsir al-Tabari

884
AD
Quran Translated

Quran Translated
The first complete translation of the Quran into a foreign language

http://www.monthlycrescent.com/understanding-the-quran/english-translations-of-the-quran/

1199
AD
Innocent III, bishop of Rome

Innocent III, bishop of Rome
Innocent III, bishop of Rome, banned unauthorized versions of the Bible as a reaction to the Cathar and Waldensian heresies. The synods of Toulouse and Tarragona (in 1234 AD) outlawed possession of such renderings. But there is evidence of some vernacular translations still being permitted while others were being scrutinized.

1245
AD
Archbishop Langton

Archbishop Langton
Stephen Langton, archbishop of Canterbury, and Hugo Cardinal de Sancto-Caro, dominican titular bishop of Santa Sabina, developed different schemas for systematic division of the Bible. It was the system of Archbishop Langton on which the modern chapter divisions are based.

1380
AD
John Wycliffe - First Bible in English

John Wycliffe - First Bible in English
The first English translation of the Bible was by John Wycliffe, the founder of the anti-Catholic group named Lollardy. He translated the Bible into English from the Latin Vulgate. This was a translation from a translation and not a translation from the original Hebrew and Greek. Wycliffe was forced to translate from the Latin Vulgate because he did not know Hebrew or Greek.

1442
AD
Ecumenical Council of Florence

Ecumenical Council of Florence
At the Ecumenical Council of Florence, the entire Church recognized the 27 books. This council confirmed the Roman Catholic Canon of the Bible which Damasus I, bishop of Rome, had published a thousand years earlier. So, by 1439 AD, all orthodox branches of the Church were legally bound to the same canon. This is 100 years before the Reformation.

1448
AD
Mordacai Nathan

Mordacai Nathan
The Hebrew Old Testament was divided into verses by a French Jewish philosopher and controversialist by the name of Isaac Nathan ben Kalonymus (Mordacai Nathan).

1456
AD
Johannes Gensfleisch - Bible printing

Johannes Gensfleisch - Bible printing
Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg, a German publisher and inventor of a movable type printing, produced the first printed Bible in Latin. Printing revolutionized the way books were made. From now on books could be published in great numbers and at a lower cost.

1500
AD
Santi Pagnini

Santi Pagnini
The first person to divide New Testament chapters into verses was an Italian Dominican biblical scholar Santi Pagnini, but his system was never widely adopted.

1514
AD
Erasmus - Textus Receptus

Erasmus - Textus Receptus
The Greek New Testament was printed for the first time by Erasmus. He based his Greek New Testament from only five Greek manuscripts, the oldest of which dated only as far back as the twelfth century. With minor revisions, Erasmus' Greek New Testament came to be known as the Textus Receptus or the received texts.

1522
AD
Polyglot Bible

Polyglot Bible
Polyglot Bible, in which group of editors was led by Diego López de Zúñiga and funded by Jiménez Cardinal de Cisneros, was published. The Old Testament was in Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek, and Latin and the New Testament in Latin and Greek. Erasmus used the Polyglot to revise later editions of his New Testament. Tyndale made use of the Polyglot in his translation on the Old Testament into English which he did not complete because he died in 1534 AD.

1536
AD
Martin Luther

Martin Luther
In his translation of the Bible from Greek into German, Martin Luther, a former Catholic monk and priest who became the primary figure of the Protestant Reformation, removed four New Testament books (Hebrews, James, Jude, and Revelation) and placed them in an appendix treating them as less than canonical as well as the seven Old Testament books (Tobit, Judith, 1 Maccabees, 2 Maccabees, Wisdom, Sirach, and Baruch plus the additional texts in Esther and Daniel) labelling them as apocryphal.

1546
AD
Ecumenical Council of Trent

Ecumenical Council of Trent
At the Ecumenical Council of Trent, the Catholic Church reaffirmed once and for all the full list of 27 books. The council also confirmed the inclusion of the Deuterocanonical books which had been a part of the Bible canon since the early Church and was confirmed at the councils of 393 AD, 373 AD, 787 AD and 1442 AD. At Trent, the Church of Rome actually dogmatized the canon, making it more than a matter of canon law, which had been the case up to that point, closing it for good.

1551
AD
Robert Estienne

Robert Estienne
Robert Estienne, a French printer and classical scholar, created an alternate numbering in his edition of the Greek New Testament which was also used in his 1553 publication of the Bible in French. Estienne's system of division was widely adopted, and it is this system which is found in almost all modern Bibles.

1566
AD
Sixtus of Siena

Sixtus of Siena
Sixtus of Siena, a dominican theologian, coined the term 'deuterocanonical' to describe the seven Old Testament books that had not been accepted as canonical by the Protestants but which appeared in the Septuagint; and defined for the Roman Catholics of the terms 'protocanonical' and the ancient term 'apocryphal' in his work Bibliotheca Sancta ex Præcipuis Catholicæ Ecclesiæ Auctoribus Collecta (Venice 1566).

1609
AD
Taj Mahal

Taj Mahal
Quranic calligraphy for the Taj Mahal is created by Abdul Haq, aka Amanat Khan

1649
AD
Alexander Ross

Alexander Ross
The first known translation of the Quran into the English language by Alexander Ross, chaplain to King Charles I

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