Jesus and the 12 Disciples  

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Jesus' had 12 Disciples who were his closest followers

The 12 disciples were Jesus' closest followers and primary teachers of the Jewish-Christian gospel.

James Tabor

James D. Tabor (born 1946)
Professor in the Department of Religious Studies, University of North Carolina, Charlotte USA

    The original apostles and followers of Jesus, led by James and assisted by Peter and John, continued to live as religious Jews, observing the Torah and worshiping in the Temple at Jerusalem, or in their local synagogues, while remembering and honoring Jesus as their martyred Teacher and Messiah.

They [the disciples] neither worshipped nor divinized Jesus as the Son of God, or as a Dying-and-Rising Savior, who died for the sins of humankind. They practiced no ritual of baptism into Christ, nor did they celebrate a sacred meal equated with 'eating the body and drinking the blood' of Christ as a guarantee of eternal life.
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1. Andrew
Alias: Peter's Brother
Message: Christians are to tell other people about Jesus
Occupation: Fisherman
Personality: Eager to bring others to Jesus
Death: Andrew travelled to Russia. Christians claimed he was the first to bring the Christian gospel to their lands. Andrew also preached in Asia Minor, modern-day Turkey, and in Greece. Andrew is said to have been crucified upside down on X-shaped cross in Greece.
Burial: Cathederal of Amalfi, Italy
Gospel: 0 books
2. Bartholomew
Alias: Nathanael
Message: Jesus respects honesty in people - even if they challenge him because of it
Occupation: Unknown
Personality: Honest and straight-forward
Death: Bartholomew had widespread missionary travels attributed to him by tradition: to India with Thomas, back to Armenia, and also to Ethiopia and Southern Arabia. There are various accounts of how he met his death as a martyr for the gospel, including he was tortured, skinned alive and beheaded in India.
Burial: St. Bartholomew Church, Rome
Gospel: 0 books
3. James, the Elder
Alias: Son of Zebedee; brother of John the disciple
Message: Christians must be willing to die for Jesus
Occupation: Fisherman
Personality: Ambitious, short-tempered judgmental, deeply committed to Jesus
Death: James was killed by the sword in Rome at the hands of King Herod Agrippa in 44 AD
Burial: St. James Church, Compostela, Spain
Gospel: 0 books
4. James, the Just
Alias: The Lesser; brother of Jesus
Message: Thus also faith by itself, if it does not have works, is dead
Occupation: Chaired an important council in Jerusalem
Personality: Became the Jerusalem Church leader in 50 AD after Jesus. James was chosen as bishop of Jerusalem by Jesus' disciples, Peter, James (the Greater) and John

"For they say that Peter and James and John after the ascension of our Saviour, as if also preferred by our Lord, strove not after honor, but chose James the Just bishop of Jerusalem"
Death: With three James' referred to in the New Testament, there is some confusion as to which is which, but this James is reckoned to have ministered in Syria. The Jewish historian Josephus reported that he was stoned and clubbed to death in Jerusalem in 65 AD.
Burial: Holy Apostles, Basilica, Rome
Gospel: James
5. John
Alias: James' brother
Message: The transforming power of the love of Christ is available to all
Occupation: Fisherman
Personality: Ambitious, Judgmental, later - very loving
Death: An early Latin tradition has him escaping unhurt after being cast into boiling oil in Rome. John died a natural death of old age in 100 AD.
Burial: Basilica of St. John, Ephesus, Turkey
Gospel: John
John I
John II
John III
6. Judas Iscariot
Alias: Son of Simon Iscariot
Message: It is not enough to be familiar with Jesus' teachings. Jesus' true followers love and obey him
Occupation: Unknown
Personality: Treacherous; greedy
Death: Judas committed suicide by hanging himself in 30 AD
Burial: Unknown
Gospel: 0 books
7. Jude Thaddeus
Message: Christians follow Jesus because they believe in him; they do not always understand the details of God's plan
Occupation: Unknown
Personality: Unknown
Death: Jude was crucified, sawed or axed to death in Edessa, Greece.
Burial: St. Peters, Basilica, Rome
Gospel: Jude
8. Matthew
Alias: Tax collector; Levi
Message: Christianity is not for people who think they're already good; it is for people who know they have failed and want help
Occupation: Tax Collector
Personality: Despised outcast because of his dishonest career
Death: Matthew ministered in Persia and Ethiopia. Some of the oldest reports say he was not martyred, while others say he was stabbed to death with a sword in Ethiopia.

A similar version has Matthew killed with a halberd, a pike fitted with an axe-head in Nadabah, Ethiopia.
Burial: St. Matthews Cathederal, Messina, Sicily
Gospel: Matthew
9. Peter
Alias: Simon Peter
Message: Christians falter at times, but when they return to Jesus, he forgives them and strengthens their faith.
Occupation: Fisherman
Personality: Impulsive; later - bold in preaching about Jesus
Death: Peter was reportedly crucified, upside down in Rome during the reign of Emperor Nero around 66 AD. Peter requested this method since he did not feel worthy to die in the same manner as his Lord, Jesus Christ.
Burial: St, Peters, Basilica, Rome
Gospel: I Peter
II Peter
10. Philip
Message: God uses our questions to teach us
Occupation: Fisherman
Personality: Questioning attitude
Death: Philip had a powerful ministry in Carthage in North Africa and then in Asia Minor, where he converted the wife of a Roman proconsul. In retaliation the proconsul had Philip arrested and cruelly put to death.

A similar version has Philip severely flogged, imprisoned, and finally crucified in Heliopolis, Phrygia, today Turkey.
Burial: Church of the Dodici, Rome
Gospel: 0 books
11. Simon the Zealot
Message: If we are willing to give up our plans for the future, we can participate in Jesus' plans
Occupation: Unknown
Personality: Fierce patriotism
Death: Simon ministered in Persia and was killed for refusing to sacrifice to the Sun god. An alternative version, has Simon crucified in Britain
Burial: Altar of the Crucifixion, Vatican
Gospel: 0 books
12. Thomas
Alias: Didymus
Message: Even when Christians experience serious doubts, Jesus reaches out to them to restore their faith
Occupation: Unknown
Personality: Courage, doubt
Death: Thomas was reportedly killed with a spear in India
Burial: Cathederal of St. Thomas, Mylapore, India
Gospel: 0 books

Luke (Not a disciple)
Occupation: Physician
Personality: An educated man who travelled with Paul in missionary work
Death: Unknown
Gospel: Luke
Mark (Not a disciple)
Message: Mark traveled with his cousin Barnabas in ministry and later in years ministered to the Apostles Peter and Paul
Personality: Mark was cousin to Barnabas a prominent figure in the early church
Death: Unknown
Gospel: Mark
220 AD
350 AD First Copy
Paul (Not a disciple)
Message: To bring the gospel to the non-Jewish people of his day
Occupation: Prosecutor
Paul (previously Saul of Tarsus) was well known because he fiercely persecuted the early Christians.
Personality: Oaul claimed for himself the title 'apostle of the Gentiles' [Romans 11:13]. A Roman citizen by birth, Paul was a Jew of respectable heritage and a ranking member of the strict Jewish sect of the Pharisees
Death: Paul was beheaded in Rome under Roman Emperor Nero around 66 AD.
Burial: St. Pauls Church, Rome
Gospel: Romans
I Timothy
II Timothy
I Corinthians
II Corinthians
I Thessalonians
II Thessalonians

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